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  • 1. Anderbrant, Olle
    et al.
    Lyons, D. Barry
    Bång, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Sex Pheromone of the Introduced Pine Sawfly, Diprion similis (Diprionidae), Revisited: No Activity of Earlier Reported SynergistsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracts of Diprion similis females were found to contain about 15 ng of the sex pheromone precursor 3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol per female. When analysing the extracts after derivatisation with (2S)-2-acetoxypropionyl chloride, we found that the major stereoisomer in the extract was (2S,3R,7R)-3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol. Also other stereoisomers of 3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol were identified in the extract namely, 1% of (2R,3S,7S) , 0.3% (2R,3R,7R) and 0.4% of (2R,3R,7S). An unknown fifth substance showed an identical spectrum to 3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol, both in SIM and full scan mode. In field tests in Ontario, Canada, the earlier identified main pheromone component, viz. the propanoate of (2S,3R,7R)-3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol, was tested alone and in combination with other stereoisomers, earlier reported to be synergistic. In none of the tests were any synergistic effects detected and the threo four-isomer blend was as attractive as the pure main compound. Thus, one of the few examples of a diprionid sawfly using more than one substance in its sex pheromone could not be confirmed. The results also suggest that monitoring programs can use the more easily synthesized threo-blend without losing efficiency.

  • 2.
    Anderbrant, Olle
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Löfqvist, Jan
    Department of Plant Protection Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bång, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tai, Akira
    Faculty of Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, Kanaji Kamigor, Japan.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Field Response of Male Pine Sawflies, Neodiprion sertifer (Diprionidae), to Sex Pheromone Analogs in Japan and Sweden2010In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 969-977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine sawfly Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) uses the acetate or propionate of (2S,3S,7S)-3,7-dimethyl-2-pentadecanol (diprionol) as pheromone components, with the (2S,3R,7R)-isomer being antagonistic, synergistic, or inactive according to the population tested. In this study, we tested the attraction of males to the acetates of three analogs of diprionol, each missing one methyl group, viz. (2S,7S)-7-methyl-2-pentadecanol, (2S,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-1-tetradecanol, and (2S,3S)-3-methyl-2-pentadecanol. None of the analogs alone, or in combination with diprionol acetate, was attractive in Sweden, even at 100 times the amount of diprionol acetate attractive to N. sertifer. In Japan, the acetate of (2S,3S)-3-methyl-2-pentadecanol attracted males when tested in amounts 10–20 times higher than the acetate pheromone component. The acetate esters of the (2S,3R)-analog and the (2S,3R,7R)-isomer of diprionol also were tested in combination with the pheromone compound (acetate ester). Both compounds caused an almost total trap-catch reduction in Sweden, whereas in Japan they appear to have relatively little effect on trap capture when added to diprionol acetate. Butyrate and iso-butyrate esters of diprionol were unattractive to N. sertifer in Sweden. In summary, there exists geographic variation in N. sertifer in responses to both diprionyl acetate and some of its analogs.

  • 3.
    Bång, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Purification, Stereoisomeric Analysis and Quantification of Biologically Active Compounds in Extracts from Pine Sawflies, African Butterflies and Orchid Bees2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stereochemistry plays an important role in nature because biologically important molecules such as amino acids, nucleotides and sugars, only exist in enantiomerically pure forms. Semiochemicals carry messages, between the same species (pheromones) and between different species (allelochemicals). Both pheromones and allelochemicals can be used as environmentally friendly pest management. Many semiochemicals, i.e. behaviour modifying chemicals, consist of pure or well-defined mixtures of stereoisomers, where some of the other stereoisomers can be repellent. It is therefore important to be able to separate them to produce a synthetic pheromone in a mixture that is attractive.

    Pine sawflies are a family of insects that in some cases can be severe defoliators of conifer trees. Diprion pini, Diprion similis and Neodiprion sertifer are severe pests for these trees and have got the most attention in pine sawfly pheromone studies. The pheromone precursors are stored in the female body as long-chain secondary alcohols, which, when released, are esterified to acetates or propionates. The alcohols are chiral, and normally one of the stereoisomer is the main pheromone component, sometimes possible together with other stereoisomers as essential minor components.

    Bicyclus is a genus of African butterflies, and especially Bicyclus anynana has become a popular model for the study of life history evolution, morphology, mating choice and genetics. The wing pattern of Bicyclus differs depending on the season, with large eyespots during the rain-season and small or absent spots during the dry season.

     Euglossa is one of the genera among the orchid bees in the Neotropics that does not produce its own pheromone. Instead, the males collect fragrances from orchids and other sources and store them in a pocket in their hind legs. Both Bicyclus and Euglossa use semiochemicals similar to pine sawflies, and thus can be analysed by the same methods.

    Pheromones and other semiochemicals in insects are often present in low amounts in a complex matrix, and purification of the sample before chemical analysis is often required. A common method is gradient elution on a solid phase silica column. Separation of stereoisomers can be achieved either by using a column with a chiral stationary phase (CSP) or with pre-column derivatisation using a column with an achiral stationary phase (ASP) or a combination of both, with mass detection as the dominant detection method. The purpose of this work has been to improve the purification method, find suitable methods to separate the stereoisomers of secondary alcohols, and to apply this on extracts of insects.

    By selecting the right fractions to collect during gradient elution the purification method was optimised. To reduce plasticizer contamination from ordinary columns, solid phase columns of Teflon or glass were used. For pre-column derivatisation of different chiral alcohols various acid chlorides were tested. For the pine sawfly pheromone precursors enantiopure (2S)-2-acetoxypropionyl chloride was the best choice. To separate some of the stereoisomers achiral 2-naphthoyl chloride was used. For derivatisation of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (R)-trans-chrysanthemoyl chloride was the best choice. The derivatised alcohols were separated on different columns, both chiral and non-chiral. Varian FactorFour VF-23ms was chosen as a general-purpose column, the Agilent HP-88 column was the best column with an ASP of those tested, and the Chiraldex B-PA column (CSP) was the only one that could separate all eight stereoisomers of derivatised 3,7-dimethylundecan-2-ol, 3,7-dimethyldodecan-2-ol, and 3,7-dimethyltridecan-2-ol.

    To determine the stereoisomeric purity of standard solutions used in field experiments and extracts of different species of insects the optimised methods were applied. For extracts from B. anynana, Euglossa and Neodiprion lecontei this work describe the first determination of the stereochemistry of some of their semiochemicals.

    For the determination of the stereochemistry of chiral semiochemicals the methods for purification and separation presented herein have shown to be of great value. The results will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of the communication among insects, and ultimately to a more environmentally friendly pest control.

  • 4.
    Bång, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Anderbrant, Olle
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Lund, Sweden.
    Stereoisomeric separation of derivatized 2-alkanols using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry: Sex pheromone precursors found in pine sawfly species2012In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1016-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stereoisomers of long-chain secondary alcohols are used as sex pheromone precursors among pine sawflies, which can be severe pest to conifers. To use the pheromone in environmentally friendly pest managements, methods are needed that can determine the exact stereochemistry of the precursor alcohols. Combinations of 11 acid chloride derivatives and 10 GC columns were evaluated for separation of the stereoisomers of 3,7-dimethylundecan-2-ol, 3,7-dimethyldodecan-2-ol, 3,7-dimethyltridecan-2-ol, 3,7-dimethyltetradecan-2-ol, and 3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol. Derivatisation with (2S)-2-acetoxypropionyl chloride in combination with the Chiraldex B-PA column separated all eight stereoisomers of 3,7-dimethylundecan-2-ol, 3,7-dimethyldodecan-2-ol and 3,7-dimethyltridecan-2-ol. A combination of two different derivatisation methods was needed to separate all stereoisomers of the longer chained alcohols, 3,7-dimethyltetradecan-2-ol and 3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol. An extract of the pine sawfly Neodiprion lecontei was also analysed, and the stereochemistry of the sex pheromone alcohol prcursor was determined to be (2S,3S,7S)-3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol, at an amount of about 7 ng/female. This paper presents the first GC-MS-separation of all eight stereoisomers of 3,7-dimethylundecan-2-ol, 3,7-dimethyldodecan-2-ol and 3,7-dimethyltridecan-2-ol in a single analytical run, and also the first determination of the stereochemistry of the sex pheromone precursor of N. lecontei.

  • 5.
    Bång, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Sjödin, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Purification, Stereoisomeric Analysis and Quantification of Sex Pheromone Precursors in Female Whole Body Extracts from Pine Sawfly Species2011In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 125-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A GC-MS method to analyze the stereoisomeric composition of chiral secondary alcohols found in whole body extracts of pine sawfly females was developed. The tested alcohols were derivatized with optically pure (S)-2-acetoxypropionyl chloride prior to GC-MS analysis. Baseline separation was obtained for all sixteen stereoisomers of 3,7,9-trimethyltridecan-2-ol and for the four 3-methylpentadecan-2-ol stereoisomers. For 3,7-dimethyltridecan-2-ol, 3,7-dimethyltetradecan-2-ol and 3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol baseline separation was obtained for 6 of the possible 8 stereoisomers. When a mixture of 16 stereoisomers of 3,7,11-trimethyltridecan-2-ol was tested, baseline separation of 7 peaks out of 16 possible was obtained. The investigated alcohols are pheromone precursors for some pine sawfly species that are severe defoliators of pine. Females from several Diprion, Neodiprion, Macrodiprion, Microdiprion, and Gilpinia species emit esters of such secondary alcohols as sex pheromones that attract males for mating. To quantify the small amounts of the precursor alcohol and its stereoisomeric composition found in whole body extracts from female pine sawflies, a purification method was optimized. An extract of 20 females of D. pini contained about 8 ng of (2 S,3 R,7 R)-3,7-dimethyltridecan-2-ol per female, and three extracts of 18, 20, and 90 females of N. sertifer contained between 5 and 13 ng of (2 S,3 S,7 S)-3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol per female.

  • 6. Eltz, Thomas
    et al.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bång, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wallin, Erika A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Andersson, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    (6R,10R)-6,10,14-Trimethylpentadecan-2-one, a Dominant and Behaviorally Active Component in Male Orchid Bee Fragrances2010In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1322-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    6,10,14-Trimethylpentadecan-2-one (Hexahydrofarnesyl acetone; HHA) previously has been found to be a major component in tibial fragrances of male orchid bees, Euglossa spp. HHA is a chiral molecule with four possible stereoisomers, (6R,10R)-, (6R,10S)-, (6S,10R)-, and (6S,10S)-6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one. In the present study, we characterized HHA extracted from Euglossa as the pure enantiomer (6R,10R)-6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one. During bioassays in Mexico and Panama, the synthetic RR-isomer attracted males of six species of orchid bees, including three that were known to contain HHA in their tibial fragrances. Possible sources of HHA for wild bees are flowers of euglossophilous orchids and aroids. With a molecular weight of 268, HHA is the largest natural molecule known to attract male orchid bees in pure form. Its attractiveness to males suggests that low-volatility compounds have a function in male signals, e.g., serve as a "base note" in complex odor bouquets. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 7.
    Hedenström, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Wallin, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Andersson, J
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bång, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wang, H-L
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, Lund, Sweden .
    Löfstedt, C
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, Lund, Sweden .
    Brattström, O
    Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Baquet, P
    Evolutionary Ecology and Genetics group, Biodiversity Research Centre, Earth and Life Institute, Académie Louvain, Croix du Sud 4, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
    Stereoisomeric Analysis of 6,10,14-Trimethylpentadecan-2-ol and the Corresponding Ketone in Wing Extracts from African Bicyclus Butterfly Species2015In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 44-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to determine the stereoisomeric compositions of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one in wing extracts from 17 Bicyclus butterfly species from different regions of Africa. All samples were purified using solid phase extraction (SPE). Since some species contained both alcohol and ketone, these were separated and the ketone was reduced to the alcohol before analysis as either (R)-trans-chrysanthemoyl or (S)-2-acetoxypropionyl esters. A novel asymmetric synthesis was developed for a reference mixture of (2R/S,6S,10R)-6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol with known composition of the eight stereoisomers. The mixture then was used as the (R)-trans-chrysanthemoyl esters to correlate each of the eight gas chromatographic peaks to a specific stereoisomer of the extracted wing compounds. Seven butterfly species showed (2R,6R,10R)-configuration of the alcohol, four species contained minute amounts of alcohol too small to determine the stereochemistry, nine species showed (6R,10R)-configuration of the ketone, and one species contained minute amounts of ketone too small to determine the stereochemistry. No other stereoisomers of alcohol or ketone could be detected in the extracts, and the quantities of the compounds in the wing extracts varied from 5 to 900 ng per sample for each species.

  • 8. Nieberding, Caroline. M.
    et al.
    de Vos, Helena
    Schneider, Maria V.
    Lassance, Jean-Marc
    Estramil, Natalia
    Andersson, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bång, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Löfstedt, Christer
    Brakefield, Paul M.
    The Male Sex pheromone of the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Towards an Evolutionary Analysis2008In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3, no 7, p. e2751-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing structures and receiving systems. Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a multidisciplinary approach, we determined the chemical composition of the male sex pheromone (MSP) in the African butterfly B. anynana, and demonstrated its behavioural activity. First, we identified three compounds forming the presumptive MSP, namely (Z)-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH), hexadecanal (16:Ald) and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (6,10,14-trime-15-2-ol), and produced by the male secondary sexual structures, the androconia. Second, we described the male courtship sequence and found that males with artificially reduced amounts of MSP have a reduced mating success in semi-field conditions. Finally, we could restore the mating success of these males by perfuming them with the synthetic MSP.

    Conclusions/Significance: This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies. The toolkit it has developed will enable the investigation of the type of information about male quality that is conveyed by the MSP in intraspecific communication. Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of pheromone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moths relevant to future research. Such a comparison will in turn contribute to understanding the evolution of sex pheromone production and reception in butterflies.

  • 9.
    Pokorny, T.
    et al.
    Institute of Sensory Ecology, Heinrich-Department of Animal Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany .
    Hannibal, M.
    Institute of Sensory Ecology, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Quezada-Euan, J. J. G.
    Departamento de Apicultura, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, 97100, Mexico .
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Sjöberg, Natalia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bång, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Eltz, T.
    Department of Animal Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany .
    Acquisition of species-specific perfume blends: Influence of habitat-dependent compound availability on odour choices of male orchid bees (Euglossa spp.)2013In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 417-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male orchid bees (Euglossini, Apidae, Hymenoptera) expose species-specific blends of volatile chemicals (perfume bouquets) during their courtship display. The perfumes are acquired by collecting fragrant substances from environmental sources, which are then accumulated in specialised hind leg pouches. To balance the perfume composition, the males need to find and collect the required substances in specific relative amounts while facing seasonal, local or habitat-dependent differences in compound availability. Experience-dependent choice of odours, i.e. 'learned avoidance' of recently collected components, has been proposed as the mechanism that mediates the accumulation of the stereotypical compound ratios. In the present study, we used the presence of certain compounds in male hind leg pouches as proxy for the respective local compound availability, and investigated whether differences in content are correlated with differences in chemical choice assays. Our results suggest that volatile availability differs between localities (n = 16) as well as habitats (n = 2; coastal vs. inland) across the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, for both studied species. Male Euglossa dilemma showed a pronounced preference for benzyl benzoate and eugenol at locations where those compounds were rare in hind leg extracts, as predicted by the learned avoidance model. No equivalent correlations were found for Euglossa viridissima. This is the first study to combine chemical analyses of perfumes with bioassays of odour choice. It strengthens the view that negative feedback from collected odours modifies future chemical choice and helps males to acquire specific perfume blends. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 10.
    Svensson, G. P.
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Ecology Building, Lund, 223 62, Sweden.
    Liedtke, C.
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Ecology Building, Lund, 223 62, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Breistein, Palle
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Bång, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Larsson, M. C.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 102, Alnarp, 230 53, Sweden.
    Chemical ecology and insect conservation: optimising pheromone-based monitoring of the threatened saproxylic click beetle Elater ferrugineus2012In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 549-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elater ferrugineus is a saproxylic click beetle inhabiting old deciduous trees in Europe. It is threatened throughout its area of distribution due to habitat loss. No efficient monitoring method has been available for this species, but observed attraction of females to (R)-(+)-γ-decalactone, which is a male-produced sex pheromone of its prey, the scarab beetle Osmoderma eremita, has led to the development of an odour lure for monitoring. In addition, four esters have recently been identified from the pheromone-producing gland in female E. ferrugineus, and a blend of these esters is highly attractive to conspecific males in the field, revealing an alternative odour-based method for monitoring this species. However, no rigorous analysis has been performed to check whether all four esters show biological activity in male E. ferrugineus, and whether its own sex pheromone is a more potent lure than the prey kairomone for monitoring of E. ferrugineus. In this study, we reinvestigated the E. ferrugineus sex pheromone, using electrophysiological and behavioural analyses, and found that only one of the esters, 7-methyloctyl (Z)-4-decenoate, is active. In addition, trapping experiments revealed that 7-methyloctyl (Z)-4-decenoate is a much more efficient attractant for male E. ferrugineus than the prey pheromone is for conspecific females, or any sex of O. eremita. With a very efficient odour lure at hand, novel information about current distribution, local population sizes, and dispersal ranges in E. ferrugineus can now be obtained, which can aid in conservation efforts to protect this threatened insect and its habitat. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 11.
    Viklund, Lina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Rahmani, Rizan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bång, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Schroeder, Martin
    SLU, Uppsala .
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Optimizing the attractiveness of pheromone baits used for trapping the four-eyed spruce bark beetle Polygraphus poligraphus2019In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 143, no 7, p. 721-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bark beetles have caused extensive damage to forests in central Sweden during the past decade, and the four-eyed spruce bark beetle, Polygraphus poligraphus, seems to be involved. However, its role in these bark beetle outbreaks is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient pheromone bait for P. poligraphus, which would make it possible to study the species more carefully and thereby contribute to protect exposed forests in an environmentally friendly way. Three field studies were conducted in 2015, 2016 and 2018 in Medelpad, county of Västernorrland, Sweden. The pheromone of P. poligraphus, (−)-terpinen-4-ol, was tested at different release rates and in different enantiomeric purities, to find the most attractive formulation for the beetles. It was also tested in combination with racemic frontalin, a compound which has previously been shown to produce a synergistic effect together with (−)-terpinen-4-ol of low enantiomeric purity; 52% ee. Other compounds, chosen based on responses from electroantennographic studies, were also tested in an attempt to find additional attractants and repellents for P. poligraphus. The most attractive treatment tested was enantiomerically pure (−)-terpinen-4-ol (99% ee). When the enantiomeric purity was lower (50% ee), the trap catches was lowered to levels comparable to the catches for unbaited control traps. A strong synergistic effect with frontalin was observed for (−)-terpinen-4-ol of low enantiomeric purity (50% ee) but not for the enantiomerically pure compound (99% ee). The release rate of (−)-terpinen-4-ol (99% ee) was shown to be an important factor. For the combination of frontalin and (−)-terpinen-4-ol (50% ee), the attraction seemed strongest when (−)-terpinen-4-ol was released at a higher rate than frontalin. An interesting and novel result was that a repellent compound, α-terpineol, was identified in our studies. Our results from field studies and electroantennography recordings also indicate that (+)-terpinen-4-ol is a repellent for P. poligraphus.

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