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  • 1.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform2012In: MDPI Electronics, ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 32-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a modified design of an RF Radio Frequency Electronic ArticleSurveillance (EAS) tag, used as a sensor platform, is manufactured and characterized. EAStags are passive devices consisting of a capacitor and coil, tuned to a resonance frequencyreadable by the detector equipment, in this case 8.2 MHz. They were originally used todetect whether merchandise was being moved through the detection gates at shop exits, inwhich case an alarm was triggered. If the capacitance is divided in two and a resistivesensor device inserted in between, the resonant Inductor-Capacitor (LC) circuit becomes anInductor-Capacitor-Capacitor-Resistor LCCR circuit and can be used as a sensor tag. Ahigh sensor resistance means that one capacitor is decoupled, leading to one resonancefrequency, while a low resistance will couple both capacitances into the circuit, resulting ina lower resonance frequency. Different types of resistive sensors exist that are able todetect properties such as pressure, moisture, light and temperature. The tag is manufacturedin Aluminum foil on a polyetylentereftalat (PET) substrate, resulting in a cost effectiveRF-platform for various resistive sensors. Two types of tags are designed andmanufactured, one with parallel plate capacitors and the other with interdigital capacitors.To test the tags, a resistive tilt sensor is mounted and the tags are characterized using anetwork analyzer. It is shown that for high resistance, the tags have a resonance frequencyof more than 10 MHz while for low values the frequency approaches 8.2 MHz.

  • 2.
    Engholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. RISE Acreo.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A Bio-Compatible Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on a Thin Core Interferometric Technique2019In: Photonics, ISSN 2304-6732, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for compact, reliable and versatile sensor concepts for pH-level monitoring within several industrial, chemical as well as bio-medical applications. Many pHsensors concepts have been proposed, however, there is still a need for improved sensor solutionswith respect to reliability, durability and miniaturization but also for multiparameter sensing. Here wepresent a conceptual verification, which includes theoretical simulations as well as experimentalevaluation of a fiber optic pH-sensor based on a bio-compatible pH sensitive material not previouslyused in this context. The fiber optic sensor is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric technique,where the pH sensitive material is coated on a short, typically 20-25 mm thin core fiber splicedbetween two standard single mode fibers. The working principle of the sensor is simulated by usingCOMSOL Multiphysics. The simulations are used as a guideline for the construction of the sensorsthat have been experimentally evaluated in different liquids with pH ranging from 1.95 to 11.89. The results are promising, showing the potential for the development of bio-compatible fiber optic pH sensor with short response time, high sensitivity and broad measurement range. The developedsensor concept can find future use in many medical- or bio-chemical applications as well as inenvironmental monitoring of large areas. Challenges encountered during the sensor developmentdue to variation in the design parameters are discussed.

  • 3.
    Engholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Rydberg, Sara
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Strong excited state absorption (ESA) in Yb-doped fiber lasers2013In: FIBER LASERS X: TECHNOLOGY, SYSTEMS, AND APPLICATIONS, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 86010P-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excited state absorption (ESA) measurements performed on Yb-doped silica bers show the onset of a strong absorption band in the visible range. In this work, we perform experiments to investigate the possibility for ESA to be part of the induced optical losses (photodarkening) observed in Yb-doped ber lasers. Our results indicate that an ESA process, from the 2F5/2 excited state manifold in the Yb3+ ion to the charge-transfer state with absorption bands in the UV range, may constitute a transfer route for pump- and laser photons in the near-infrared range. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.

  • 4.
    Esebamen, Omeime
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Surface State Effects on N+P Doped Electron Detector2011In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, no 12, p. Art. no. C12019-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface states and interface recombination velocity that exist between detector interfaces have always been known to affect the performance of a detector. This article describes how the detector performance varies when the doping profile is altered. When irradiated with electrons, the results show that while changes in the doping profile have an effect of the detector responsivity with respect to the interface recombination velocity

    Vs, there is no visible effect with respect tofixed oxide charge

    Qfotherwise known as interface fixed charge density.

  • 5.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hydrogel-based pH-sensors: Development and characterisation of optical and electrical pH sensors based on stimuli-responsive hydrogels2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure the chemical parameter pH is of high importance in many areas. With new government regulations and evolving markets, there is a strong motivation for improving such measurements and conducting research on new types of pH sensors and sensor materials. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels (a group of polymers) have attracted a lot of attention in recent decades, due to their ability to be customized to suit many applications. One specific area where they have attracted attention is pH sensor technology.

    Two stimuli-responsive hydrogels are used in this thesis. One is a non-toxic hydrogel, 1,4-acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (1,4-AOBAE). Although it was previously used in drug- and DNA- delivery systems, it has not (to my knowledge) been used in a sensor configuration, and thus it is interesting to study. The second hydrogel, 1,3-acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (1,3-AOBAE), is an improved variant of the first one. This improved hydrogel was synthesized because the original hydrogel crystallizes at room temperature, which meant that it was not optimal for various coating techniques. This hydrogel was characterized and verified for pH responsivity in two sensor configurations: electrical and optical. Designing a hydrogel for a specific application can be a complex procedure due to the many synthesizing parameters. For example, increasing a hydrogel's mechanical strength by introducing a higher degree of cross linking, leads to a smaller mesh size, which in turn leads to a lower diffusion rate and less solution absorption. The two hydrogels examined in this thesis respond to pH changes by absorbing or desorbing water; this change in the hydrogel's water content also changes its effective refractive index and permittivity. These changes can be measured using optical or electrical sensor systems. Three types of sensor systems were used in this thesis to verify the hydrogel's pH response and to ensure that they are suitable for use in thin-film techniques on various substrates (e.g. glass and plastic). The experimental results prove that these hydrogels are suitable for use in both electrical and optical sensor configurations. For electrical systems, a pH range of approximately 3-12 was achieved, and for optical, the range was approximately 2-12. These ranges can likely be improved, as the sensor film delaminated from the substrate at low pHs due to adhesion problems and as measurements above 12 were not conducted.

    The findings of this thesis could, after more research, have strong implications for the development of improved pH-sensor configurations, especially for medical and healthcare applications and in environmental monitoring.

  • 6.
    Hammarling, Krister
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. RISE Acreo AB, Bredgatan 33, 601 17 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Broad-Range Hydrogel-Based pH Sensor with Capacitive Readout Manufactured on a Flexible Substrate2018In: Chemosensors, ISSN 2227-9040, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 15article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental monitoring of land, water and air, is an area receiving greater attention because of human health and safety concerns. Monitoring the type of pollution and concentration levels is vital, so that appropriate contingency plans can be determined. To effectively monitor the environment, there is a need for new sensors and sensor systems that suits these type of measurements. However, the diversity of sensors suitable for low, battery powered- and large area sensor systems are limited. We have manufactured and characterized a flexible pH sensor using laser processing and blade coating techniques that is able to measure pH between 2.94 and 11.80. The sensor consists of an interdigital capacitance with a pH sensitive hydrogel coating. Thin sensors can reach 95% of their final value value within 3 min, and are stable after 4 min. Good repeatability was achieved in regard to cycling of the sensor with different pH and multiple measurements from dry state. We have also studied the relation between an interdigital capacitance penetration depth and hydrogels expansion. We believe that our passive sensor is suitable to be used in low power and large area sensor networks.

  • 7.
    Hammarling, Krister
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Muri, Harald Ian
    NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Wahl, Markus Solberg
    NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hjelme, Dag Roar
    NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Dual parameter fiber optic sensor combining a Fabry-Perot and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer2017In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, IEEE, 2017, p. 1440-1442Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new concept for dual parameter fiber optic sensorhas been developed and characterized, both in a two-fiber andsingle-fiber configuration. The liquid sensor measures ethanolconcentration with a stimuli responsive hydrogel whichconstitutes a low finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, and refractive indexwith a Mach-Zehnder type fiber optic interferometer. The two-fiber configuration utilize a fiber optic 1310/1550 nm wavelengthdivision multiplexer to separate the two parameters, while aversatile filtering algorithm extracts and separates the twoparameters in the single-fiber configuration. No cross talk wereobserved for the measured parameters of free spectral range andrefractive index for the two-fiber configurations, while for thesingle fiber configuration cross-talk were observed. The twoconfigurations prove to be versatile dual parametric fiber opticsensor concepts for accurate detection of specific parameters,based on stimuli responsive hydrogels.

  • 8.
    Hammarling, Krister
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hilborn, J.
    Uppsala University, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Blood pH optrode based on evanescent waves and refractive index change2014In: Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, 2014, p. Art. no. 89381F-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensing pH in blood with an silica multimode optical fiber. This sensor is based on evanescent wave absorption and measures the change of the refractive index and absorption in a cladding made of a biocompatible Polymer. In contrast to many existing fiber optical sensors which are based upon different dyes or florescent material to sense the pH, here presents a solution where a part of the cladding is replaced with a Poly (β-amino ester) made of 1.4-Butanediol diacrylate, Piperazine, and Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate. Piperazine has the feature of changing its volume by swelling or shrinking in response to the pH level. This paper utilizes this dimension effect and measure the refractive index and the absorption of the cladding in respect to different pH-levels. The alteration of refractive index also causes a change in the absorption and therefore the output power changes as a function of the pH level. The sensor is sensitive to pH in a wide spectral range and light absorbency can be observed for wavelengths ranging from UV to far IR. © 2014 SPIE.

  • 9.
    Hammarling, Krister
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Muri, Harald Ian
    NTNU.
    Wahl, Markus Solberg
    NTNU.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hjelme, Dag Roar
    NTNU.
    A combined glucose and pH sensor on a single optical fiber for continuous point-of-care testing2018In: SPIE BIOS, Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVIII, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-induced hyperglycemia is very common for patients in intensive care units, which can become fatal if left uncontrolled. Blood glucose concentrations for patients at the intensive care units should therefore be monitored at all times. To be successful in monitoring the glucose concentrations of patients, the sensor needs to be fast, accurate and able to measure in real time. In addition, the pH level should be monitored, as a diagnostic parameter by itself, or to improve the reliability of the glucose measurement. To address this challenge, a fiber optic sensor for dual parameter measurement of glucose concentration and pH level for use in point-of-care testing has been developed. The sensor utilizes two stimuli responsive hydrogels to create two interferometers combined on one single mode fiber. The sensor is created by splicing a short section of thin-core fiber (SM450) coated with a pH-sensitive polymer, which constitutes a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer. The glucose is measured with a low finesse Fabry-Perot cavity made by polymerizing a glucose sensitive hydrogel hemisphere at the end face of the fiber. A versatile Fourier transform based, low pass filter was developed, which enable evaluation of the two signals independently. Our results show the feasibility of measuring glucose concentration and pH level by using a single fiber. This dual parameter and single point fiber optic biosensor is expected to be of great interest for in vivo measurements in medical applications where pH and glucose, as specific markers are monitored in real time, during or after surgery.

  • 10.
    Hammarling, Krister
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Synthesis, Curing Behavior and Swell Tests of pH-Responsive Coatings from Acryl-Terminated Oligo(beta-Amino Esters)2018In: CHEMOSENSORS, ISSN 2227-9040, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (AOBAE) to be coated on fibers and printed electronics without solvents and to be cross-linked to a pH-responsive coatings, makes AOBAE-based coatings a potential type of pH-sensor coating. However, there are currently no reports of AOBAEs used as a pH-responsive coating material in sensor applications. Here we present an investigation of the synthesis, curing behavior and swell tests of AOBAEs. AOBAEs were synthesized from reacting an excess of asymmetric diacrylates with piperazine without the use of any solvents. They were then cross-linked to an insoluble network by UV-curing. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the AOBAEs. NMR was used to clarify the irregular structure of the AOBAE. FTIR was used to monitor the effects of UV-curing dose and air exposure on monomer conversion during curing. An interferometric technique was used to monitor the swelling behavior of the coating in response to pH variations. Swell experiments showed that the AOBAE also responded to pH variations after polymerization. Therefore, AOBAE is an interesting class of material with potential use as a pH responsive coating in optical-and printed electronics pH-sensors applications.

  • 11.
    Hammarling, Krister
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    FBG based upon evaporated Silica nano particles2011In: 1st EOS Topical Meetingon On Micro- and Nano-Optoelectronic Systems, Bremen, December 7-9, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fiber bragg grating was made by evaporating silica nano particles on the outside of a multimode silica fiber core using EISA method. We demonstrate that a cost effective bragg filter may be built by evaporating nano particles directly on a fiber core, which is tunable with the particle size.

  • 12.
    Hammarling, Krister
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fiber Bragg Grating filter using Evaporated Induced Self Assembly of silica nano particles2014In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering: Optical Components and Materials XI, 8982 / [ed] Michel J. F. Digonnet; Shibin Jiang, 2014, p. Art. no. 898225-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work we conduct a study of ber lters produced by evaporation of silica particles upon aMM-ber core. A band lter was designed and theoretically veried using a 2D Comsol simulation model ofa 3D problem, and calculated in the frequency domain in respect to refractive index. The ber lters werefabricated by stripping and chemically etching the middle part of an MM-ber until the core was exposed. Amono layer of silica nano particles were evaporated on the core using an Evaporation Induced Self-Assembly(EISA) method. The experimental results indicated a broader bandwidth than indicated by the simulationswhich can be explained by the mismatch in the particle size distributions, uneven particle packing and nallyby eects from multiple mode angles. Thus, there are several closely connected Bragg wavelengths that buildup the broader bandwidth. The experimental part shows that it is possible by narrowing the particle sizedistributing and better control of the particle packing, the lter eectiveness can be greatly improved.

  • 13.
    Muri, H. I.
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Wahl, M.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hjelme, D. R.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Combining interferometric sensors for dual parameter fiber optic chemical sensing2018In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2018, article id WF80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long and short path length differences interferometric sensing modalities have been combined based on immobilizing hydrogel on thin-core optical fiber end face. Dual parameter sensing of hydrogel swelling and refractive index was demonstrated.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Printed write once and read many sensor memories in smart packaging applications2011In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1759-1767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A horizontal printed Write Once Read Many (WORM) resistive memory has been developed for use in wireless sensortags targeting single event detection in smart packaging applications. The WORM memory can be programmed using a 1.5 V printedbattery. An alternative programming method is to use chemical sintering which allows the development of exposure-time triggeredsingle event tags that can be accessed wirelessly. The new WORM memory has very low losses in the ON-state which allows directintegration into antenna structures.A sensor tag that utilizes the WORM memory functionality and the well established Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS)communication standard has been outlined. Both active and fully passive sensor tag solutions have been proposed.The role of printed electronics in smart packaging applications has been reviewed and discussed. Important enabling factors forthe future development have been highlighted, such as the need for hierarchical design and test tools, better printed interconnecttechnologies as well as better components that allow communication with existing information and communication technology (ICT)standards. This is illustrated and underlined by the presented smart packaging concept demonstrators.

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