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  • 1.
    Kallberg, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Improving Local Government - A Survey of Problems2010In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Society 2010 / [ed] Piet Kommers and Pedro Isaías, International Association for Development of the Information Society , 2010, p. 76-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a survey of projects directed at improving business operations in two local government bodies in Sweden, Härnösand municipality with a population of 25,000 and Sundsvall municipality with a population of 95,000. The projects are directed at the modernization and improvement of service delivery to their citizens. Both municipalities are conducting projects that will enhance e-government. E-government aims to reform government public management, to allow for citizens’ participation in policy making and to foster efficiency and transparency. This has required the effective deployment of information systems to manage the information resources. Modern information technologies have facilitated the automation of business processes within the municipalities and the delivery of e-services to citizens, who can now access public information via the websites. This development however requires new ways of thinking which promote collaboration beyond the administrative departments and a holistic way of using the available resources. Information management is crucial to the daily decision-making processes and in establishing an efficient and service-minded organization which is customer-centered. However, critical factors regarding project implementation, change management business processes and the challenges of e-government will have to be addressed if successful achievement of agile government structures is to be attained. The article therefore highlights the challenges that still persist as local government bodies try to espouse the modernization process and identifies the areas that need closer examination.

  • 2.
    Khisro, Jwan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Enterprise interoperability development in multi relation collaborations: Success factors from the Danish electricity market2018In: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased complexity and the risk of fragmentized business processes and data in many-to-many relationships is hindering development of interoperability. This study aims at clarify what are the success factors for overcoming issues of business process and data fragmentation in the development of enterprise interoperability in multi relation collaborations. A case study allowed for in-depth understanding of experiences and conditions. Seven deep interviews with actors in the Danish electricity market provided empirical data. A literature study formed the base for the analytical framework. Success factors fell into the categories of general project and change management, business process and information and data.

  • 3.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Citizen friendly rural mGovernment services2007In: Work With Computing System - WWCS 2007, Stockholm :: abstracts WWCS 2007 : computing systems for human benefits from the 8th International Conference on Work With Computing Systems : May 21st-24th 2007, Stockholm Sweden, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2007, p. 209-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will describe methods of assessing a process' mobility need from a better understanding of mobility and a way of implementing a citizen and public servant perspective when defining citizen friendly rural Mobile Government (mGovernment). The expected results presented a part of an eTen-project; CIDRE. Objective is to supply electronic public services and solutions to overcome the "digital divide" and to strengthen the European Community. Advances in mGovernment oriented services are taking place and ICT usage becomes an integral part of many people�s lives and the available services become more varied.

  • 4.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    E-Government: An Improvement in Service?2004In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference E-society 2004, IADIS Press , 2004, p. 27-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers and other key staff involved in the development of Swedish e-government services were interviewed about their perceptions of changes caused by the shift from more traditional forms of government service delivery. Almost all were satisfied with the progress of the transition. It was felt that a shift to systems that are electronically based will result in economies and greater organizational efficiency. When questioned about potential problems, most felt they were manageable. However, they did not describe strategies indicating that problems were being addressed and managed. Focus was on getting functioning systems in place and then resolving with problems as identified. Evident was that issues such as being able to effectively evaluate progress/success, creating systems accessible by all potential users, information security, understanding costs and planning for rapid technology change were being minimized or ignored. Apparent is that until the issues are adequately addressed final cost is unknown, e-government systems will not by accessible by some citizens because they lack the skills and/or resources needed to take advantage of services offered, and the extent of change is unclear. Recommended is to better define real and potential problems and then to include solutions in e-government planning, design and implementation processes.

  • 5.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mobile citizen-friendly services – two case studies in rural areas2009In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Society 2009, 2009, p. 8-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Problems in public e-service development2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the general problem of integration and co-operation between business and IT organisations, and on the specific problem of co-ordinating the development process across stovepiped departments that do not collaborate cross-functionally. The purpose is to increase knowledge and understanding about public organisations’ difficulties in meeting their customers’ and the organisation’s needs for electronic services. The thesis also presents a model showing the relationships between factors of importance for understanding public organisations’ difficulties in implementing cross-functional or inter-departmental electronic services. The research is based on case studies of public and private organisations, and results show that public organisations attempting e-government will face large problems if they are unable to solve their internal stovepipe problems. On the other hand, they cannot expect the stovepipe problems to be solved without increasing customer orientation. Many private organisations have increased their speed in e-services, customer orientation and organisational changes, and have faced economic pressure early, while the public organisations are impeded by the role of law, complex goal structures, lack of collaboration and culture. But at the same time the public organisations are following a similar path to that of the private, and areas have been found where there are little differences (e.g. development processes and purchaser-contractor relationships). Furthermore, the thesis has identified a large potential in the use of enterprise architecture for improving co-operation between business and IT organisations and in the purchaser-contractor relations. An architecture is an important prerequisite for dealing with the growing complexity in describing an enterprise and its business, information, applications and technology.

  • 7.
    Sundberg, Håkan P
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Building the Enterprise Architecture: A Bottom-Up Evolution?2007In: Advances in Information Systems Development: New Methods and Practice for the Networked Society. Volume 2, Issue PART 2., Springer, 2007, p. 287-298Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Sundberg, Håkan P.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Process based archival descriptions: organizational and process challenges2013In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 783-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper presents the implementation and classification of archival records according to business processes, a new field with many organizational and archival challenges. The purpose of the paper is to map the current situation, challenges, problems and topics for further investigation.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a wide benchmark study on information management in governmental agencies, municipalities and regions/country councils in Sweden.

    Findings – There are many general similarities with process projects regarding management initiatives and roles. There is also a need for alignment between the business organizations, the business processes, and the archival descriptions. Unresolved issues occur in modeling, e.g. from whose perspective should the processes be described and on which level is the mapping useful. The business organizations require detail in order to analyze flaws improvements, while archivists ask for a static “frozen” description at higher levels. This may contradict the purpose of the archive – to provide useful information for the unknown future user.

    Originality/value – Process based archival descriptions is a new field that broadens business process management. Projects are starting in several countries with challenges in the interaction between the business organizations and the archivists.

  • 9.
    Sundberg, Håkan P
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Managing Stovepiped Organisations - A Comparison of Public and Private Organisations2006In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stovepiped systems and difficulties associated with managing cross-functional boundaries are problems that are hindering the successful implementation of customercentred systems and processes within public organisations. The present study covers public organisations, and discusses and analyses the results in relation to those from a previous study in the banking sector. While problems with stovepiped systems and departments have, in general, been solved in the banking sector, the results from the interviewed public organisations confirm that the stovepipe problem is still evident and that cross-functional collaboration, processes, customer focus and integration of services and channels all require additional improvement or development. The present study concludes that the goals with the highest priority for leaders in public organisations are not those associated with customer relations and that the political level rates higher than the customers’ demands. The public organisations are following a similar path to that of the private sector, but there are differences in both the time-frame and ability to implement changes due to weaker incentives for customer related work, and additionally, a larger organisational inertia of both culture and collaboration to overcome. Similarities are found in IT organisations and projects, and in the views regarding business organisations and the necessity for an enterprise architecture.

  • 10.
    Sundberg, Håkan P
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Towards e-government: a survey of problems in organisational processes2006In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 149-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to look at process initiatives in the Swedish social insurance administration, focusing on the problems of crossing functional boundaries, co-ordinating processes over inter-organisational boundaries and the issue of whether to aim for radical or incremental change.

    Design/methodology/approach - The survey involved data collection including a study of internal documents and 16 individual personal interviews.

    Findings - The organisation experiences collaboration problems when cross-functional work and processes collide with the traditional and hierarchical command and control structures. These are not easily dismantled, meaning intensive work to change the culture and break functional mind-sets. Furthermore the administration struggles with and can benefit from co-ordination of processes over the inter-organisational boundaries. Changes in the customer front-line affect the rest of the organisation and its processes. The study has shown that both functional units and support processes deep inside the organisation, like the systems development process, are affected, and that deficiencies in the underlying structure and organisation are revealed. The process efforts so far are scattered, but it may be more important for organisations to deploy process change, as a continuous strategic initiative, rather than embarking on huge radical redesign programmes. Originality/value ? Little information regarding processes and the public sector exists, and problems likely to be encountered by other public organisations are pointed out. The survey also puts light on support processes - not only business processes - required for e-government.

  • 11.
    Sundberg, Håkan P
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wallin, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Recordkeeping and Information Architecture - A Study of the Swedish Financial Sector2007In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focused on problems, drivers and priorities for information architecture and management of electronic information, especially records, in the Swedish financial sector. In the theoretical framework it is stressed that in order to develop effective e-services in any type of organisation it is necessary to not only to focus on business and technological infrastructure, but also to develop efficient forms of information infrastructure and information architecture, in which the management and access of electronic records forms an essential part. Further it is asserted, in accordance with the records continuum model, that in order to efficiently be able to access and manage electronic records in any organisation or organisations, electronic recordkeeping requires a pro-active and continuous iterative approach. Sixteen semi-structured interviews with five Swedish banks and one insurance company show that in recent years managing and accessing electronic records have become important strategic and economic factors, which is more now than before considered to be an essential part the enterprise information architecture and information infrastructure. One important driver for developing electronic recordkeeping is the increased need to be able to access customer records from any part of the organisation, nationally and internationally. Today, however, electronic records are sometimes scattered in different processes and systems with different structure and technology, a problem that these organisations now are beginning to solve in different kinds of development projects dealing with information architecture and digital archives.

  • 12.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Critical Success Factors from a Social Insurance Project in Sweden2004In: Proceedings from IADIS International Conference e-Society 2004, IADIS Press , 2004, p. 87-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After 30 years holding the same course, a new pension scheme and IT system was introduced in Sweden. It is described as one of Sweden�s largest IT projects with approx. 1 800 000 lines of code produced by the IT department of the Swedish social insurance administration. The administration uses a purchaser-contractor model for systems development where the IT department supervises the development and management of the IT facilities used by the national social insurance system. The project has been evaluated several times pointing out critical success factors for future large-scale projects. This study examines the critical success factors in relation to the purchaser-contractor model and the administration�s e-government efforts. Many factors refer to the roles in the purchaser-contractor model suggesting comprehensive views from all dimensions and communication and collaboration between the parts in the model. Another important factor is the project management. This suggests joint projects over the purchaser-contractor boundaries, uniting of overall leadership, overall planning, an operative project management, strong focus on goals and continuous follow-up. Other factors refer to the development process and it�s contents, suggesting a clarifying �baseline� after initial capturing of requirements not allowing more than regulated changes after the baseline. Special organisational structures are suggested for handling changes in requirements, for planning deliverables and for installation. Lastly, priority and support from top management was considered important. Furthermore the administration is on a path towards e-government, changing the organisation and processes in the customer front-line. A general process for management of the case workflow has been introduced, where the workflow is being managed in a general and similar way. A case management system has been developed that supports the general process. Web services for e-government will be ... (shortened)

  • 13.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wallin, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Co-ordination of Business and IT Development Processes - Managing Stovepiped Organisations2005In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 53-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to the present study is supplied by two studies of a large Swedish public organisation. A strong hierarchy, which maintains a traditional view of functional departments as being the owners of IT products, creates stovepipes and silos, not only within the systems but also within the organisation, which tends to obstruct crossfunctional projects and the ability to ascertain general needs and requirements. The present study considers the integration of business and IT processes, focusing on the development process and the purchaser-contractor relations. The purpose is to find success factors, good examples and areas of improvement from private companies relating to the problems from the studied public organisation. Sixteen interviews with five Swedish banks and one insurance company appeared to suggest that the problems highlighted in previous studies, e.g. stovepipe systems and departments, were not recognised as significant problems within any of the interviewed organisations. In general, the development processes were considered well-oiled with little friction between departments, system owners, purchasers and contractors. In almost all interviews, it was considered that the integration of customer, information and IT was more cohesive than previously. The findings from the interviews have been categorised into nine factors or areas. Three general business environment factors - the history of organisational change and mergers, the overall economic situation and the strong customer focus - seem to have broken the functional mind-sets and sharpened and focused the organisations into a collaborative culture. Furthermore, a great deal of hard work appears to have been centered upon three factors relating to processes and the management of projects: the development processes are generally very well defined and well known internally, projects are smaller with modules and releases, and there is an open discussion about stovepiped departments and general requirements. Lastly, there are three areas of improvement: The role and competencies of the purchaser, the infrastructure and the need for an enterprise architecture, and the document interface including the use of RUP and UML.

  • 14.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wallin, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Icebergs Drifting Apart? Customer Strategies Affecting Systems Development and Information Management2005In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Society 2005, 2005, p. 619-624Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses upon the how the information and IT strategies and processes have to integrate with the e-service processes. A model consisting of three parts: IT strategy, information resources strategy part and customer/e-services strategy is presented. It is stressed that in order to develop cost effective and efficient e-services this "trinity approach" is needed. The development of new information and communication technologies and of new organisational forms reinforces that information management, here exemplified with electronic records management, and must be an integrated part of the development of e-services in any organisation. The customer strategies point the organisation in a direction where there is a need for a tighter integration between IT and customer-close activities, putting focus on the processes. Further, the role of IT is to provide an infrastructure; a platform upon which services and processes can be based. Based on the concept of a platform and modules, systems development projects can be made smaller and manageable. The trinity relation, and the order of dependencies, can also be found in the Balanced Scorecard, adding the perspectives of processes, finance and measurement. The cause-effects of the Balanced Scorecard show that IT can take a proactive role supporting processes and customer relations and, in the end, show financial rewards.

  • 15.
    Wahlberg, Olof
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Strandberg, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Trends, Topics and Under-Researched Areas in CRM Research: A Literature Review2009In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 3, p. 191-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to add to the image of CRM research by identifying trends and topics, using the perspective of CRM when it is divided into the four separate branches, namely those of Strategic CRM, Analytical CRM, Operational CRM and Collaborative CRM. In addition to this, the purpose is to identify under-researched areas in the body of CRM research in which there are research questions requiring to be addressed by means of further research.Design/methodology/approach – A review is made of articles in three major journals.Findings – The development of the number of CRM articles published in the journals signals a maturity within the CRM research field. Articles on Strategic and Analytical CRM dominate the research in this field. The focus has changed from Analytical to Strategic CRM, which is the most popular branch by the end of the period reviewed. There is a paucity of research with a resource based view in Strategic CRM. There is a large scale bias in CRM research.Research implications - Three implications for future research on CRM are noted: 1. There is need for more research within the area of Operational CRM and Collaborative CRM. 2. There is a need for research with a resource based view on CRM. 3. There is a need for more research on CRM in SMEs, using a frame of reference that accounts for SME features. Originality/value – The paper presents an image of the development of the CRM research field using an image of CRM that is well established, yet which has not been used in earlier literature reviews. It also points to the development of the CRM research field during the past two decades, including an increased focus on Strategic CRM. Furthermore, it points to voids in CRM research that call for further studies. Paper type – Literature review.

  • 16.
    Wahlberg, Olof
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sandberg, K
    Strandberg, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    CRM and SMEs - An Embryotic Research Field of Increasing Relevance: The European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation2007In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND EVALUATION, Academic Conferences Limited, 2007, p. 385-392Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is gaining increased attention in marketing thought. The purpose of this paper is to map the state of art of CRM research that focus on conditions in SMEs. A literature review is carried out with this purpose. It is found that CRM in SMEs is an embryotic research field, but it is also foreseen that it is a research field of increasing relevance, and that the application of the CRM concept in SMEs must take the particular features of SMEs in account. A number of such SME features are remarked upon in the CRM literature, and even though the articles reviewed are not addressing what is considered �proper� CRM, it is concluded that they are features that are of importance also to the application of CRM policies and practices in SMEs.

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