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  • 1. Bucher Sandbakk, Silvana
    et al.
    Supej, Matej
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Downhill turn techniques and associated physical characteristics in cross-country skiers2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 708-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three dominant techniques are used for downhill turning in cross-country skiing. In this study, kinematic, kinetic, and temporal characteristics of these techniques are described and related to skier strength and power. Twelve elite female cross-country skiers performed six consecutive turns of standardized geometry while being monitored by a Global Navigation Satellite System. Overall time was used as an indicator of performance. Skiing and turning parameters were determined from skier trajectories; the proportional use of each technique was determined from video analysis. Leg strength and power were determined by isometric squats and countermovement jumps on a force plate. Snow plowing, parallel skidding, and step turning were utilized for all turns. Faster skiers employed less snow plowing and more step turning, more rapid deceleration and earlier initiation of step turning at higher speed (r = 0.80–0.93; all P < 0.01). Better performance was significantly correlated to higher mean speed and shorter trajectory (r

    = 0.99/0.65; both P < 0.05) and to countermovement jump characteristics of peak force, time to peak force, and rate of force development (r  = -0.71/0.78/-0.83; all P < 0.05). In conclusion, faster skiers used step turning to a greater extent and exhibited higher maximal leg power, which enabled them to combine high speeds with shorter trajectories during turns.

  • 2.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Welde, Boye
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Supej, Matej
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Zoppirolli, Chiara
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Rolland, Carsten G.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Impact of incline, sex and level of performance on kinematics during a distance race in classical cross-country skiing2018In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, female and male elite cross-country (XC) skiers were compared on varying terrain during an official 10-km (women) and 15-km (men) Norwegian championship race. On the basis of race performance, 82 skiers were classified as fast (FS) (20 women, 20 men) or slower (SS) (21, 21) skiers. All were video recorded on flat (0°), intermediate (3.5°), uphill (7.1°) and steep uphill (11°) terrain during the race at a distance of 0.8, 1.2, 2.1 and 7.1 km from the start, respectively. All skiers employed exclusively double-poling (DP) on the flat section and, except for the male winner, exclusively diagonal stride (DIA) on the uphill sections. On the intermediate section, more men than women utilized DP and fewer DIA (p = 0.001), with no difference in kick double-poling (DPK). More FS than SS utilized DPK and fewer DIA (p = 0.001), with similar usage of DP. Males skied with faster and longer cycles but lower cycle rate compared with females (p < 0.001), with largest absolute sex differences on flat terrain (p < 0.001) and largest relative differences for cycle velocity and length on intermediate and uphill terrain. External power output rose with increasing incline, being higher for men and FS (p < 0.001). Cycle velocity on flat terrain was the best predictor of mean race velocity for the men, while cycle velocity on steep uphill was the best predictor for the women (both p < 0.001). In conclusion, incline, sex and level of performance influenced cycle characteristics and power output. Greatest absolute sex gap was on flat terrain, whereas the relative difference was greatest on intermediate and steep uphill terrain. We recommend usage of more DP and/or DPK, and less DIA and fewer transitions between techniques on intermediate terrain. Predictors of race performance are sex specific with greatest potential for enhancing performance on flat terrain for men and on steep uphill terrain for women. 

  • 3.
    Welde, Boye
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Stöggl, Thomas L.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Mathisen, Gunnar E.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Supej, Matej
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Zoppirolli, Chiara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Winther, Andreas K.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    The pacing strategy and technique of male cross-country skiers with different levels of performance during a 15-km classical race2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e0187111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the pacing strategy, cycle characteristics and choice of technique of elite male cross-country (XC) skiers during a three-lap, 15-km classical race with interval start were measured. During the Norwegian Championships in 2016, fast (n = 18, age: 26±4 yr; height: 182±4 cm; body mass: 78±3 kg (means±SD)) and slow skiers (n = 18, age: 22±2 yr; height: 183±5 cm; body mass: 78±6 kg) were video recorded on flat (0), intermediate (3.5) and uphill sections (7.1) of the first and final laps. All skiers adopted a positive pacing strategy, skiing more slowly (11.8%) with shorter cycles (11.7%) on the final than first lap (both p&lt;0.001; pη2 = 0.93 and 0.87, respectively). The fast skiers were 7.0% faster overall (p&lt;0.001, d = 4.20), and 6.1% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.32) and 7.0% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.68) faster on the first and final laps, respectively, compared to slower skiers. On all sections of both laps, the fast skiers exhibited 9.5% more rapid (pη2 = 0.74) and 8.9% (pη2 = 0.48) longer cycles (both p&lt;0.001). On intermediate terrain, the fast skiers employed primarily double poling (DP, 38.9% on the first lap) and double poling with a kick (DPKICK, 50% on the final lap). In contrast, the slow skiers utilized for the most part DP alone (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) or in combination with other techniques (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) and decreased their usage of DPKICK from 27.8% on the first to 16.7% on the final lap. Skiing velocity on flat and intermediate terrain proved to be the best predictor of race performance (p&lt;0.001). In conclusion, during a 15-km classical XC skiing race, velocity and cycle length decreased from the first to the final lap, most extensively on flat terrain and least uphill. Moreover, on the intermediate sections the fast and slow skiers chose to use different techniques.

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