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  • 1.
    Ekelund, Nils G. A.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Nygård, Charlotta A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Nordström, R
    Gylle, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    In situ study of relative electron transport rates (ETR) in the marine macroalga Fucus vesiculosus from the Baltic Sea at different depths and times of the year.2008In: Journal of Applied Phycology, ISSN 0921-8971, E-ISSN 1573-5176, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 751-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculous is one of the few marine species in the Baltic Sea. F. vesiculosus shows high morphological and physiological variability as a response to its environmental conditions. The salinity in the Baltic Sea is 4-5 psu in comparison to 35 psu in the Atlantic. Photosynthesis of algae is usually measured after collection and transportation to constant culture conditions. However, in this study the relative photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR), calculated from chl a fluorescence parameters were compared for algae from 1 and 4 m depths by SCUBA divers. Measurements of light response curves from the same individuals of F. vesiculosus at different depths and times of the year have to our knowledge never been made before. Measurements were performed at four different occasions during the spring (February 25, April 3 and 29 and May 26 in 2005) in the Baltic Sea, using rapid light curves (RLCs) generated with a Diving PAM. In addition, samples were collected for photoinhibition studies in the laboratory. The light response curves obtained in situ at 1 and 4 m depths for F. vesiculosus showed lower values of light saturation with depth. When algae from 1 and 4 m depths were exposed to high irradiances of PAR (1400 µmol photons m-2 s-1), algae from 1 m depth showed a higher degree of photoinhibition in comparison to algae from the 4 m depth.

  • 2.
    Ekelund, Nils GA
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Svan, Carina
    Gylle, A Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Effect of blue light on photosynthesis in marine and brackish water ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans (Phaeophyceae).Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gylle, A Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Physiological adaptations in two ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and in Fucus radicans with focus on salinity2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The in origin intertidal marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. grow permanently sublittoral in the brackish Bothnian Sea, side by side with the recently discovered F. radicans L. Bergström et L. Kautsky. Environmental conditions like salinity, light and temperature are clearly different between F. vesiculosus growth sites in the Bothnian Sea (4-5 practical salinity units, psu; part of the Baltic Sea) and the tidal Norwegian Sea (34-35 psu; part of the Atlantic Ocean). The general aims of this thesis were to compare physiological aspects between the marine ecotype and the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus as well as between the two Bothnian Sea species F. vesiculosus and F. radicans.

    The result in the study indicates a higher number of water soluble organic compounds in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to the brackish ecotype. These compounds are suggested to be compatible solutes and be due to an intertidal and sublittoral adaptation, respectively; where the intertidal ecotype needs the compounds as a protection from oxygen radicals produced during high irradiation at low tide. The sublittoral ecotype might have lost the ability to synthesize these compound/compounds due to its habitat adaptation. The mannitol content is also higher in the marine ecotype compared to the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus and this is suggested to be due to both higher level of irradiance and higher salinity at the growth site.

    77 K fluorescence emission spectra and immunoblotting of D1 and PsaA proteins indicate that both ecotypes of F. vesiculosus as well as F. radicans have an uneven ratio of photosystem II/photosystem I (PSII/PSI) with an overweight of PSI. The fluorescence emission spectrum of the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus however, indicates a larger light-harvesting antenna of PSII compared to the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans. Distinct differences in 77 K fluorescence emission spectra between the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans confirm that this is a reliable method to use to separate these species.

    The marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus has a higher photosynthetic maximum (Pmax) compared to the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans whereas both the brackish species have similar Pmax. A reason for higher Pmax in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to F. radicans is the greater relative amount of ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The reason for higher Pmax in marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compare to the brackish ecotype however is not due to the relative amount of Rubisco and further studies of the rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco is recommended. Treatments of the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus in higher salinity than the Bothnian Sea natural water indicate that the most favourable salinity for high Pmax is 10 psu, followed by 20 psu. One part of the explanation to a high Pmax in 10 psu is a greater relative amount of PsaA protein in algae treated in 10 psu. The reason for greater amount of PsaA might be that the algae need to produce more ATP, and are able to have a higher flow of cyclic electron transport around PSI to serve a higher rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco. However, studies of the rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco in algae treated in similar salinities as in present study are recommended to confirm this theory.

     

  • 4.
    Gylle, A Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Isaksson, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    THE CONCENTRATIONS OF MANNITOL IN FUCUS VESICULOSUS AS A RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT SALINITIES2005In: PHYCOLOGIA, 2005, p. 42-42Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gylle, A. Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Isaksson, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils G. A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Seasonal variations in photosynthetic capacity and osmotic adjustment in Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans (Phaeophyceae) with respect to salinityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The marine intertidal Fucus vesiculosus from the Norwegian Sea (34 practical salinity units, psu) and the sublittoral F. vesiculosus and F. radicans from the brackish Bothnian Sea (5 psu) have been compared physiologically with respect to changes in salinity and seasons. The initial maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm) did not vary between the marine and brackish ecotypes or between the seasons but showed different responses to the experiment condition at different seasons. In general, there were no differences in the ability to withstand salinity changes, measured as Fv/Fm, between the marine and brackish ecotype. The tolerance is in a broad range for both of the ecotypes. The marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus had 30 % more mannitol than the brackish F. vesiculosus and there was 35 % more mannitol in May compared to November. The mannitol content in the marine ecotype responded differently to salinity changes in May compared to November, probably partly due to different initial concentrations. No changes in mannitol content could be detected in brackish F. vesiculosus. No significant differences were shown in Fv/Fm and mannitol content between brackish F. vesiculosus and F. radicans.

  • 6.
    Gylle, A. Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Isaksson, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils G A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The relation between water soluble organic compounds and salinity in marine and brackish Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The marine intertidal Fucus vesiculosus from the Norwegian Sea (34 practical salinity units, psu) and the sublittoral F. vesiculosus from the brackish Bothnian Sea (5 psu) have been compared with respect to the production of water soluble organic compounds during treatment in varying salinities. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 13C spectra revealed that there were differences in the content of water soluble organic compounds between the marine and the brackish F. vesiculosus and that production of these compounds was independent of salinity.

  • 7.
    Gylle, A Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Nygård, Charlotta A
    Länsstyrelsen Västernorrland.
    Ekelund, Nils GA
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Desiccation and salinity effects on marine and brackhish Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae).2009In: Phycologia, ISSN 0031-8884, E-ISSN 2330-2968, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 156-164Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus L. from the Norwegian Sea (34 psu, marine ecotype) and Bothnian Sea (5 psu, brackish ecotype) have been compared with respect to the ability to withstand desiccation at different temperatures (0, 10, and 20°C). The aim was also to investigate the importance of salinity and light for the availably energy reserves, osmotic adjustment, and pigment content. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm) values revealed that the marine ecotype was more able to resist desiccation. The brackish algae showed a decrease in Fv/Fm as a response to desiccation at all temperatures, but the decrease was most pronounced at 20°C. The brackish ecotype recovered from desiccation within 5 h only when treated at 0°C. When the two ecotypes were treated at different levels of salinity in darkness and light, the results suggested that both salinity and irradiance are main factors in the differences in mannitol content between the two ecotypes. Chlorophyll (Chl) measurements showed 25% higher Chl α and 60% higher Chl c in the brackish ecotype in comparison to the marine ecotype. Darkness had a more pronounced effect on the Chl content than the salinity and initiated an increase in the amount of Chl, especially Chl c in the brackish ecotype.

  • 8.
    Gylle, A. Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nygård, Charlotta A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils G. A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Salinity effect on oxygen evolution and the relative amount of RuBisCO in the brackish Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae)2007In: Pysiological responses of marine and brackish Fucuc vesiculosus L with respect to salinity, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2007, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sublittoral Fucus vesiculosus from the brackish Bothnian Sea is adapted to a salinity of 4-5 practical salinity units (psu). This study investigated the effect of different salinities (5, 10, 20 and 35 psu) on maximum photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) and the relative amount of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The results revealed a higher Pmax at higher salinities with the maximum at 10 psu. Higher salinities also resulted in increased relative amounts of Rubisco but this was not well correlated with the increased Pmax. Therefore, the amount of Rubisco doesn�t appear to be the main reason for the increased Pmax in higher salinities.

  • 9.
    Gylle, A. Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nygård, Charlotta A.
    Cty Adm, Dept Environm, S-87186 Harnosand, Sweden .
    Svan, Carina I.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pocock, Tessa
    Heliospectra AB, S-50630 Boras, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Nils G. A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Photosynthesis in relation to D1, PsaA and Rubisco in marine and brackish water ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans (Phaeophyceae)2013In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 700, no 1, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate photosynthetic differences between the marine, Norwegian Sea ecotype and the brackish, Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans and to see whether photosynthetic differences could be connected with the relative amounts of D1 protein (PSII), PsaA (PSI) protein and/or Rubisco. For this purpose, we tested if a higher photosynthetic maximum (P (max)) in the Atlantic Ocean ecotype of F. vesiculosus relative to the Baltic Sea ecotype, and an increase of the P (max) in Baltic Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus at higher salinity, could be due to an increase in the relative amounts of Rubisco. The proteins have been evaluated on a relative basis. Immunoblot signals showed that the amount of Rubisco was higher in both ecotypes of F. vesiculosus than in F. radicans, but no differences could be detected between the two ecotypes of F. vesiculosus. The results suggest an uneven photosystem protein stoichiometry in Fucus, with more of the PSI protein PsaA relative to the PSII protein D1. The difference in P (max) between the two ecotypes of F. vesiculosus might be related to the difficulties for the algae to adapt to the environment in Bothnian Sea.

  • 10.
    Gylle, A. Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Nygård, Charlotta A
    Svan, I Carina
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ekelund, Nils GA
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Photosynthesis and relative amounts of photosynthetic proteins (D1, PsaA and Rubisco) in marine and brackish water ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans (Phaeophyceae):  Photosynthesis and proteins in FucusManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if the photosynthetic maximum capacity (Pmax) is related to the relative amounts of D1 (PsbA), PsaA proteins and ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (Rubisco) in the marine, Norwegian Sea (34-35 practical salinity units, psu) and the brackish, Bothnian Sea (4-5 psu) ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and in Fucus radicans. The results revealed higher Pmax in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to the brackish Fucus species. The relative amounts of PsaA proteins or D1/PsaA (photosystem II/photosystem I; PSII/PSI) ratio did not indicate any differences between the Fucus strains whereas the relative amount of D1 was higher in the marine F. vesiculosus compared to F. radicans. The PSII/PSI ratios confirm an overweight of PSI in all three Fucus strains. The analyses of the relative amount of Rubisco indicated a greater amount in both ecotypes of F. vesiculosus compared to F. radicans, whereas no differences could be detected between the two ecotypes of F. vesiculosus. Therefore, we suggest that the amount of Rubisco contributed to the differences of Pmax between the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans. The lower Pmax in the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to the marine ecotype however must have another origin and we suggest further investigations of the CO2 fixation rate of Rubisco. The study also included an investigation of the effects of salinity on Pmax and the relative amount of D1, PsaA and Rubisco in the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus. Treatment of the algae for one week in 5, 10, 20 and 35 psu resulted in a higher Pmax at higher salinities and a maximum at 10 psu. These results were not reflected in the amount of D1 or Rubisco whereas analyses of the amount of PsaA revealed the highest amount of PsaA in algae treated in 10 psu. We suggest a need of more ATP by cyclic ATP formation to supply a greater Rubisco activity as an explanation.

     

     

  • 11.
    Gylle, A. Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Rantamäki, Susanne
    Univ Turku, Dept Biochem & Food Chem, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Ekelund, Nils G.A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tyystjärvi, Esa
    Univ Turku, Dept Biochem & Food Chem, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Fluorescence emission spectra of marine and brackish-water ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans (Phaeophyceae) reveal differences in light-harvesting apparatus: emission spectra in Fucus2011In: Journal of Phycology, ISSN 0022-3646, E-ISSN 1529-8817, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 98-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bothnian Sea in the northerly part of the Baltic Sea is a geologically recent brackish-water environment, and rapid speciation is occurring in the algal community of the Bothnian Sea. We measured low-temperature fluorescence emission spectra from the Bothnian Sea and the Norwegian Sea ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus L., a marine macroalga widespread in the Bothnian Sea. Powdered, frozen thallus was used to obtain undistorted emission spectra. The spectra were compared with spectra measured from the newly identified species Fucus radicans L.Bergström et L. Kautsky, which is a close relative of F. vesiculosusand endemic to the Bothnian Sea. The spectrum of variable fluorescence was used to identify fluorescence peaks originating in PSI and PSII in this chl c–containing alga. The spectra revealed much higher PSII emission, compared to PSI emission, in the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus than in F. radicans or in the Norwegian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus. The results suggest that more lightharvesting chl a ⁄ c proteins serve PSII in the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosusthan in the two other algal strains. Treatment of the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosusin high salinity (10, 20, and 35 practical salinity units) for 1 week did not lead to spectral changes, indicating that the measured features of the Bothnian Sea F. vesiculosus are stable and not simply a direct result of exposure to low salinity.

  • 12.
    Gylle, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Physiological responses of marine and brackish Fucus vesiculosus L. with respect to salinity2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. is mainly a marine species (34 practical salinity units, psu), but the alga also grows in the sublittoral of the brackish Bothnian Sea (part of the Baltic Sea; 5 psu). The conditions at the growth sites are clearly different between the Bothnian Sea and the Norwegian Sea (part of Atlantic) with constant low salinity and a lack of tides in the Bothnian Sea. The objectives of the thesis were to compare the physiology in marine and brackish ecotypes of F. vesiculosus with respect to salinity and the ability of F. vesiculosus to acclimate to different salinities. A study of photosynthetic maximum capacity and relative amount of Rubisco in relation to salinity in brackish F. vesiculosus were also performed. The results showed that both ecotypes of F. vesiculosus have the same potential to use the available excitation energy for photochemistry. The results also suggest that this is relatively independent of salinity changes. There were a higher number of water soluble organic compounds, higher mannitol content (mmol kg‐1 DW), lower chlorophyll (Chl) content (mg g‐1 DW) and higher tolerance to desiccation in the marine ecotype. The number of water soluble carbon compounds did not change when the algae were treated to either high or low salinities and it was suggested that the differences were due to an intertidal or sublittoral acclimation, and not salinity. Both ecotypes showed changed mannitol content as a response to changed salinity but the changes were different between the ecotypes and seasons. The content of mannitol and the osmotic adjustment by mannitol in a longer timescale than 24 h appears to be closely connected to irradiance and photosynthesis in addition to the salinity. The main reason for higher rate of photosynthesis in higher salinity for the brackish ecotype is not clarified because no correlation could be detected between photosynthesis and the relative amount of Rubisco. The Chl content increased in darkness and the differences between the ecotypes are probably due to a compensation for low irradiance in the sublittoral growth site. Higher tolerance for desiccation in marine ecotype was concluded to be due to a lower rate of water loss because of more mannitol and thicker thallus.

  • 13.
    Gylle, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Isaksson, Dan
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Research note: Ecotype differentiation in qualitative content of water soluble organic compounds between marine and brackish Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae)2009In: Phycological Research, ISSN 1322-0829, E-ISSN 1440-1835, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 127-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we compared the contents of water soluble organic compounds of the marine intertidal ecotype of Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae) from the Norwegian Sea (34 practical salinity units, psu) with the sublittoral ecotype of F. vesiculosus from the brackish Bothnian Sea (5 psu). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that marine F. vesiculosus had additional types of water soluble organic compounds compared with brackish F. vesiculosus. The results suggested that glycine betaine in the marine ecotype could be the reason for this ecotype differentiation. Furthermore, the qualitative differences between the ecotypes were the same after one week's treatment of marine algae in brackish water and of brackish algae in marine water. These suggest that the additional types of water soluble organic compounds in marine F. vesiculosus are not caused by the salinity conditions at the growth sites. Further research concerning other environmental factors that may influence ecotype differentiation of water soluble organic compounds qualitative content and adaptation in F. vesiculosus is recommended.

  • 14.
    Gylle, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nygård, Charlotta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils G. A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Impacts of UV-radiation on photosynthesis of Fucus vesiculosus at low temperature and different salinities2002In: Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie, ISSN 0368-0770, Vol. 28, p. 242-245Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Svahn, Carina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Gylle, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Ekelund, Nils G. A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Photosynthetic activity in marine and brackish water strains of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans (Phaeophyceae) at different light qualities2012In: Photochemistry and Photobiology, ISSN 0031-8655, E-ISSN 1751-1097, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 1455-1460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of different light qualities on the photosynthetic capacity of the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus, from the Norwegian Sea, and Fucus radicans and F. vesiculosus, from the Bothnian Sea. The electron transport rates (ETR) obtained for F. vesiculosus from the Norwegian Sea showed significantly higher levels of light saturation compared with both species of algae from the Bothnian Sea. The maximum of ETR values for the Norwegian Sea strain showed no significant changes due to varying light quality compared with the initial values. For F. vesiculosus, from the Bothnian Sea, treatment with blue light showed an effect after 1 week of 30 and 90 μmol photons m -2 s -1 (P < 0.01), and for F. radicans from the Bothnian Sea, at the irradiance of 90 μmol photons m -2 s -1 and 1 week (P < 0.01). After 1 week in the Bothnian Sea species and after 2 weeks in F. vesiculosus from the Norwegian Sea, the photosynthetic efficiency (α) was significantly higher regardless of light quality and irradiance compared with the initial values. Variation in light quality and irradiance had minor effects on the F v:F m values of the three algal strains studied. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

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