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  • 1.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Därför avgår jag som vetenskapligt råd2002In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 99, no 42, p. 4190-4191Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 2.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Efter Socialstyrelsens beslut i Arvikafallet: hur många vårdgivare uppfyller kraven på väl underbyggda risk/farlighetsbedömningar?2004Other (Other scientific)
  • 3.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Från farlighet till risk - senare års utveckling inom forskning och tillämpning av risk- och farlighetsbedömningar: Bilaga 62002In: Psykisk störning, brott och ansvar: Betänkande från Psykansvarskommittén, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Få vårdenheter uppfyller kraven på riskbedömningar inom psykiatrin: Sundsvallsmodellen ett sätt att möta Socialstyrelsens krav efter Arvikafallet2005In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 134-137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Modern riskbedömning ska skydda brottsoffer2007In: Tidningen Brottsoffer, ISSN 1400-075X, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 17.-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 6.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    PATRIARK: Bedömning av risk för patriarkalt våld med hedern som motiv. Användarmanual2005Report (Other scientific)
  • 7.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Police-Based Structured Spousal Violence Risk Assessment: the Process of Developing a Police Version of the SARA2008In: Intimate partner violence prevention and intervention: The risk assessment and management approach, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2008, p. 33-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Risk- och farlighetsbedömningar2004In: Svensk rättpsykiatri: psykisk störning, brott och påföljd, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, p. 608-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Riskbedömning och våldsprevention2007In: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Malmö: Liber, 2007, p. 448-478Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strukturerade riskbedömningar allt vanligare inom psykiatrin. 2004In: Björkviksaktuellt, no 3Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 11.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vad är strukturerade instrument för att bedöma farlighet hos patienter inom psykiatrin för någonting?2004Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Webb-baserad artikel

  • 12.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Treatment effects on forensic psychiatric patients measured with the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme2002In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1499-9013, E-ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Fransson, G
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Prediction of Violence Using the HCR-20: A prospective study in two maximum-security correctional institutions2000In: Journal of forensic psychiatry (Print), ISSN 0958-5184, E-ISSN 1469-9478, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HCR-20 and the PCL:SV were used in a prospective study of 41 long-term sentenced offenders in two correctional, maximum-security institutions. The aim was to test the validity of these instruments in the prediction of institutional violence. All assessments were made by a comprehensive examination of the offenders’ files, completed with clinical interviews ranging from 1 to 3 hours. The mean follow-up time was 8 months. Our results show high predictive validity for the HCR-20’s clinical and risk management items, but for almost none of its historical items. The results suggest that violence inside correctional institutions can be predicted with a certain degree of validity by using the HCR-20 and the PCL:SV, even within a selective ‘high-risk’ group of offenders such as that under study here.

  • 14.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fransson, Göran
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Management of violent behaviour in the correctional system using qualified risk assessments.2004In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. This study focused on whether institutional violence in a maximum-security correctional institution could be prevented using comprehensive risk assessments followed by adequate risk management. And, could this be shown by a decrease in risk factors for violence according to the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme in the study group? Methods. Offenders with a history of violent criminality were subject to real-life assessments using the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme. The assessments were followed by discussions with members of staff, in which risk management strategies were designed. Thus, the members of staff were fully aware of every inmate's personality characteristics (e.g. psychiatric diagnoses), what risk factors for violence they displayed, and how best to manage those risk factors. With the aim of evaluating the possible effects of our interventions, approximately one third of the study group was reassessed after a mean of 12 months. Results. The follow-up showed no significant decrease in important risk factors for violence in the study group. However, the number of violent incidents showed a remarkable decrease during the study period. Conclusions. Not being able to reduce important risk factors for violence does not necessarily mean that one cannot decrease the risk for, or the incidence of, violence. This study indicates that proper and adequate risk management, using the best protective factors available, can reduce violence even though important risk factors cannot be decreased. The study also supports the theoretical assumption that changes in risk factors are more possible in some populations (e.g. general psychiatric) than in others (e.g. correctional) depending on the nature of the study group and the risk factors that are at hand (e.g. dynamic vs. static). This seems to be important to bear in mind when performing evaluation research using risk assessment instruments.

  • 15.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Sundsvall Forensic Psychiat. Centre.
    Rying, Mikael
    National Swedish Police, Stockholm University.
    Characteristics of spousal homicide perpetrators: a study of all cases of spousal homicide in Sweden 1990-19992004In: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 121-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In Sweden 20 000 cases of assault against women are reported to the police every year. METHOD: All data on the perpetrators of spousal homicide in Sweden between 1990 and 1999 were investigated (n = 164). A control group of all other perpetrators of homicide in Sweden during the same period, i.e. cases of homicide not committed in the context of spouse violence (n = 690) was used. All verdicts, as well as all material in the police investigations, including interviews with all of the police investigators, were analysed. Copies of police examinations of the suspects, and forensic reports from the autopsies, were also examined. Data on all registered criminality were collected from the National Police Register, and in cases where the perpetrators had been subject to forensic psychiatric examinations, those reports were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. In addition, the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version scores were rated from the forensic psychiatric examinations. RESULTS: There was a four times higher suicide rate among the spousal homicide perpetrators (24%, n = 40) compared with the perpetrators in the control-group (6%, n = 39, chi-squared = 55,42 df = 1, p < 0.001). Consequently, suicidal ideation must be considered as an important risk factor for spousal homicide. In 79% of the cases the spousal homicide perpetrators were subject to forensic psychiatric examinations. All except 5% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and 34% were sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment. If it is assumed that the psychiatric morbidity was high in the 24% of the perpetrators who committed suicide, then 80% of all perpetrators of spouse homicide during the study period can be characterized as mentally disordered. 'Psychopathic' perpetrators, who generally are over-represented in most violent criminality, were comparatively uncommon. Only seven (4%) in the study group met the diagnostic criteria for psychopathy as measured with the PCL:SV. DISCUSSION: The group of spouse killers studied here fits the dysphoric/borderline group of spouse assaulters. This is a group that may benefit from treatment. Perhaps police officers could help identify this kind of spouse assaulter before a fatality occurs.

  • 16.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Measuring the Outcome of Structured Spousal Violence Risk Assessments Using the B-SAFER: Risk in Relation to Recidivism and Intervention2012In: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 420-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 216 risk assessments conducted by law enforcement officers in a suburb of Stockholm using the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) were followed up and correlated to both recidivism and type of protective actions implemented by the police. The results showed high recidivism rates across all risk categories, except in the highest risk group, where the recidivism rate was significantly lower. This finding suggests a poor, and even negative, predictive power of the police risk assessments: the higher the police-assessed risk, the lower the recidivism rate. However, it was clear that the police did very little, or nothing, in cases not assessed as high risk. All resources appear to have been directed to the high-risk cases, which seems to have had a preventive effect. Our results point to the importance of studying the nature and extent of protective actions taken in response to risk assessment, before drawing conclusions about the predictive validity of risk assessment instruments. Copyright (C) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 17.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strand, Susanne
    Polisiära bedömningar och åtgärder vid stalking. Ett utvecklingsprojekt i Södertörn och Kalmar län2007Report (Other scientific)
  • 18.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Structured spousal violence risk assessment: Combining risk factors and victim vulnerability factors.risk factors and victim vulnerability factors.2008In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1499-9013, E-ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Utveckling av ett riskinstrument för polisiär bedömning av risk för upprepat partnervåld: Slutrapport från utvecklingsprojekt i Kalmar, Kronoberg och Blekinge län.2003Report (Other scientific)
  • 20.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Validation of the Guide for Stalking Assessment and Management (SAM) in Swedish law enforcement.2009In: International Journal of Police Science and Management, ISSN 1461-3557, E-ISSN 1478-1603, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ekman, Linda
    Polismyndigheten Stockholm.
    Hasselborg, Anna-Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The PATRIARCH. Six years experiences from the use of a checklist for the assessment of risk for patriarchal violence with honor as motive.2012In: International Journal of Police Science and Management, ISSN 1461-3557, E-ISSN 1478-1603, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 20-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few crimes are as complicated to investigate and understand as honour-based crimes.The planning and execution often involves multiple family members, usually without personality disorders or major mental disorders, and can include mothers, sisters, brothers, male cousins, uncles and grand- fathers whose actions are by many, themselves included, considered as good or necessary. Invest- igations often have to be carried out trans- national, involving many authorities and sometimes several countries. This paper describes the process of developing an evidence-based check- list which has been used for six years in Sweden

    as an aid for law enforcement and social author- ities in cases with suspected risk for honour-based violence. Data from 56 recent cases are presented and discussed.

  • 22.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Forens Psychiat Ctr, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Forens Psychiat Ctr, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Storey, Jennifer E.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Gibas, Andrea L
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Kropp, P Randall
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Hart, Stephen D
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Assessment and management of risk for intimate partner violence by police officers using the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide2012In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 60-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a crime that is present in all countries, seriously impacts victims, and demands a great deal of time and resources from the criminal justice system. The current study examined the use of the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, 2nd ed. (SARA; Kropp, Hart, Webster, & Eaves, 1995), a structured professional judgment risk assessment and management tool for IPV, by police officers in Sweden over a follow-up of 18 months. SARA risk assessments had significant predictive validity with respect to risk management recommendations made by police, as well as with recidivism as indexed by subsequent contacts with police. Risk management mediated the association between risk assessment and recidivism: High levels of intervention were associated with decreased recidivism in high risk cases, but with increased recidivism in low risk cases. The findings support the potential utility of police-based risk assessment and management of IPV, and in particular the belief that appropriately structured risk assessment and management decisions can prevent violence.

  • 23.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Vadstena Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Vadstena, Sweden .
    Interrater Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the HCR-20 Version 32014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3). Three sets of ratings were completed by experienced clinicians for 35 forensic psychiatric patients, for both HCR-20 Versions 2 and 3. Reliability analyses focused on ratings of the presence of Version 3 risk factors, presence of Version 3 risk factor sub-items, relevance ratings for Version 3 risk factors, and Version 3 summary risk ratings for future violence. Concurrent validity analyses focused on the correlational association between Versions 2 and 3 in terms of the number of risk factors present. Findings indicated that Versions 2 and 3 were strongly correlated (.69 -.90). Interrater reliability was consistently excellent for the presence of risk factors and for summary risk ratings. The majority of relevance and sub-item ratings were in the good to excellent range, although there was a minority of such ratings in the fair or poor categories. Findings support the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of HCR-20V3. Implications for use of HCR-20V3 by professionals and agencies are discussed. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 24.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Hart, S. D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada .
    Webster, C. D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Vadstena Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Vadstena, Sweden.
    Guy, L. S.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States .
    Wilson, C. M.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada .
    Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3): Development and Overview2014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries. This article explains (1) why a revision was necessary, (2) the steps we took in the revision process, (3) key changes between Version 2 and Version 3, and (4) an overview of HCR-20V3's risk factors and administration steps. Recommendations for evaluating Version 3 are provided. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 25.
    Douglas, Kevin S
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Herbozo, Sylvia
    Poythress, Norman G
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Edens, John F
    Psychopathy and Suicide: A Multi-Sample Investigation2006In: Psychological Services, ISSN 1541-1559, Vol. 3, p. 97-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that behavioral aspects of psychopathy are associated with suicidal behavior, whereas the affective and interpersonal aspects are not. The authors tested the robustness of this bifurcated association across 1,711 persons and 12 samples of adult and juvenile criminal offenders, forensic psychiatric patients, and civil psychiatric patients. The authors observed a small but significant partial correlation (.13) between the behavioral/impulsive lifestyle features of psychopathy and suicidality, but no effect for affective/interpersonal features. Several method and sample features (mental disorder; psychopathy and suicidality measurement format) significantly strengthened or weakened this association. The authors conclude that it is not possible to speak of "the" association between psychopathy and suicide, but that this relationship appears to be partially dependent on methodological (i.e., self-report vs. clinician-administered psychopathy measures) and sample composition (i.e., age; mental illness) factors. Recommendations for practice are provided, including that clinicians should not consider psychopathy a buffer against suicidal behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

  • 26.
    Douglas, S Kevin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fransson, G
    Levander, S
    Reliability and validity evaluation of the psychopathy checklist: Screening version (PCL:SV) in Swedish correctional and forensic psychiatric samles2005In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 145-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the structural reliability, construct-related validity, and cultural validity generalization of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in a sample of more than 560 male and female Swedish forensic psychiatric treatment patients, forensic evaluation patients, and criminal offenders. Structural reliability was excellent for most indices. PCL:SV scores were higher for males than females for total and Part 1 scores (interpersonal/ affective features) but not for Part 2 (behavioral features). With some exceptions, PCL:SV scores were meaningfully related to aggression to others, a measure of risk for violence, substance use problems, personality disorder (positive), and psychosis (negative). Correlations between PCL:SV and aggression were larger for females than males, although the difference was smaller when personality disorder was held constant. The structural reliability and pattern of validity coefficients were comparable in these Swedish samples to other non-North American samples. Implications for the cross-cultural manifestation and correlates of psychopathy are discussed.

  • 27. Kropp, P. R.
    et al.
    Hart, S. D.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Structuring judgments about spousal violence risk and lethality: A decision support tool for criminal justice professionals2006In: Just Research no 13 Department of Justice, CanadaArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 28. Kropp, P. R.
    et al.
    Hart, S. D.
    Webster, C D.
    Eaves, D
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide: Screening Version (2nd Edition)2003Report (Other scientific)
  • 29. Kropp, P.R.
    et al.
    Hart, S.D.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Brief spousal assault form for the evaluation of risk (B-SAFER). User manual.2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) The B-SAFER is a set of structured professional guidelines for assessing risk for spousal assault, designed to be especially useful for decision making by police and other justice agencies.

     

  • 30. Kropp, P.R.
    et al.
    Hart, S.D.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Webster, C.D.
    Eaves, D.
    Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide: Police Version (SARA:PV)2003In: The British Columbia Institute on Family ViolenceArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 31. Kropp, Randall P
    et al.
    Hart, Stephen D
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    SARA:SV. Bedömning av risk för upprepat partnervåld2004Report (Other scientific)
  • 32.
    Laurell, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hellstrom, Ake
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Deceptive behaviour and instrumental violence among psychopathic and non-psychopathic violent forensic psychiatric patients2014In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 467-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deceptive behaviour and instrumental violence are well-known psychopathic features and as such play important roles in the assessment of psychopathy. This study examined first, the nature of the violence committed by offenders that have been admitted to forensic psychiatric care and whether scores on the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), Part 1, were associated with the instrumentality of violence. Second, we examined the proneness of offenders to re-frame the instrumentality in their past violent crimes, and whether this was associated with scores on the PCL:SV. The results show that the PCL:SV, Part 1 (interpersonal/affective features), was positively related to the officially coded instrumentality of the violent crimes. As expected, this association disappeared when the instrumentality was self-reported. However, the majority of the patients tended to exaggerate the reactivity of their violent crimes when it was self-reported, indicating that most offenders, independently of level of psychopathy, used deception when questioned about the characteristics of their past violent crimes. The reasons for, and implications of, the use of deception are discussed.

  • 33. Laurell, Jenny
    et al.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hellström, Åke
    Facets on the psychopathy checklist screening version and instrumental violence in forensic psychiatric patients2010In: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is a recognised relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence, but not all violence by people who meet the criteria for psychopathy is instrumental.Aims Our aims were to compare offence types among forensic psychiatric patients with and without the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) criteria for psychopathy. Our specific questions were whether factor 1 the interpersonal affective dimension was related to instrumentality and on severity of the violent crime. Our hypothesis was that the relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence would be dependent on the severity of the violent crime.Methods Sixty-five male patients at the forensic psychiatric hospital in Sundsvall, all with a violent criminal history, were assessed for psychopathy through interview and records using the PCL: SV. Severity and the instrumentality of their previous violence were coded using the Cornell coding guide for violent incidents.Results The interpersonal features of psychopathy (the interpersonal facet), and only the interpersonal features were significantly associated with instrumentality and severity of violence. Instrumentality was also significantly related to the severity of the violence, independent of psychopathy score.Conclusions The results indicated that, at least among forensic psychiatric patients, planning is more likely than not with respect to serious crimes. The specific link between interpersonal features of psychopathy and instrumental and severe violence suggests potential clinical value in recognising subtypes of psychopathy.

  • 34. Lewin, C
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Skiljer sig offer som inte medverkar i polisutredningen avseende partnervåld från dem som medverkar?: En statistisk analys av ärenden anmälda till Polismyndigheten i Kalmar län under en ettårsperiod.2007Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Selenius, Heidi
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia2011In: Dyslexia, ISSN 1076-9242, E-ISSN 1099-0909, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery 'The Pigeon'. The patients filled in the Aggression Questionnaire, and trained assessors performed the risk assessments using HCR-20 version 2. Patients with dyslexia self-reported more aggressive behaviour compared with those without dyslexia. There was only a nearly significant tendency (p = 0.06) for the patients with dyslexia to receive higher scores in the HCR-20 compared with the patients without dyslexia, and phonological processing skills did not significantly predict aggression or risk of future violence. However, regression analyses demonstrated that poor phonological processing skills are a significant predictor of anger, which in turn significantly predicts risk of future violence. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 36.
    Storey, Jennifer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Canada .
    Kropp, P. Randy
    British Columbia Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission, Canada.
    Hart, D. Stephen
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. University of Bergen, Norway .
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Assessment and Management of Risk for Intimate Partner Violence by Police Officers. Using the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER).2014In: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 256-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of intimate partner violence (IPV) typically falls to police. For assistance, officers are increasingly using violence risk assessment tools like the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER). This study replicates the methodology of Belfrage et al. but examines the B-SAFER as used by Swedish police officers when assessing and managing IPV. Results revealed a positive relationship between risk and management. Total scores and overall risk ratings predicted recidivism (AUC [Area under the curve] = .70 and .69, respectively). Finally, a pattern where management recommendations were associated with decreased recidivism in high risk perpetrators but increased recidivism in low risk perpetrators was found. Results validate the use of the B-SAFER by police and reveal mostly comparable findings between the B-SAFER and the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, as examined by Belfrage et al., but suggest that the B-SAFER may be better suited for police.

  • 37.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Comparison of HCR-20 scores in violent mentally disordered men an women: Gender differences and similarities2001In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 7, no 1-4, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Female spousal assault offenders2007In: Female spousal assault offenders, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gender differences in psychopathy in a Swedish offender sample2005In: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 837-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examined gender differences in the PCL:SV employing a variety of statistical methods with two subsets of psychopathic individuals drawn from larger samples of 129 female and 499 male Swedish offenders. The larger samples included forensic psychiatric patients, forensic psychiatric evaluees and criminal offenders. We found gender differences in antisocial behavior, as defined in factor 2 of the PCL:SV, with female psychopaths (PCL:SV ≥ 18) displaying significantly more lying, deceitfulness and lack of control, while male psychopaths were more antisocial as measured by the PCL:SV. We conclude that it might be meaningful to use gender specific definitions in the assessment of psychopathy or, alternatively, slightly revise the diagnostic tools. Our results support the use of the three-factor model of the PCL-R and PCL:SV introduced by Cooke and Michie (2001) in female populations.

  • 40.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Fransson, G
    Levander, S
    Clinical and risk management facotrs in risk prediction of mentally disordered offenders - More important than historical data?: A retrospective study of 40 mentally disordered offenders assessed with the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme1999In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The predictive validity of the risk prediction instrument HCR-20 was studied. Methods. Two matched groups of discharged forensic psychiatric patients, one who had recidivated into violent criminality and the other not, were assessed with the HCR-20. This was done retrospective and blind to the outcome. Results. The results show an overall high predictive validity (AUC = .80). However, historical data had none, or a low, validity while clinical and risk management data had a very high validity. Conclusions. One of the most interesting findings in this study is that clinical and risk management factors came out as more predictive of future violence than historical factors, which is very much contrary to findings in past research. We think that one has to bear in mind that both clinical and risk management factors are heavily influenced by historical information. Thus, historical data are probably as important as is generally shown in follow-up studies of violence in various offender groups. However, using the HCR-20, which allows systematic and reliable coding of clinical and risk management factors, seems to make it possible to use these factors more successfully than has been hitherto possible.

  • 41.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, P
    Belfrage, Henrik
    The assessment of psychopathy in female offenders: How important is the gendre of the assessor?Manuscript (Other academic)
1 - 41 of 41
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