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  • 1.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    et al.
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    NetLab: IPTV, Video and Display Quality, Acreo AB, 16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andrén, Börje
    NetLab: IPTV, Video and Display Quality, Acreo AB, 16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Crosstalk Measurements of Shutter Glasses 3D Displays2011In: 49th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar, and Exhibition 2011, Display Week 2011, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011, p. 812-815Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crosstalk is probably one of the main perceptual factors contributing to perceived image quality and visual comfort. The Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) within their 3D video quality project is specifying a practical measurement procedure that will produce consistent results across laboratories. This paper is part of that effort. Two different method of measuring cross talk on shutter glasses stereo displays have been studied. One is based on time average luminance measurements and the other on temporal measurements. The results show that crosstalk is roughly 0.5% but that there are differences in the crosstalk between the two eyes in the shutter glasses.

  • 2.
    Li, Yun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Subjective Evaluation of an Edge-based Depth Image Compression Scheme2013In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering: Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIV, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 86480D-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-view three-dimensional television requires many views, which may be synthesized from two-dimensional images with accompanying pixel-wise depth information. This depth image, which typically consists of smooth areas and sharp transitions at object borders, must be consistent with the acquired scene in order for synthesized views to be of good quality. We have previously proposed a depth image coding scheme that preserves significant edges and encodes smooth areas between these. An objective evaluation considering the structural similarity (SSIM) index for synthesized views demonstrated an advantage to the proposed scheme over the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) intra mode in certain cases. However, there were some discrepancies between the outcomes from the objective evaluation and from our visual inspection, which motivated this study of subjective tests. The test was conducted according to ITU-R BT.500-13 recommendation with Stimulus-comparison methods. The results from the subjective test showed that the proposed scheme performs slightly better than HEVC with statistical significance at majority of the tested bit rates for the given contents.

  • 3.
    Muddala, Suryanarayana Murthy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Edge-aided virtual view rendering for multiview video plus depth2013In: Proceedings of SPIE Volume 8650, Burlingame, CA, USA, 2013: 3D Image Processing (3DIP) and Applications 2013, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 86500E-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR) of virtual views is a fundamental method in three dimensional 3-D video applications to produce dierent perspectives from texture and depth information, in particular the multi-viewplus-depth (MVD) format. Artifacts are still present in virtual views as a consequence of imperfect rendering using existing DIBR methods. In this paper, we propose an alternative DIBR method for MVD. In the proposed method we introduce an edge pixel and interpolate pixel values in the virtual view using the actual projected coordinates from two adjacent views, by which cracks and disocclusions are automatically lled. In particular, we propose a method to merge pixel information from two adjacent views in the virtual view before the interpolation; we apply a weighted averaging of projected pixels within the range of one pixel in the virtual view. We compared virtual view images rendered by the proposed method to the corresponding view images rendered by state-of-theart methods. Objective metrics demonstrated an advantage of the proposed method for most investigated media contents. Subjective test results showed preference to dierent methods depending on media content, and the test could not demonstrate a signicant dierence between the proposed method and state-of-the-art methods.

  • 4.
    Schwarz, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Adaptive depth filtering for HEVC 3D video coding2012In: 2012 Picture Coding Symposium, PCS 2012, Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 49-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer interest in 3D television (3DTV) is growing steadily, but current available 3D displays still need additional eye-wear and suffer from the limitation of a single stereo view pair. So it can be assumed that auto-stereoscopic multiview displays are the next step in 3D-at-home entertainment, since these displays can utilize the Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD) format to synthesize numerous viewing angles from only a small set of given input views. This motivates efficient MVD compression as an important keystone for commercial success of 3DTV. In this paper we concentrate on the compression of depth information in an MVD scenario. There have been several publications suggesting depth down- and upsampling to increase coding efficiency. We follow this path, using our recently introduced Edge Weighted Optimization Concept (EWOC) for depth upscaling. EWOC uses edge information from the video frame in the upscaling process and allows the use of sparse, non-uniformly distributed depth values. We exploit this fact to expand the depth down-/upsampling idea with an adaptive low-pass filter, reducing high energy parts in the original depth map prior to subsampling and compression. Objective results show the viability of our approach for depth map compression with up-to-date High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). For the same Y-PSNR in synthesized views we achieve up to 18.5% bit rate decrease compared to full-scale depth and around 10% compared to competing depth down-/upsampling solutions. These results were confirmed by a subjective quality assessment, showing a statistical significant preference for 87.5% of the test cases.

  • 5.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wang, Xusheng
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A locally content-dependent filter for inter-perspective anti-aliasing2012In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. Art. no. 829006-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presentations on multiview and lightfield displays have become increasingly popular. The restricted number of views implies an unsmooth transition between views if objects with sharp edges are far from the display plane. The phenomenon is explained by inter-perspective aliasing. This is undesirable in applications where a correct perception of the scene is required, such as in science and medicine. Anti-aliasing filters have been proposed in the literature, and are defined according to the minimum and maximum depth present in the scene.  We suggest a method that subdivides the ray-space and adjusts the anti-aliasing filter to the scene contents locally. We further propose new filter kernels based on the ray space frequency domain that assures no aliasing, yet keeping maximum information unaltered. The proposed method outperforms filters of earlier works. Different filter kernels are compared. Details of the output are sharper using a proposed filter kernel, which also preserves the most information.

  • 6.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson, Anders
    CMIV, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Setred AB, Stockhlom, Sweden.
    Evaluation of quality of experience in interactive 3D visualization: methodology and results2012In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. Art. no. 82880O-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human factors are of high importance in 3D visualization, but subjective evaluation of 3D displays is not easy because of a high variability among users. This study aimed to evaluate and compare two different 3D visualization systems (a market stereoscopic display, and a state-of-the-art multi-view display) in terms of task performance and quality of experience (QoE), in the context of interactive visualization. An adapted methodology has been designed in order to focus on 3D differences and to reduce the influence of all other factors. 36 subjects took part in an experiment during which they were asked to solve different tasks in a synthetic 3D scene. After the experiment, they were asked to judge the quality of their experience, according to specific features. Results showed that scene understanding and precision was significantly better on the multi-view display. Concerning the quality of experience, visual comfort was judged significantly better on the multi-view display and visual fatigue was reported by 52% of the subjects on the stereoscopic display. This study has permitted to identify some factors influencing QoE such as prior experience and stereopsis threshold.

  • 7.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson, Anders
    Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Setred AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudling, Johan
    Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Norén, Bengt
    Dept. of Radiology, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.
    Subjective evaluation of user experience in interactive 3D-visualization in a medical context2012In: Proceedings of the SPIE, vol 8318: Conference on Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, San Diego, CA, USA, 4 - 9 February 2012, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. Art. no. 831814-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New display technologies enable the usage of 3D-visualization in a medical context. Even though user performance seems to be enhanced with respect to 2D thanks to the addition of recreated depth cues, human factors, and more particularly visual comfort and visual fatigue can still be a bridle to the widespread use of these systems. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing two different 3D visualization systems (a market stereoscopic display, and a state-of-the-art multi-view display) in terms of quality of experience (QoE), in the context of interactive medical visualization. An adapted methodology was designed in order to subjectively evaluate the experience of users. 14 medical doctors and 15 medical students took part in the experiment. After solving different tasks using the 3D reconstruction of a phantom object, they were asked to judge their quality of the experience, according to specific features. They were also asked to give their opinion about the influence of 3D-systems on their work conditions. Results suggest that medical doctors are opened to 3D-visualization techniques and are confident concerning their beneficial influence on their work. However, visual comfort and visual fatigue are still an issue of 3D-displays. Results obtained with the multi-view display suggest that the use of continuous horizontal parallax might be the future response to these current limitations.

  • 8.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bułat, Jarosław
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Cousseau, Romain
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Janowski, Lucjan
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Acreo AB.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Reproducibility of crosstalk measurements on active glasses 3D LCD displays based on temporal characterization2012In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. Art. no. 82880Y-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crosstalk is one of the main display-related perceptual factors degrading image quality and causing visual discomfort on 3D-displays. It causes visual artifacts such as ghosting effects, blurring, and lack of color fidelity which are considerably annoying and can lead to difficulties to fuse stereoscopic images. On stereoscopic LCD with shutter-glasses, crosstalk is mainly due to dynamic temporal aspects: imprecise target luminance (highly dependent on the combination of left-view and right-view pixel color values in disparity regions) and synchronization issues between shutter-glasses and LCD. These different factors influence largely the reproducibility of crosstalk measurements across laboratories and need to be evaluated in several different locations involving similar and differing conditions. In this paper we propose a fast and reproducible measurement procedure for crosstalk based on high-frequency temporal measurements of both display and shutter responses. It permits to fully characterize crosstalk for any right/left color combination and at any spatial position on the screen. Such a reliable objective crosstalk measurement method at several spatial positions is considered a mandatory prerequisite for evaluating the perceptual influence of crosstalk in further subjective studies.

  • 9.
    Wang, Junle
    et al.
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Le Callet, Patrick
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Ricordel, Vincent
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Quantifying depth bias in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli2011In: Abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements: Journal of Eye Movement Research, 4(3)., 2011, p. 92-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies of 2D visual attention, eye-tracking data show a so-called “center-bias”, which means that fixationsare biased towards the center of 2D still images. However, in stereoscopic visual attention, depth is anotherfeature having great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little is known about the impact of depth.Several studies mentioned that people tend to look at the objects at certain depth planes. Therefore, it isreasonable to suppose the existence of a “depth-bias”. But studies proving or quantifying this depth-bias arestill limited. We conducted a binocular eye-tracking experiment by showing synthetic stimuli on a stereoscopicdisplay. Observers were required to do a free-viewing task through active shutter glasses. Gaze positions ofboth eyes were recorded for obtaining the depth of fixation. Stimuli were well designed in order to let thecenter-bias and depth-bias affect eye movements individually. Results showed that the number of fixationsvaried as a function of depth planes. There was also a relationship between the duration of fixation and thedepth plane where the objects were located.

  • 10.
    Wang, Junle
    et al.
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Le Callet, Patrick
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Ricordel, Vincent
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Quantifying depth bias in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli2011In: Abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements, Marseille, 21 - 25 August 2011. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 4(3)., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies of 2D visual attention, eye-tracking data show a so-called “center-bias”, which means that fixations are biased towards the center of 2D still images. However, in stereoscopic visual attention, depth is another feature having great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little is known about the impact of depth. Several studies mentioned that people tend to look at the objects at certain depth planes. Therefore, it is reasonable to suppose the existence of a “depth-bias”. But studies proving or quantifying this depth-bias are still limited. We conducted a binocular eye-tracking experiment by showing synthetic stimuli on a stereoscopic display. Observers were required to do a free-viewing task through active shutter glasses. Gaze positions of both eyes were recorded for obtaining the depth of fixation. Stimuli were well designed in order to let the center-bias and depth-bias affect eye movements individually. Results showed that the number of fixations varied as a function of depth planes. There was also a relationship between the duration of fixation and the depth plane where the objects were located.

  • 11.
    Wang, Junle
    et al.
    Univ Nantes, LUNAM Univ, CNRS, IRCCyN,UMR 6597, Nantes, France.
    Le Callet, Patrick
    Univ Nantes, LUNAM Univ, CNRS, IRCCyN,UMR 6597, Nantes, France.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ricordel, Vincent
    Univ Nantes, LUNAM Univ, CNRS, IRCCyN,UMR 6597, Nantes, France.
    Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira
    Univ Nantes, LUNAM Univ, CNRS, IRCCyN,UMR 6597, Nantes, France.
    Study of depth bias of observers in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli2012In: JOURNAL OF EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH, ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 5, no 5, p. Art. no. 1-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observers' fixations exhibit a marked bias towards certain areas on the screen when viewing scenes on computer monitors. For instance, there exists a well-known "center-bias" which means that fixations are biased towards the center of the screen during the viewing of 2D still images. In the viewing of 3D content, stereoscopic displays enhance depth perception by the mean of binocular parallax. This additional depth cue has a great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little is known about the impact of binocular parallax on visual attention of the 3D content displayed on stereoscopic screen. Several studies mentioned that people tend to look preferably at the objects located at certain positions in depth. But studies proving or quantifying this depth-bias are still limited. In this paper, we conducted a binocular eye-tracking experiment by showing synthetic stimuli on a stereoscopic display. Observers were required to do a free-viewing task through passive polarized glasses. Gaze positions of both eyes were recorded and the depth of eyes' fixation was determined. The stimuli used in the experiment were designed in such a way that the center-bias and the depth-bias affect eye movements individually. Results indicate the existence of a depth-bias: objects closer to the viewer attract attention earlier than distant objects, and the number of fixations located on objects varies as a function of objects' depth. The closest object in a scene always attracts most fixations. The fixation distribution along depth also shows a convergent behavior as the viewing time increases.

  • 12.
    Wang, Kun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Swedish ICT-Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Swedish ICT-Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Barkowsky, M.
    Dept. of Image and Video Communication, IRCCyN, University of Nantes, France .
    Urvoy, M.
    Dept. of Image and Video Communication, IRCCyN, University of Nantes, France .
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Le Callet, P.
    Dept. of Image and Video Communication, IRCCyN, University of Nantes, France .
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Andren, B.
    Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Swedish ICT-Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Stereoscopic 3D video coding quality evaluation with 2D objective metrics2013In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 86481L-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3D video quality is of highest importance for the adoption of a new technology from a user's point of view. In this paper we evaluated the impact of coding artefacts on stereoscopic 3D video quality by making use of several existing full reference 2D objective metrics. We analyzed the performance of objective metrics by comparing to the results of subjective experiment. The results show that pixel based Visual Information Fidelity metrics fits subjective data the best. The 2D stereoscopic video quality seems to have dominant impact on the coding artefacts impaired stereoscopic videos.

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