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  • 1.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Building energy-efficiency standards in a life cycle primary energy perspective2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1589-1597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the life cycle primary energy use of a wood-frame apartment building designed to meet the current Swedish building code, the Swedish building code of 1994 or the passive house standard, and heated with district heat or electric resistance heating. The analysis includes the primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. We find that an electric heated building built to the current building code has greater life cycle primary energy use relative to a district heated building, although the standard for electric heating is more stringent. Also, the primary energy use for an electric heated building constructed to meet the passive house standard is substantially higher than for a district heated building built to the Swedish building code of 1994. The primary energy for material production constitutes 5% of the primary energy for production and space heating and ventilation of an electric heated building built to meet the 1994 code. The share of production energy increases as the energy-efficiency standard of the building improves and when efficient energy supply is used, and reaches 30% for a district heated passive house. This study shows the significance of a life cycle primary energy perspective and the choice of heating system in reducing energy use in the built environment.

  • 2.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carbon implications of end-of-life management of building materials2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 276-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the effects of post-use material management on the life cycle carbon balance of buildings, and compare the carbon balance of a concrete-frame building to that of a wood-frame building. The demolished concrete is either landfilled, or is crushed into aggregate followed by exposure to air for periods ranging from 4 months to 30 years to increase carbonation uptake of CO2. The demolished wood is assumed to be used for energy to replace fossil fuels. We calculate the carbon flows associated with fossil fuel used for material production, calcination emission from cement manufacture, carbonation of concrete during and after its service life, substitution of fossil fuels by recovered wood residues, recycling of steel, and fossil fuel used for post-use material management. We find that carbonation of crushed concrete results in significant uptake of CO2. However, the CO2 emission from fossil fuel used to crush the concrete significantly reduces the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Stockpiling crushed concrete for a longer time will increase the carbonation uptake, but may not be practical due to space constraints. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both give higher carbon benefit than the post-use carbonation. We conclude that carbonation of concrete in the post-use phase does not affect the validity of earlier studies reporting that wood-frame buildings have substantially lower carbon emission than concrete-frame buildings.

  • 3.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Effect of thermal mass on life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the effect of thermal mass on space heating energy use and life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building. The analysis includes primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. Based on hourby- hour dynamic modeling of heat flows in building mass configurations we calculate the energy saving benefits of thermal mass during the operation phase of the buildings. Our results indicate that the energy savings due to thermal mass is small and varies with the climatic location and energy efficiency levels of the buildings. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, due to the benefit of thermal mass inherent in concrete-based materials. Still, a wood-frame building has a lower life cycle primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This is due primarily to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of the wood-frame buildings. These advantages outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass. We conclude that the influence of thermal mass on space heating energy use for buildings located in Nordic climate is small and that wood-frame buildings with CHP-based district heating would be an effective means of reducing primary energy use in the built environment.

  • 4.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energy implications of end-of-life options for building materials2008In: FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BUILDING ENERGY AND ENIVRONMENT, PROCEEDINGS VOLS 1-3, Dalian, China: Dalian University Technology Press , 2008, p. 2025-2032Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy flows associated with the materials comprising a building can be a significant part of the total energy used in a building's life cycle. Buildings have finite life spans, and the materials from demolished buildings can be either a burden that must be disposed, or a resource that can be used. In this paper we analyse the end-of-life energy impacts of concrete, steel and wood. End-of-life options considered include reuse; recycling; downcycling; energy recovery; and disposal in landfill. We follow the life cycles of the building materials from the acquisition of natural resources through to the end of the product's life cycle. We identify possibilities and constraints for integrating more effective end-of-life material processing options into existing industrial systems.

  • 5.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Impacts of end-use energy efficiency measures on life cycle primary energy use in an existing Swedish multi-story apartment building2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11 , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy analysis of conventional and passive house buildings2011In: SB11, World sustainable building conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a wood-framed apartment building to passive house standard2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1152-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyze the life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a four-storey wood-frame apartment building to the energy use of a passive house. The initial building has an annual final energy use of 110 kWh/m(2) for space and tap water heating. We model improved thermal envelope insulation, ventilation heat recovery, and efficient hot water taps. We follow the building life cycle to analyze the primary energy reduction achieved by the retrofitting, considering different energy supply systems. Significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. The primary energy use for material production increases when the operating energy is reduced but this increase is more than offset by greater primary energy reduction during the operation phase of the building, resulting in significant life cycle primary energy savings. Still, the type of heat supply system has greater impact on primary energy use than the final heat reduction measures.

  • 8.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy perspective on retrofitting an existing building to passive house standard.2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy use of an apartment building designed to the current Swedish building code or passive house standard.2010In: Passivhus Norden. Aalborg, Denmark, October 7- 8, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Potential for reducing primary energy use in an existing Swedish apartment building.: Passivhus Norden. Göteborg, Sweden, April 27-29.2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Primary energy implication of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in residential buildings.2010In: ACEEE Summer study on energy efficiency in buildings. Pacific Grove, California, USA, August 15-20., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Primary energy implications of ventilation heat recovery in residential buildings2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1566-1572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyze the impact of ventilation heat recovery (VHR) on the operation primary energy use in residential buildings. We calculate the operation primary energy use of a case-study apartment building built to conventional and passive house standard, both with and without VHR, and using different end-use heating systems including electric resistance heating, bedrock heat pump and district heating based on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR increases the electrical energy used for ventilation and reduces the heat energy used for space heating. Significantly greater primary energy savings is achieved when VHR is used in resistance heated buildings than in district heated buildings. For district heated buildings the primary energy savings are small. VHR systems can give substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit depends strongly on the type of heat supply system, and also on the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings. This study shows the importance of considering the interactions between heat supply systems and VHR systems to reduce primary energy use in buildings.

  • 13.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life-cycle primary energy implication of the new Swedish Building Code.: ECEEE Summer study. La Colle Sur Loupe, Côte d’Azur, France, June 1-6.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Eriksson, Erik
    et al.
    Gillespie, Andrew
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Langvall, Ola
    Olsson, Mats
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Integrated carbon analysis of forest management practices and wood substitution2007In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 671-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex fluxes between standing and harvested carbon stocks, and the linkage between harvested biomassand fossil fuel substitution, call for a holistic, system-wide analysis in a life-cycle perspective to evaluate the impacts offorest management and forest product use on carbon balances. We have analysed the net carbon emission under alternativeforest management strategies and product uses, considering the carbon fluxes and stocks associated with tree biomass,soils, and forest products. Simulations were made using three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest managementregimes (traditional, intensive management, and intensive fertilization), three slash management practices (no removal, removal,and removal with stumps), two forest product uses (construction material and biofuel), and two reference fossilfuels (coal and natural gas). The greatest reduction of net carbon emission occurred when the forest was fertilized, slashand stumps were harvested, wood was used as construction material, and the reference fossil fuel was coal. The lowest reductionoccurred with a traditional forest management, forest residues retained on site, and harvested biomass was used asbiofuel to replace natural gas. Product use had the greatest impact on net carbon emission, whereas forest management regime,reference fossil fuel, and forest residue usage as biofuel were less significant.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Hänninen, Riitta
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Kallio, Maarit
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Lyhykäinen, Henna
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Pingoud, Kim
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pohjola, Johanna
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Solberg, Birger
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, N-1432 As, Norway .
    Svanaes, Jarle
    Norsk Treteknisk Inst, N-0314 Oslo, Norway .
    Valsta, Lauri
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Climate change mitigation through increased wood use in the European construction sector - towards an integrated modelling framework2012In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 131-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using wood as a building material affects the carbon balance through several mechanisms. This paper describes a modelling approach that integrates a wood product substitution model, a global partial equilibrium model, a regional forest model and a stand-level model. Three different scenarios were compared with a business-as-usual scenario over a 23-year period (2008-2030). Two scenarios assumed an additional one million apartment flats per year will be built of wood instead of non-wood materials by 2030. These scenarios had little effect on markets and forest management and reduced annual carbon emissions by 0.2-0.5% of the total 1990 European GHG emissions. However, the scenarios are associated with high specific CO2 emission reductions per unit of wood used. The third scenario, an extreme assumption that all European countries will consume 1-m3 sawn wood per capita by 2030, had large effects on carbon emission, volumes and trade flows. The price changes of this scenario, however, also affected forest management in ways that greatly deviated from the partial equilibrium model projections. Our results suggest that increased wood construction will have a minor impact on forest management and forest carbon stocks. To analyse larger perturbations on the demand side, a market equilibrium model seems crucial. However, for that analytical system to work properly, the market and forest regional models must be better synchronized than here, in particular regarding assumptions on timber supply behaviour. Also, bioenergy as a commodity in market and forest models needs to be considered to study new market developments; those modules are currently missing

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Hänninen, Riitta
    METLA .
    Kallio, Maarit
    METLA .
    Lyhykäinen, Henna
    University of Helsinki.
    Pingoud, Kim
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pohjola, Johanna
    METLA .
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Solberg, Birger
    UMB .
    Svanaes, Jarle
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Valsta, Lauri
    University of Helsinki.
    Climate implications of increased wood use in the construction sector - towards an integrated modeling framework2009Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Impact of ventilation heat recovery on primary energy use of apartment buildings built to conventional and passive house standard2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy use in buildings of high energy standards2010In: ACEEE Summer study on energy efficiency in buildings. Pacific Grove, California, USA, August 15-20., American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Eriksson, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Costs and CO2 benefits of recovering, refining and transporting logging residues for fossil fuel replacement2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 192-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many possible systems for recovering, refining, and transporting logging residues for use as fuel. Here we analyse costs, primary energy and CO2 benefits of various systems for using logging residues locally, nationally or internationally. The recovery systems we consider are a bundle system and a traditional chip system in a Nordic context. We also consider various transport modes and distances, refining the residues into pellets, and replacing different fossil fuels. Compressing of bundles entails costs, but the cost of chipping is greatly reduced if chipping is done on a large scale, providing an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system entails greater primary energy use, but its lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the harvest site. Thus, the potential replacement of fossil fuels per hectare of harvest area is greater with the bundle system than with the chip system. The fuel-cycle reduction of CO2 emissions per harvest area when logging residues replace fossil fuels depends more on the type of fossil fuel replaced, the logging residues recovery system used and the refining of the residues, than on whether the residues are transported to local, national or international end-users. The mode and distance of the transport system has a minor impact on the CO2 emission balance.

  • 20.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Dornburg, Veronica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Eggers, Thies
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Marland, Gregg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 5671-5691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine how an increased use of biomass could efficiently meet Swedish energy policy goals of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and oil use. In particular, we examine the trade-offs inherent when biomass use is intended to pursue multiple objectives. We set up four scenarios in which up to 400 PJ/year of additional biomass is prioritised to reduce CO2 emissions, reduce oil use, simultaneously reduce both CO2 emission and oil use, or to produce ethanol to replace gasoline. Technologies analysed for using the biomass include the production of electricity, heat, and transport fuels, and also as construction materials and other products. We find that optimising biomass use for a single objective (either CO2 emission reduction or oil use reduction) results in high fulfilment of that single objective (17.4 Tg C/year and 350 PJ oil/year, respectively), at a monetary cost of 130–330 million €/year, but with low fulfilment of the other objective. A careful selection of biomass uses for combined benefits results in reductions of 12.6 Tg C/year and 230 PJ oil/year (72% and 67%, respectively, of the reductions achieved in the scenarios with single objectives), with a monetary benefit of 45 million €/year. Prioritising for ethanol production gives the lowest CO2 emissions reduction, intermediate oil use reduction, and the highest monetary cost.

  • 21.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building2010In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 230-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the life cycle primary energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building are analyzed. All life cycle phases are included, including acquisition and processing of materials, on-site construction, building operation, demolition and materials disposal. The calculated primary energy use includes the entire energy system chains, and carbon flows are tracked including fossil fuel emissions, process emissions, carbon stocks in building materials, and avoided fossil emissions due to biofuel substitution. The results show that building operation uses the largest share of life cycle energy use, becoming increasingly dominant as the life span of the building increases. The type of heating system strongly influences the primary energy use and CO2 emission; a biomass-based system with cogeneration of district heat and electricity achieves low primary energy use and very low CO2 emissions. Using biomass residues from the wood products chain to substitute for fossil fuels significantly reduces net CO2 emission. Excluding household tap water and electricity, a negative life cycle net CO2 emission can be achieved due to the wood-based construction materials and biomass-based energy supply system. This study shows the importance of using a life cycle perspective when evaluating primary energy and climatic impacts of buildings.

  • 22.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Pingoud, Kim
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carbon dioxide balance of wood substitution: comparing concrete- and wood-framed buildings2006In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 667-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a method is suggested to compare the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from the construction of concrete- and wood-framed buildings. The method is then applied to two buildings in Sweden and Finland constructed with wood frames, compared with functionally equivalent buildings constructed with concrete frames. Carbon accounting includes: emissions due to fossil fuel use in the production of building materials; the replacement of fossil fuels by biomass residues from logging, wood processing, construction and demolition; carbon stock changes in forests and buildings; and cement process reactions. The results show that wood-framed construction requires less energy, and emits less CO2 to the atmosphere, than concrete-framed construction. The lifecycle emission difference between the wood- and concrete-framed buildings ranges from 30 to 130 kg C per m2 of floor area. Hence, a net reduction of CO2 emission can be obtained by increasing the proportion of wood-based building materials, relative to concrete materials. The benefits would be greatest if the biomass residues resulting from the production of the wood building materials were fully used in energy supply systems. The carbon mitigation efficiency, expressed in terms of biomass used per unit of reduced carbon emission, is considerably better if the wood is used to replace concrete building material than if the wood is used directly as biofuel.

  • 23.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Bergh, Johan
    Climate change induced forest production in north-central Sweden and potential substitution effects2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Embodied energy and CO2 emission of wood- and concrete-framed buildings in Sweden: 2nd World Biomass Conference, Rome, Italy2004Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 25.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energy and CO2 analysis of wood substitution in construction2011In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 105, no 1-2, p. 129-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative analysis of the energy and carbon balances of wood vs. non-wood products is a complex issue. In this paper we discuss the definition of an appropriate functional unit and the establishment of effective system boundaries in terms of activity, time and space, with an emphasis on the comparison of buildings. The functional unit can be defined at the level of building component, complete building, or services provided by the built environment. Energy use or carbon emissions per unit of mass or volume of material is inadequate as a functional unit because equal masses or volumes of different materials do not fulfil the same function. Activity-based system boundaries include life cycle processes such as material production, product operation, and post-use material management. If the products compared are functionally equivalent, such that the impacts occurring during the operation phase are equal, we suggest that this phase may be dropped from the analysis allowing a focus on material flows. The use of wood co-products as biofuel can be analytically treated through system expansion, and compared to an alternative of providing the same energy service with fossil fuels. The assumed production of electricity used for material processing is another important energy-related issue, and we suggest that using marginal production data is more appropriate than average production. Temporal system boundaries include such aspects of the wood life cycle as the dynamics of forest growth including regeneration and saturation, the availability of residue biofuels at different times, and the duration of carbon storage in products. The establishment of spatial boundaries can be problematic, because using wood-based materials instead of non-wood materials requires more land area to capture solar energy and accumulate biomass. We discuss several possible approaches to meet this challenge, including the intensification of land use to increase the time rate of biomass production. Finally, we discuss issues related to scaling up an analysis of wood substitution from the micro-level to the macro-level of national, regional or global.

  • 26.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Intensive, integrated biomass-based material and energy systems: Swedish experience2008In: FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BUILDING ENERGY AND ENIVRONMENT, PROCEEDINGS VOLS 1-3, Dalian University Technology Press , 2008, p. 1299-1306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development of the built environment requires the production of increased quantities of construction materials and energy services, produced within the constraints of natural systems. This paper presents recent findings from Sweden on the intensive use of renewable forest resources within integrated material and energy systems. Production of materials for wood-framed construction uses less primary energy than for comparable reinforced concrete construction. Multiple wood-based products can be co-produced from the forest biomass, increasing the efficiency of raw material use. Biomass by-products from the entire wood product chain, including forestry, wood processing, construction and demolition, can be recovered for use as biofuel. The biofuel energy available over the life cycle of a wood-framed building is greater than the primary energy used to produce the materials. Increasing forest management intensity gives greater energy returns on management energy inputs. Intensive production of forest biomass is maintained by closing nutrient cycles through application of wood ash and nitrogen fertiliser.

  • 27.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Towards a sustainable building sector: Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of a wood-framed apartment building with biomass-based energy supply2010In: Joint Session of the UNECE Timber Committee (TC) and Society of Wood Science and Technology (SWST) 53rd International Convention. Geneva, Switzerland, 11-15 October, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Variability in energy and carbon dioxide balances of wood and concrete building materials2006In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 940-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of factors affect the energy and CO2 balances of building materials over their lifecycle. Previous studies have shown that the use of wood for construction generally results in lower energy use and CO2 emission than does the use of concrete. To determine the uncertainties of this generality, we studied the changes in energy and CO2 balances caused by variation of key parameters in the manufacture and use of the materials comprising a wood- and a concrete-framed building. Parameters considered were clinker production efficiency, blending of cement, crushing of aggregate, recycling of steel, lumber drying efficiency, material transportation distance, carbon intensity of fossil fuel, recovery of logging, sawmill, construction and demolition residues for biofuel, and growth and exploitation of surplus forest not needed for wood material production. We found the materials of the wood-framed building had lower energy and CO2 balances than those of the concrete-framed building in all cases but one. Recovery of demolition and wood processing residues for use in place of fossil fuels contributed most significantly to the lower energy and CO2 balances of wood-framed building materials. We conclude that the use of wood building material instead of concrete, coupled with greater integration of wood by-products into energy systems, would be an effective means of reducing fossil fuel use and net CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  • 29.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Effects of environmental taxations on district heat production structures2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lippke, Bruce
    et al.
    College of Environment, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA.
    Oneil, Elaine
    CORRIM Inc., Research on Renewable Industrial Materials), Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA.
    Harrison, Rob
    Soils and Environmental Science, College of Environment, University of Washington, WA, USA.
    Skog, Kenneth
    Economics and Statistics Research, USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53726-2398, USA.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development. Linneaus Univ, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation: knowns and unknowns2011In: Carbon Management, ISSN 1758-3004, E-ISSN 1758-3012, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 303-333Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review on research on life cycle carbon accounting examines the complexities in accounting for carbon emissions given the many different ways that wood is used. Recent objectives to increase the use of renewable fuels have raised policy questions, with respect to the sustainability of managing our forests as well as the impacts of how best to use wood from our forests. There has been general support for the benefits of sustainably managing forests for carbon mitigation as expressed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2007. However, there are many integrated carbon pools involved, which have led to conflicting implications for best practices and policy. In particular, sustainable management of forests for products produces substantially different impacts than a focus on a single stand or on specific carbon pools with each contributing to different policy implications. In this article, we review many recent research findings on carbon impacts across all stages of processing from cradle-to-grave, based on life cycle accounting, which is necessary to understand the carbon interactions across many different carbon pools. The focus is on where findings are robust and where uncertainties may be large enough to question key assumptions that impact carbon in the forest and its many uses. Many opportunities for reducing carbon emissions are identified along with unintended consequences of proposed policies.

  • 31.
    Pingoud, Kim
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Cowie, Annette
    Bird, Neil
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rüter, Sebastian
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Soimakallio, Sampo
    Türk, Andreas
    Woess-Gallasch, Susanne
    Bioenergy: Counting on Incentives: (In Letters)2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 327, no 5970, p. 1199-1200Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nordin, Annika
    Departmen t of Plant Physiology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Sathre, Roger
    Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley Natio nal Laboratory, Berkeley California USA.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Böttcher, Hannes
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Modelling forest management in Sweden: trade-offs between carbon benefit and biodiversity conservation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Forest biomass production and their potential use to mitigate climate change.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Bergh, Johan
    Drössler, Lars
    Nordin, Annika
    Nilsson, Urban
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Comparison of biomass production and total carbon balance ofcontinuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Forest biomass residues and their use to mitigate climate change in north-central Sweden2011In: 19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Berlin, Germany, June 6-10, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Lundström, Anders
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Potential effects of intensive forestry on biomass production and total carbon balance in north-central Sweden2012In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 106-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantify the potential effects of intensive forest management activities on forest production in north-central Sweden over the next 100 years, and calculate the potential climate change mitigation feedback effect due to the resulting increased carbon stock and increased use of forest products. We analyze and compare four different forest management scenarios (Reference, Environment, Production, and Maximum), all of which include the expected effects of climate change based on SRES B2 scenario. Forest management practices are intensified in Production scenario, and further intensified in Maximum scenario. Four different models, BIOMASS, HUGIN, Q-model, and Substitution model, were used to quantify net primary production, forest production and harvest potential, soil carbon, and biomass substitution of fossil fuels and non-wood materials, respectively. After integrating the models, our results show that intensive forestry may increase forest production by up to 26% and annual harvest by up to 19%, compared to the Reference scenario. The greatest single effect on the carbon balance is from using increased biomass production to substitute for fossil fuels and energy intensive materials. Carbon stocks in living tree biomass, forest soil and wood products also increase. In total, a net carbon emission reduction of up to 132 Tg (for Maximum scenario) is possible during the next 100 years due to intensive forest management in two Swedish counties, Jämtland and Västernorrland. 

  • 37.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Bergh, Johan
    Nordin, Annika
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Forest biomass production potential and its implications for total carbon balance2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Climate change mitigation through increased biomass production and substitution: A case study in north-central Sweden2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Lundström, Anders
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of climate change on biomass production and substitution in north-central Sweden2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 4340-4355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the effects of climate change on forest production in north-central Sweden, as well as the potential climate changemitigation feedback effects of the resulting increased carbon stock and forest product use. Our results show that an average regional temperature rise of 4 °C over the next 100 years may increase annual forest production by 33% and potential annual harvest by 32%, compared to a reference case without climate change. This increased biomass production, if used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials, can result in a significant net carbon emission reduction. We find that carbon stock in forest biomass, forest soils, and wood products also increase, but this effect is less significant than biomass substitution. A total net reduction in carbon emissions of up to 104 Tg of carbon can occur over 100 years, depending on harvest level and reference fossil fuel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 40.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Leif, Gustavsson
    Bergh, Johan
    Integrated carbon analysis of forest production and utilization in north-central Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Life-Cycle Energy and Carbon Implications of Wood-Based Products and Construction2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests can be an important element of an overall strategy to limit the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) that contributes to climate change. As an integral part of the global carbon cycle, forests remove CO2 from the atmosphere as they grow, and accumulate carbon in tree biomass. Using wood products made from sustainably managed forests can reduce net CO2 emission by substituting in place of fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials. In this thesis the mechanisms by which wood product substitution can affect energy and carbon balances are studied. These include: the energy needed to manufacture wood products compared with alternative materials; the avoidance of industrial process carbon emission from e.g. cement manufacture; the use of wood by-products as biofuel to replace fossil fuels; and the physical storage of carbon in forests and wood materials.

    A methodological framework is first developed by integrating knowledge from the fields of forestry, industry, construction, and energy. A life cycle perspective is employed encompassing the entire product chain from natural resource acquisition to material disposal or reuse. Analytical challenges that are addressed include the functional unit of comparison, the fossil reference system, land use issues of wood vs. non-wood materials, and the diverse phases of the product life cycle. The methodology is then applied to two multi-storey wood-framed buildings in Sweden and Finland, compared with two functionally equivalent buildings with reinforced concrete structural frames. The results show that less primary energy is needed to produce the wood-framed buildings than the concrete-frame buildings. CO2 emission is significantly lower for the wood-frame buildings, due to reductions in both fossil fuel use and cement calcination process emission. The most important single factor affecting the energy and carbon balances is the use of biomass by-products from the wood product chain as biofuel to replace fossil fuels. Over the life cycle of the wood-framed buildings, the energy of biomass residues from forest operations, wood processing, construction and demolition is greater than the energy inputs to produce the materials in the buildings. Realisation of this benefit is facilitated by integrating and optimising the biomass and energy flows within the forestry, industrial, construction, energy, and waste management sectors.

    Different forest management regimes are studied in an integrated carbon analysis to quantify the carbon flows and stocks associated with tree biomass, soils, and forest products. Intensified forest management that produces greater quantities of biomass leads to net CO2 emission benefits by augmenting the potential to substitute for fossil fuels and non-wood materials. The increased energy use and carbon emission required for the more intensive forest management, as well as the slight reduction in soil carbon accumulation due to greater removal of forest residues, are more than compensated for by the emission reduction due to product substitution. Carbon stock changes in forests and wood materials can be temporarily significant, but over the building life cycle and forest rotation period the stock change becomes insignificant. In the long term, the active and sustainable management of forests, including their use as a source for wood products and biofuels, allows the greatest potential for reducing net CO2 emission.

    Implementation issues related to the wider use of wood-based materials to reduce energy use and carbon emission are also explored. An analysis of the effects of energy and taxation costs on the economic competitiveness of materials shows that the cost of energy for material processing, as a percentage of the total cost of finished material, is lower for wood products than for other common non-wood building materials. Energy and carbon taxation affects the cost of wood products less than other materials. The economic benefit of using biomass residues to substitute for fossil fuels also increases as tax rates increase. In general, higher taxation of fossil fuels and carbon emission increases the economic competitiveness of wood construction. An analysis of added value in forest product industries shows that greater economic value is added in the production of structural building materials than in other uses of forest biomass. Co-production of multiple wood-based products increases the total value that is added to the biomass produced on an area of forest land. The results show that production of wood-based building material is favoured economically by climate change mitigation policies, and creates high added value within forest product industries.

  • 42.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gorman, T
    Improving the performance of wooden journal bearings2005In: Forest Products Journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 55, no 11, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journal bearings made of wood have long been used in traditional devices such as oxcarts and waterwheels. They are currently used in industrial materials-handling equipment and other specialized applications. Wooden bearings have potential use in developing regions in appropriate technology devices such as animal-drawn carts and manual water pumps. This pilot study examined a number of factors that affect wooden bearing performance, including wood properties, fabrication methods, and operating conditions. A testing procedure for wooden bearings was established, and a testing machine was constructed. Bearings were fabricated of different wood species, treated with various lubricants, and run on the machine under varying conditions of load and speed. Measurements were made of bearing and axle wear, static and dynamic friction. and bearing operating temperature. The results of this study show that lubricant characteristics, speed and load of operation, steel axle properties, and wood density and permeability can have a considerable effect on bearing performance.

  • 43.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Grdzelishvili, Inga
    Industrial symbiosis in the former Soviet Union2006In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 379-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution we discuss the context, theory and significance of industrial symbiosis in the former Soviet Union, drawing information from original documents in Russian as well as international scientific literature. We describe the Soviet concepts of 'combined production', present from the earliest years of the Soviet Union, and 'waste-free technology', introduced in the final decades before collapse. We show that Soviet scientists were familiar with such elements of modern industrial ecology as the analogy between natural and industrial ecosystems, and the need for a diverse range of actors within an industrial ecosystem. Although the potential environmental benefits of industrial symbiosis were eventually recognised, Soviet planners pursued industrial symbiosis primarily as a means to increase production. We provide examples of Soviet implementation of industrial symbiosis in various industrial sectors. We then discuss strengths, weaknesses, possibilities and limitations of Soviet industrial symbiosis, and draw possible lessons for modern industrial ecology.

  • 44.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    A state-of-the-art review of energy and climate effects of wood product substitution2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we address multiple aspects of wood substitution, which can be defined as “any use of wood that replaces other inputs of production in providing equivalent service or function.” We focus on wood product substitution, or the use of wood to replace other materials such as concrete, steel or bricks, rather than wood fuel substitution. We briefly describe the historical uses of wood in the context of sustainable material cycles, and we suggest that wood material may increase in relative importance in the future, due to environmental concerns and the exhaustion of non-renewable raw materials and fuels. We conduct a comprehensive literature survey of previous studies on wood substitution, including fundamental research and case study analyses, as well as reviews and syntheses of previous works. We provide a brief synopsis of each item of literature. We then describe the methodological issues involved in wood substitution analysis, including the definition of functional units and the establishment of effective system boundaries in terms of activities, time, and space. We report on a meta-analysis of greenhouse gas displacement factors of wood substitution, in which 20 separate studies were analyzed and compared to determine the range of efficiency with which using wood instead of other materials can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we report the results of an analysis of large-scale wood substitution, in which we estimate the greenhouse gas emission reduction and energy use reduction resulting from a full substitution of wood-based materials in both single-family houses and multi-family apartment buildings at the country level (Sweden) and the regional level (EU-25).

  • 45.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    A system approach to comparing the environmental performance of wood and non-wood products: ECOWOOD-2008, 3rd internationl conference on environmentally-compatible forest products. Porto, Portugal. September 10-12, 2008.2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Economic competitiveness of wood construction material under a climate change mitigation tax regime2005In: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005, [Florence]: ETA-Renewable Energies , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Effects of energy and carbon taxes on building material competitiveness2007In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 488-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relations between building material competitiveness and economic instruments for mitigating climate change are explored in this bottom-up study. The effects of carbon and energy taxes on building material manufacturing cost and total building construction cost are modelled, analysing individual materials as well as comparing a wood-framed building to a reinforced concrete-framed building. The energy balances of producing construction materials made of wood, concrete, steel, and gypsum are described and quantified. For wood lumber, more usable energy is available as biomass residues than is consumed in the processing steps. The quantities of biofuels made available during the production of wood materials are calculated, and the cost differences between using these biofuels and using fossil fuels are shown under various tax regimes. The results indicate that higher energy and carbon taxation rates increase the economic competitiveness of wood construction materials. This is due to both the lower energy cost for material manufacture, and the increased economic value of biomass by-products used to replace fossil fuel.

  • 48.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Energy and carbon balances of multi-functional wood biomass usage2005In: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005, [Florence]: ETA-Renewable Energies , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Energy and carbon balances of wood cascade chains2006In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 332-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the energy and carbon balances of various cascade chains for recovered wood lumber. Post-recovery options include reuse as lumber, reprocessing as particleboard, pulping to form paper products, and burning for energy recovery. We compare energy and carbon balances of chains of cascaded products to the balances of products obtained from virgin wood fiber or from non-wood material. We describe and quantify several mechanisms through which cascading can affect the energy and carbon balances: direct cascade effects due to different properties and logistics of virgin and recovered materials, substitution effects due to the reduced demand for non-wood materials when wood is cascaded, and land use effects due to alternative possible land uses when less timber harvest is needed because of wood cascading. In some analyses we assume the forest is a limiting resource, and in others we include a fixed amount of forest land from which biomass can be harvested for use as material or biofuel. Energy and carbon balances take into account manufacturing processes, recovery and transportation energy, material recovery losses, and forest processes. We find that land use effects have the greatest impact on energy and carbon balances, followed by substitution effects, while direct cascade effects are relatively minor.

  • 50.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Process-based analysis of added value in forest product industries2009In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing products with greater added value is increasingly viewed as a strategic goal of forest products industries. Added value is defined here as the difference in economic value between the physical inputs and outputs of a production process, and is generally analysed at the firm or national economy level. In this study we identify and discuss issues involved in quantifying added value at the industrial process level, and develop a bottom-up method to estimate the value added by forest industry processes. We calculate the value added by 14 traditional and emerging processes within the Swedish forest products industries, and express the results using various indices. We find that the type of biomass input strongly influences the potential for adding value, with sawlogs allowing more added value and being less sensitive to input price fluctuations than pulpwood and forest residues. Structural wood products such as lumber and glue-laminated beams are found to give the greatest value added. Co-production of multiple products from a single raw material increases total value added. Integrating the value chain of pulp and paper production significantly increases the value added to pulpwood. Multiple conversion processes exist for using forest residues as fuel, with a range of potential added value. Consideration of the climate benefits of forest product use, through the application of a carbon tax, significantly increases the added value.

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