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  • 1. Carlsson, F.
    et al.
    Vetterli, A.
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    A comparative study including Clamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl. strains SAG 49.72 and UWO 241 focusing on phototaxis.2005In: Proceedings of the 6th European Workshop Biotechnology of Microalgae, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phototaxis is movement induced by light; this phenomenon has been detected in several solitary green algae species and generally works as a balancing force against gravitaxis, creating a system for optimum vertical placing in relation to irradiance, (energy -demands/restrictions). We study phototaxis in the mesophilic green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and C. raudensis SAG 49.72, relative to phototaxis in the from Antarctica newly isolated obligate psychrophilic strain of C. Raudensis (UWO 241) (henceforth called UWO 241). This species has some unusual movement patterns (Pocock et. al 2004) which function is yet to be revealed. Phototactic movement has not earlier been monitored in the normal conditions (high salinity, low temperature) for this strain, though when exposed to extreme temperatures (25C) the organism displays movement patterns interpreted as positive phototaxis. (Pocock et. al 2004). This behaviour should lead to a more rapid destruction of the organism due to the damaging high light (high energy input). The study shows that the three species responds different to light stimuli, when temperature is set to 12 C (culturing temperature) or the respective optimum culture temperatures. Light response curves of phototaxis in the range of 0,5 to 3000 μmol quanta m-2 s-1, shows that C. raudensis SAG 49.72 produce positive phototaxis over the entire range while C. reinhardtii mainly shows negative reactions. UWO 241 seem to be unaffected by irradiance, thus showing only nondirectional behaviour. In a second set of experiments the cells were kept in Petri dishes and exposed to 3000 μmol quanta m-2 s-1 under 40 min, in a temperature range of 5C to 25C for each sample. The results show that C. reinhardtii was negatively phototactic at 5C, switching to positive phototaxis at 25C.

  • 2.
    Falk, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Vetterli, Adrien
    Huner, N.P.A.
    Synergistic effects of salinity and temperature in an extremophilic Antarctic alga (Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO 241). Photosynt. Res. 91: 298-2992007In: Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Photosynthesis, Glasgow, 2007: Published in Photosynthesis Research, vol 91: 298-299, 2007, p. 298-299Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gylle, A. Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nygård, Charlotta A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils G. A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Salinity effect on oxygen evolution and the relative amount of RuBisCO in the brackish Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae)2007In: Pysiological responses of marine and brackish Fucuc vesiculosus L with respect to salinity, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2007, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sublittoral Fucus vesiculosus from the brackish Bothnian Sea is adapted to a salinity of 4-5 practical salinity units (psu). This study investigated the effect of different salinities (5, 10, 20 and 35 psu) on maximum photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) and the relative amount of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The results revealed a higher Pmax at higher salinities with the maximum at 10 psu. Higher salinities also resulted in increased relative amounts of Rubisco but this was not well correlated with the increased Pmax. Therefore, the amount of Rubisco doesn�t appear to be the main reason for the increased Pmax in higher salinities.

  • 4.
    Gylle, A. Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Nygård, Charlotta A
    Svan, I Carina
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ekelund, Nils GA
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Photosynthesis and relative amounts of photosynthetic proteins (D1, PsaA and Rubisco) in marine and brackish water ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans (Phaeophyceae):  Photosynthesis and proteins in FucusManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if the photosynthetic maximum capacity (Pmax) is related to the relative amounts of D1 (PsbA), PsaA proteins and ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (Rubisco) in the marine, Norwegian Sea (34-35 practical salinity units, psu) and the brackish, Bothnian Sea (4-5 psu) ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and in Fucus radicans. The results revealed higher Pmax in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to the brackish Fucus species. The relative amounts of PsaA proteins or D1/PsaA (photosystem II/photosystem I; PSII/PSI) ratio did not indicate any differences between the Fucus strains whereas the relative amount of D1 was higher in the marine F. vesiculosus compared to F. radicans. The PSII/PSI ratios confirm an overweight of PSI in all three Fucus strains. The analyses of the relative amount of Rubisco indicated a greater amount in both ecotypes of F. vesiculosus compared to F. radicans, whereas no differences could be detected between the two ecotypes of F. vesiculosus. Therefore, we suggest that the amount of Rubisco contributed to the differences of Pmax between the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans. The lower Pmax in the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to the marine ecotype however must have another origin and we suggest further investigations of the CO2 fixation rate of Rubisco. The study also included an investigation of the effects of salinity on Pmax and the relative amount of D1, PsaA and Rubisco in the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus. Treatment of the algae for one week in 5, 10, 20 and 35 psu resulted in a higher Pmax at higher salinities and a maximum at 10 psu. These results were not reflected in the amount of D1 or Rubisco whereas analyses of the amount of PsaA revealed the highest amount of PsaA in algae treated in 10 psu. We suggest a need of more ATP by cyclic ATP formation to supply a greater Rubisco activity as an explanation.

     

     

  • 5. Morgan-Kiss, R M
    et al.
    Ivanov, A G
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Krol, M
    Gudynaite-Savitch, L
    Huner, N P A
    The Antarctic psychrophile, Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl (UWO241) (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta), exhibits a limited capacity to photoacclimate to red light2005In: Journal of Phycology, ISSN 0022-3646, E-ISSN 1529-8817, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 791-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychrophilic Antarctic alga, Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl (UWO241), grows under an extreme environment of low temperature and low irradiance of a limited spectral quality (blue-green). We investigated the ability of C. raudensis to acclimate to long-term imbalances in excitation caused by light quality through adjustments in photosystem stoichiometry. Log-phase cultures of C. raudensis and C. reinhardtii grown under white light were shifted to either blue or red light for 12 h. Previously, we reported that C. raudensis lacks the ability to redistribute light energy via the short-term mechanism of state transitions. However, similar to the model of mesophilic alga, C. reinhardtii, the psychrophile retained the capacity for long-term adjustment in energy distribution between PSI and PSII by modulating the levels of PSI reaction center polypeptides, PsaA/PsaB, with minimal changes in the content of the PSII polypeptide, D1, in response to changes in light quality. The functional consequences of the modulation in PSI/PSII stoichiometry in the psychrophile were distinct from those observed in C. reinhardtii. Exposure of C. raudensis to red light caused 1) an inhibition of growth and photosynthetic rates, 2) an increased reduction state of the intersystem plastoquinone pool with concomitant increases in nonphotochemical quenching, 3) an uncoupling of the major light-harvesting complex from the PSII core, and 4) differential thylakoid protein phosphorylation profiles compared with C. reinhardtii. We conclude that the characteristic low levels of PSI relative to PSII set the limit in the capacity of C. raudensis to photoacclimate to an environment enriched in red light.

  • 6.
    Morgan-Kiss, RM
    et al.
    University of Illinois, United States; University of Delaware, United States.
    Priscu, J.C.
    Montana State University, United States.
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gudynaite-Savitch, L
    ECORC, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
    Huner, NPA
    University of Western Ontario, Canada.
    Adaptation and acclimation of photosynthetic microorganisms to permanently cold environments2006In: Microbiology and molecular biology reviews, ISSN 1092-2172, E-ISSN 1098-5557, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 222-252Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistently cold environments constitute one of our worlds largest ecosystems, and microorganisms dominate the biomass and metabolic activity in these extreme environments. The stress of low temperatures on life is exacerbated in organisms that rely on photoautrophic production of organic carbon and energy sources. Phototrophic organisms must coordinate temperature-independent reactions of light absorption and photochemistry with temperature-dependent processes of electron transport and utilization of energy sources through growth and metabolism. Despite this conundrum, phototrophic microorganisms thrive in all cold ecosystems described and (together with chemoautrophs) provide the base of autotrophic production in low-temperature food webs. Psychrophilic (organisms with a requirement for low growth temperatures) and psychrotolerant (organisms tolerant of low growth temperatures) photoautotrophs rely on low-temperature acclimative and adaptive strategies that have been described for other low-temperature-adapted heterotrophic organisms, such as cold-active proteins and maintenance of membrane fluidity. In addition, photoautrophic organisms possess other strategies to balance the absorption of light and the transduction of light energy to stored chemical energy products (NADPH and ATP) with downstream consumption of photosynthetically derived energy products at low temperatures. Lastly, differential adaptive and acclimative mechanisms exist in phototrophic microorganisms residing in low-temperature environments that are exposed to constant low-light environments versus high-light- and high-UV-exposed phototrophic assemblages.

  • 7.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Smart Lighting ERC, Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroy, NY, United States.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Negative Impact on Growth and Photosynthesis in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the Presence of the Estrogen 17alpha-Ethynylestradiol2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e109289-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17alpha-Ethynylestradiol (EE2). Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 microM EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci) with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3-. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water.

  • 8.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Huner, Norman P.A.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Salinity alters stress responses in an Antarctic extremophilic alga.: Aquafluo workshop 20072007Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Koziak, Alexandra
    Rosso, Dominic
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hüner, Norman
    Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl. (UWO241) exhibits the capacity for rapid D1 repair in response to chronic photoinhibition at low temperature2007In: Journal of Phycology, ISSN 0022-3646, E-ISSN 1529-8817, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 924-936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximum photosynthetic capacity indicates that the Antarctic psychrophile Chlamydomonas raudensis H. Ettl UWO 241 is photosynthetically adapted to low temperature. Despite this finding, C. raudensis UWO 241 exhibited greater sensitivity to low-temperature photoinhibition of PSII than the mesophile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. A. Dang. However, in contrast with results for C. reinhardtii, the quantum requirement to induce 50% photoinhibition of PSII in C. raudensis UWO 241 (50 μmol photons) was comparable at either 8°C or 29°C. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a photoautotroph whose susceptibility to photoinhibition is temperature independent. In contrast, the capacity of the psychrophile to recover from photoinhibition of PSII was sensitive to temperature and inhibited at 29°C. The maximum rate of recovery from photoinhibition of the psychrophile at 8°C was comparable to the maximum rate of recovery of the mesophile at 29°C. We provide evidence that photoinhibition in C. raudensis UWO 241 is chronic rather than dynamic. The photoinhibition-induced decrease in the D1 content in C. raudensis recovered within 30 min at 8°C. Both the recovery of the D1 content as well as the initial fast phase of the recovery of Fv/Fm at 8°C were inhibited by lincomycin, a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor. We conclude that the susceptibility of C. raudensis UWO 241 to low-temperature photoinhibition reflects its adaptation to low growth irradiance, whereas the unusually rapid rate of recovery at low temperature exhibited by this psychrophile is due to a novel D1 repair cycle that is adapted to and is maximally operative at low temperature.

  • 10.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Rosso, D
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hunter, NPA
    Recovery from photoinhibition in the low-light adapted psychrophilic green alga, Chlamydomonas raudensis (UWO 241).: 13th International Congress of Photosynthesis2004Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 11.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Rosso, Dominic
    Koziak, A
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Huner, N P A
    Recovery from photoinhibition in the low light-adapted psychrophilic green alga Chlamydomonas raudensis (UWO 241).2004In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental Aspects to Global Perspectives.: Proceedings from the 13th International Congress on Photosynthesis., 2004, p. 525-527Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sane, P.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Huner, N. P. A.
    Excitation pressure regulates the activation energy for recombination events in the photosystem II reaction centres of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2007In: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0829-8211, E-ISSN 1208-6002, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 721-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using in vivo thermoluminescence, we examined the effects of growth irradiance and growth temperature on charge recombination events in photosystem IT reaction centres of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We report that growth at increasing irradiance at either 29 or 15 degrees C resulted in comparable downward shifts in the temperature peak maxima (T-M) for S(2)Q(B)(-) charge pair recombination events, with minimal changes in S(2)Q(A)(-) recombination events. This indicates that such growth conditions decrease the activation energy required for S(2)QB(-) charge pair recombination events with no concomitant change in the activation energy for S(2)Q(A)(-) recombination events. This resulted in a decrease in the Delta T-M between S(2)Q(A)(-) and S(2)Q(B)(-) recombination events, which was reversible when shifting cells from low to high irradiance and back to low irradiance at 29 degrees C. We interpret these results to indicate that the redox potential of Q(B) was modulated independently of Q(A), which consequently narrowed the redox potential gap between Q(A) and Q(B) in photosystem II reaction centres. Since a decrease in the Delta T-M between S(2)Q(A)(-) and S(2)Q(B)(-) recombination events correlated with growth at increasing excitation pressure, we conclude that acclimation to growth under high excitation pressure narrows the redox potential gap between Q(A) and Q(B) in photosystem 11 reaction centres, enhancing the probability for reaction center quenching in C. reinhardtii. We discuss the molecular basis for the modulation of the redox state of Q(B), and suggest that the potential for reaction center quenching complements antenna quenching via the xanthophyll cycle in the photoprotection of C. reinhardtii from excess light.

  • 13.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Vetterli, A
    Huner, NPA
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Changes in salinity impact growth, photochemistry and photoinhibition in the Antarctic Psychrophile C. Raudensis2006In: International conference on alpine and polar microbiology, Insbruck Austria 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Vetterli, A.
    Huner, N.P.A.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Changes in salinity impacts growth, photochemistry and photoinhibition in the Antarctic psychrophile Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO 241.2005In: ICPEP-3: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution. Lucknow, India. Nov 28-Dec 2, 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 15.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Vetterli, Adrien
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Evidence for phenotypic plasticity in the Antarctic extremophile Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl. UWO 2412011In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 1169-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life in extreme environments poses unique challenges to photosynthetic organisms. The ability for an extremophilic green alga and its genetic and mesophilic equivalent to acclimate to changes in their environment was examined to determine the extent of their phenotypic plasticities. The Antarctic extremophile Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl. UWO 241 (UWO) was isolated from an ice-covered lake in Antarctica, whereas its mesophilic counterpart C. raudensis Ettl. SAG 49.72 (SAG) was isolated from a meadow pool in the Czech Republic. The effects of changes in temperature and salinity on growth, morphology, and photochemistry were examined in the two strains. Differential acclimative responses were observed in UWO which include a wider salinity range for growth, and broader temperature- and salt-induced fluctuations in Fv/Fm, relative to SAG. Furthermore, the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, measured as 1–qP, was modulated in the extremophile whereas this was not observed in the mesophile. Interestingly, it is shown for the first time that SAG is similar to UWO in that it is unable to undergo state transitions. The different natural histories of these two strains exert different evolutionary pressures and, consequently, different abilities for acclimation, an important component of phenotypic plasticity. In contrast to SAG, UWO relied on a redox sensing and signalling system under the growth conditions used in this study. It is proposed that growth and adaptation of UWO under a stressful and extreme environment poises this extremophile for better success under changing environmental conditions.

  • 16. Vetterli, A
    et al.
    Carlsson, F
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The effect of salinity on the growth and photosynthesis of a novel psychrophilic and halotolerant Chlamydomonas species from Antarctica2005In: Proceedings. 6th European Workshop Biotechnology of Microalgae, 2005Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of salt on the green alga Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl (UWO241) was investigated. This physchrophilic alga was discovered in a permanently ice-covered lake in Antarctica in the beginning of the 90's and was then classified as Chlamydomonas subcaudata. A phylogenetic study by Pocock et al. (2004) revealed that this alga was in fact a C.raudensis species. The latter type species was first discovered in an alpine meadow in Czech republic and kept in the SAG culture collection as strain number 49.72. The aim of this study was to use the potential high sensitivity of the extremophile to understand the effect of salinity on photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the oceans, where microalgae play a key role in the carbon cycle on earth. It has to be determined if global warming, which is leading to the melting of the north ice cap and thus to the dilution of the North Atlantic ocean will have a negative impact on algal populations. This study lays the foundations for a larger study, which focuses on the compounds released by these green algae that could potentially counteract the greenhouse effect by increasing the albedo on earth. The study includes a comparison of C. raudensis UWO241 (psychrophilic strain) with C. raudensis SAG 49.72 (mesophilic strain) and the model organism C.reinhardtii, (mesophile). Also none of the latter two are known to be halotolerant. The growth kinetics of the three species has been investigated at different salinities ranging from 2 µM to 200 mM NaCl and between 24°C and 28°C for the mesophiles and from 2 µM to 850 mM at 8°C for the psychrophile. All algae were grown under 20 μmol quanta m-2 s-1 irradiance. Furthermore, chlorophyll a fluorescence was used to determine the stress level caused by the salt on the three species.

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