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  • 1.
    Dimitrova, Daniela V.
    et al.
    Iowa State University.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The Effects of Digital Media on Political Knowledge and Participation in Election Campaigns: Evidence from Panel Data2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Dimnitrova, Daniela
    et al.
    Iowa State Univ, Greenlee Sch Journalism & Commun, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    The Effects of Digital Media on Political Knowledge and Participation in Election Campaigns: Evidence from Panel Data2014In: Communication Research, ISSN 0093-6502, E-ISSN 1552-3810, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 95-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the majority of previous research suggests there are positive relationships between digital media use and political participation and knowledge, most studies have relied on cross-sectional surveys and have thus not been able to firmly establish the chain of causality. Also, there is little research investigating use of different forms of digital media and their relative effects on political participation and knowledge. This study examines (a) the effects of digital media use on political participation and knowledge and (b) whether different forms of digital media use affect people differently. Drawing on two representative panel surveys, the study demonstrates that there are only weak effects of digital media use on political learning, but that the use of some digital media forms has appreciable effects on political participation.

  • 3.
    Ekström, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Olsson, Tobias
    Department of Communication and Media, Lund University, Lund 221 00, Sweden .
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Spaces for public orientation?: Longitudinal effects of Internet use in adolescence2014In: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1369-118X, E-ISSN 1468-4462, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 168-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article departs from an overarching research question: How does young people's engagement in different Internet spaces affect the development of their public orientation during adolescence? It analyses longitudinal panel data in order to explore how young people's public orientation develops during a phase in life (13-20) which is critical for political socialization. Data are derived from three waves of data collection among young people who were 13-17 years old at the time for the first data collection. The concept public orientation is measured by three indicators: young people's values, interests and everyday peer talk. These indicators are analysed with reference to respondents' Internet orientations, which we conceptualize as four separate but inter-related spaces (a news space, a space for social interaction, a game space and a creative space). The results primarily emphasize the importance of orientations towards news space and space for social interaction. Overall, the findings strongly suggest that orientations towards these spaces are related to adolescents' public orientation. The findings confirm the centrality of news and information in political socialization, but they also challenge the idea that social media facilities - such as Facebook, Twitter and blogging - enable forms of social interaction and creative production that have an overall positive impact on young people's public orientation.

  • 4.
    Ekström, Mats
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Olsson, Tobias
    Lunds Universitet.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Spaces for public orientation?: Longitudinal effects of internet use in adolescence2014In: The Networked Young Citizen: Social Media, Political Participation and Civic Engagement / [ed] Loader, B.D., Vromen, A., Xenos, M.A, Taylor & Francis, 2014, p. 39-59Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Falasca, Kajsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Priming Effects During the Financial Crisis: Accessibility and applicability mechanisms behind government approval2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates priming effects during the global financial crisis that erupted in September 2008. Using two longitudinal data sources on public opinion dynamics in Sweden between 2007 and 2010, we find no evidence of a basic priming hypothesis. Despite a substantial increase in negative media coverage of the economy and a clear growth in public concern, citizens did not attach greater weight to economic considerations in their government approval assessments following the outbreak of the economic crisis. Drawing upon the distinction between accessibility and applicability mechanisms, however, additional analysis shows that priming of economic considerations was moderated by citizens' attributions of responsibility for current economic developments. Citizens who primarily considered the ups and downs of the Swedish economy as being a result of the financial crisis were substantially less inclined to let their economic perceptions influence government approval than those who viewed economic developments as caused by government action. These results support the notion of priming as a two-step process, whereby heavy news coverage of the financial crisis increases the accessibility of economic considerations among the audience, but whether these considerations are used in government approval assessments depends on their perceived applicability as well.

  • 6.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Age and the effects of news media attention and social media use on political interest and participation: Do social media function as leveller?2013In: European Journal of Communication, ISSN 0267-3231, E-ISSN 1460-3705, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how media use differs across age groups- and whether this matters for people's inclination to participate politically. More specifically, the study investigates the impact of social media use for political purposes and of attention to political news in traditional media, on political interest and offline political participation. The findings, based on a four-wave panel study conducted during the 2010 Swedish national election campaign, show (1) clear differences in media use between age groups and (2) that both political social media use and attention to political news in traditional media increase political engagement over time. Thus, this study suggests that frequent social media use among young citizens can function as a leveller in terms of motivating political participation.

  • 7.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Social Media as Leveller?: Effects of Traditional News Media Attention and Social Media Use on Political Participation Among Younger and Older Citizens2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how media use among young citizens differs from older generations, and whether this matters for their inclination to participate politically. More specifically, this study investigates the causal impact of social media use and attention to political news in traditional media, on political interest and offline political participation. The findings, based on a four-wave panel study conducted during the 2010 Swedish national election campaign, show a) clear differences in media use between age groups, and b) that both political social media use and attention to political news in traditional media increase political engagement. The results also indicate that both types of media use have a causal impact on political interest and offline participation. Thus, this study suggests that frequent social media use among young citizens can function as a leveller in terms of motivating political participation.

  • 8.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Political Motivation and Participation: Social Media as Leveler?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hopmann, David Nicolas
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Revisiting the Contagious Cynicism Hypothesis: How Game-Framed News and Perceptions of Bias Influence Media Trust2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Nicolas Hopmann, David
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The Contingencies of Ordinary Citizen Appearances in Political Television News2011In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 657-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While few would deny the crucial role of citizens in democratic governance, there are still only a few studies that focus on ordinary citizens’ inclusion in political news coverage. First, we present a number of factors conditioning ordinary citizens’ appearances in the news. Second, based on the discussion of these factors, we formulate a number of research questions. After conducting an extensive content analysis covering almost 6000 actors appearing in political news coverage in the two major Danish broadcasters, DR1 and TV2, between 1994 and 2007, we find that ordinary citizens appear more often in reports on intrusive issues such as welfare, that they appear more often in news items positioned later in the news bulletins, that they, largely speaking, appear more often closer to election day, but that there are almost no differences between commercial and public service broadcasting. These findings are discussed in the light of past research on media source use and the ongoing changing foundations of political communication.

  • 11.
    Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Finanskrisen, förväntningarna och förtroendet2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna avslutande rapport kring finanskrisen hösten 2008 är att diskutera kriskommunikationens villkor och opinionsbildningens dynamik genom att analysera det kommunikativa samspelet mellan politiker och myndighetsaktörer, nyhetsrapporteringen i de traditionella massmedierna och medborgarna. Vidare analyseras huruvida detta kommunikativa samspel påverkat opinionen och allmänhetens förtroende för aktörerna. Slutligen jämförs det kriskommunikativa samspelet under finanskrisen med motsvarande skeende under tsunamikatastrofen 2004/2005 och svininfluensan 2009.Analysen av finanskrisen visar att medierna vid detta tillfälle hade en tydlig roll som katalysator i det kommunikativa samspelet. Det var förstås inte medierna som skapade den finansiella krisen, men de tog ett viktigt kommunikativt initiativ och uppmärksammade krisen nyhetsmässigt i stor omfattning. Opinionsmässigt bidrog medierna till att skapa en bild av finanskrisen som det var mycket svårt för andra samhällsaktörer att inte förhålla sig till. Flera faktorer bidrog till att bilden av regeringen i medierna – mot alla odds – kunde bli så fördelaktig under finanskrisen. Här förtjänar att påpekas att frånvaron av en stark politisk opposition i Sverige hösten 2008 sannolikt spelade roll i sammanhanget. Det var nämligen ont om sådana kontrasterande och konkurrerande krisuppfattningar i det svenska samhället som medierna vanligen gärna återger för att åstadkomma en allsidig rapportering. Finanskrisen beskrevs överlag på ett entydigt sätt: det rörde sig här om en händelse som inträffat i omvärlden och där ansvaret framförallt fanns utanför landets gränser.Regeringen accepterade den bild av krisen som förmedlades i medierna, och anpassade sitt eget budskap till denna bild. Det skapades en överensstämmelse mellan den rådande mediebilden och regeringens egen fortsatta kommunikation om finanskrisen. Utifrån denna grundläggande problembeskrivning vidtog sedan regeringen olika åtgärder som bekräftade den allvarliga situationen, men också pekade på att den svenska ekonomin var i god ordning och att den svenska regeringen var beredd att möta de utmaningar som den nya situationen krävde. Allt detta bidrog i sin tur till att allmänhetens förväntningar i samband med finanskrisen får betraktas som låga. När regeringen i detta läge kunde framstå som handlingskraftig – och när medierna inte heller hade andra aktörers alternativa tolkningar att återge – är det måhända inte särskilt överraskande att regeringens krishantering uppfattades övervägande positivt av den svenska allmänheten, och att förtroendet för den inte heller påverkades negativt av krisen.

  • 12.
    Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Från osäker källa: bevakningen av Irakkriget i svenska medier2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport granskas hur de ledande svenska nyhetsmedierna i tv och press

    bevakade och beskrev Irakkriget under de första fem dagarna (inledningsskedet) och

    de sista fem dagarna före Bagdads fall (avslutningsskedet). Granskningen tar särskilt

    upp vilka källor som kommer till tals, öppet eller anonymt, vilka tematiska perspektiv

    på kriget som dominerar och vilka aktörer som skildras. Särskilt intresse ägnas avvägningen

    mellan fakta och spekulationer inom olika tematiska områden.

    Studien anknyter teoretiskt och metodologiskt till en tidigare studie om terrorattackerna

    den 11 september 2001 och kriget i Afghanistan 2002 (”Tio dagar som

    skakade världen”, Nord & Strömbäck 2002).

  • 13.
    Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Metodfrågor kring studier av medieeffekter och medborgaropinion2006Report (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Active or Passive Learning From Television?: Political Information Opportunities and Knowledge Gaps During Election Campaigns2013In: Journal of Elections, Public Opinion, and Parties, ISSN 1745-7289, E-ISSN 1745-7297, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 200-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how television, by providing various news and special election programs, influenced the development of knowledge gaps during the 2010 Swedish national election campaign. By contrasting two competing claims on the knowledge-leveling role of television in today's high-choice media environment, the article further analyzes mechanisms of active and passive learning from television. Analysis of panel survey data shows that television functioned as a knowledge-leveler by narrowing gaps in knowledge over the course of the campaign. Additionally, the findings provide evidence of passive forms of learning as the key explanation as to why television news and special election programs narrow gaps in knowledge. The results are discussed in light of ongoing media market changes as well as recent longitudinal and cross-national studies on political information environments.

  • 15.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Facing the Muhammad Cartoons: Official Dominance and Event-Driven News in Swedish and American Elite Press2007In: Harvard Internation Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1081-180X, E-ISSN 1531-328X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 131-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research has shown that official actors have an advantagewhen it comes to accessing and framing political issues in thenews media. This study examines the dynamics of official dominanceand event-driven news from a comparative perspective, focusingon the Muhammad cartoons controversy. A model of official dominanceand event-driven news, taking media system factors into account,is developed and tested using a quantitative and qualitativeresearch design. The results show that an intolerance framedominated over a freedom-of-speech frame in both the Swedishand the American elite press. Furthermore, although dramaticevents opened windows of opportunity for unofficial actors,the consequences of intensified coverage for the ratio betweenunofficial and official voices were more profound in the UnitedStates. Finally, there is some evidence of more active journalisticframing in the Swedish papers.

  • 16.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Finanskrisen och förtroendet: Svensk medborgaropinion under finanskrisen hösten 20082012Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Game Frames, Issue Frames, and Mobilization: Disentangling the Effects of Frame Exposure and Motivated News Attention on Political Cynicism and Engagement2014In: International journal of public opinion research, ISSN 0954-2892, E-ISSN 1471-6909, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 157-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study combines a media content analysis (N = 1158) and panel survey data (N = 1612) conducted during the Swedish 2010 national election campaign, to analyze the effects of both game-framed and issue-framed news on political cynicism, institutional trust, and political interest. The findings show that news framing matters. Whereas game-framed news increases cynicism and depresses interest, issue-framed news has mobilizing effects. Furthermore, by conceptually and empirically distinguishing frame exposure from motivated news attention as two different modes of news media use, the results show that the effects of exposure to game-framed and issue-framed news are distinct from motivated news attention. These findings suggest two different mechanisms behind media effects and shine new light on the spiral of cynicism-virtuous circle controversy.

  • 18.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hotbilder: en studie av Muhammedkarikatyrerna i svensk ochamerikansk storstadspress2008Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kausal analys med paneldata2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Learning From Television: A Panel Study of Knowledge Gaps During the 2010 Swedish Election Campaign2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Marking Journalistic Independence: Official Dominance and the Rule of Product Substitution in Swedish Press Coverage2009In: International Communication Association, Chicago 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Independence and autonomy from political power are core values among professional journalists in most western societies. At the same time, research has shown that news media organizations are highly dependent on official political actors for the construction of news. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of official dominance and manifestations of news media independence in routine political press coverage in Sweden. Building upon three related theories of news media behavior – the indexing hypotheses, the dynamics of event-driven news, and the rule of product substitution – a set of hypotheses is derived and tested using a content analysis of 835 news stories published in Dagens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet during a 15-week period in 2008. While official actors dominate news coverage both in terms of source use and story initiation, evidence for a rule of product substitution is found.

  • 22.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Marking Journalistic Independence: Official Dominance and the Rule of Product Substitution in Swedish Press Coverage2010In: European Journal of Communication, ISSN 0267-3231, E-ISSN 1460-3705, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 123-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Independence and autonomy from political power are core values among professional journalists in most western societies. At the same time, research has shown that news media organizations are highly dependent on official political actors for the construction of news. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of official dominance and manifestations of news media independence in routine political press coverage in Sweden. Building upon three related theories of news media behavior – the indexing hypotheses, the dynamics of event-driven news, and the rule of product substitution – a set of hypotheses is derived and tested using a content analysis of 835 news stories published in Dagens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet during a 15-week period in 2008. While official actors dominate news coverage both in terms of source use and story initiation, evidence for a rule of product substitution is found.

  • 23.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Media Matter: The Political Influences of the News Media2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Medierna och makten över publiken2012In: Medierna och demokratin, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 2, p. 317-344Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Minding the Gap: A Comparative Study of News Media Use and Political Participation in Europe2011In: 61st Annual International Communication Association Conference, Boston, May 26-30, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pathways to Politics: How Media System Characteristics Can Influence Socioeconomic Gaps in Political Participation2010In: Harvard Internation Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1081-180X, E-ISSN 1531-328X, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 295-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses a key democratic question that has not beenfully answered by political communication research: How do the news media influence gaps in participation between socioeconomic groups? The main purpose is to develop and propose an institutional framework for analyzing how the news media influence participation gaps in different countries. It is argued that past research on media malaise and mobilization effects has not paid attention to the joint influence of two media system characteristics:(1) the strength of media institutions with respect to influencingpolitical participation and (2) the distinctiveness of their population base. European Social Survey data from four democratic corporatist countries is used to analyze both these dimensions of the institutional framework. The results indicate that newspapers and television news might have different influences on participation gaps in these countries, and the findings are discussed in light ofthe specific media system characteristics of democratic corporatist countries. Finally, some suggestions for future cross-national comparative research based on the proposed institutional framework are discussed.

  • 27.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unemployment on the Agenda: A Panel Study of Agenda Setting Effects During the 2006 Swedish National Election Campaign2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unemployment on the Agenda: A Panel Study of Agenda Setting Effects during the 2006 Swedish National Election Campaign2010In: Journal of Communication, ISSN 0021-9916, E-ISSN 1460-2466, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 182-U264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of unemployment and job creation dominated news coverage during the 2006 Swedish National Election campaign. At the same time, the percentage of people naming unemployment as the most important political issue increased by 17 percent during the campaign. The purpose of this study is to analyze individual level agenda setting effects in the 2006 Swedish National Election campaign. Apart from being one of the first agenda setting studies conducted in Sweden, this study builds upon a panel survey with 1,007 respondents, which makes it possible to impose stricter control of the causal relationship between the media and public agendas. The overall findings show that agenda setting effects were indeed present. Furthermore, attention to political news had stronger effects among people with low political interest compared to those who were highly interested. Education was not a contingent factor, though.

  • 29.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Falasca, Kajsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Priming effects during the financial crisis: accessibility and applicability mechanisms behind government approval2014In: European Political Science Review, ISSN 1755-7739, E-ISSN 1755-7747, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 597-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates priming effects during the global financial crisis that erupted in September 2008. Using two longitudinal data sources on public opinion dynamics in Sweden between 2007 and 2010, we find no evidence of a basic priming hypothesis. Drawing upon the distinction between accessibility and applicability mechanisms, however, additional analysis indicates that priming of economic considerations was moderated by citizens’ attributions of responsibility for current economic developments. These results support the notion of priming as a two-step process, whereby heavy news coverage of the

    financial crisis increases the accessibility of economic considerations among the audience, but whether these considerations are used in government approval assessments depends on their perceived applicability as well.

  • 30.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hopmann, D
    Centre for Journalism, Department of Political Science, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark .
    Framing climate change: A study of US and Swedish press coverage of global warming2012In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 175-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative study investigates news coverage of climate change in the United States and Sweden. The main research question concerns the extent to which news coverage of climate change is influenced by domestic political elite discussion or the scientific consensus surrounding the issue. While there has been a widespread consensus in Sweden that climate change is (partly) caused by human activity and that there is an unquestionable need to take countermeasures, there has been substantial debate about the causes and the necessity of political action in the United States. Based on an extensive content analysis of 1785 articles over a 10-year period, as well as an intensive analysis of news coverage of the Kyoto and Bali summits, results show that media coverage is strikingly similar in these two countries, indicating a weak influence of national political elites on how climate change is framed in news coverage. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 31.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Hopmann, David N.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Public Broadcasting, Inadvertent News Exposure and Political Learning: An Empirical Test Using Panel Data2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study puts the role for political learning of public service broadcasting to a thorough empirical test.Previous research has found that public service-oriented media systems promote a better-informed citizenry andnarrow knowledge gaps between citizens. This research was based on cross-sectional aggregate measures of mediacontent and/or survey data, however. To investigate how public service television influences political learning amongless interested and motivated citizens, we use a unique four-wave panel survey. These data enable a close analysis ofknowledge gains as a consequence of media exposure throughout an election campaign (N=4,010). We find thatcitizens with a weak relative political interest – i.e. who prefer entertainment over politics – learn substantially aboutpolitics and current affairs from watching public service television channels. The implications of our findings for thefunctioning of democratic systems and the role played by the media are discussed.

  • 32.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hopmann, David Nicolas
    A Changing (Political) Climate?: A Comparative Study of News Coverage of Global Warming in Swedish and U.S. Press2010In: European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA) conference, Hamburg 2010., 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hopmann, David Nicolas
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Mr and Mrs Smith as Sources: From Elite Focus to Ordinary People in Political News Reporting?2010In: Midwest Political Science Association (MPSA) annual conference, Chicago 2010, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hopmann, David Nicolas
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The Influence of Television News on Political Learning: How European Public Service Broadcasting Still Captures Inadvertent Audiences2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nicolas Hopmann, David
    University of Southern Denmark.
    A Changing (Political) Climate?: A Comparative Study of News Coverage of Global Warming in Swedish and U.S. Press2011In: 61st Annual International Communication Association Conference, Boston, May 26-30, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Minding the Gap: A Comparative Study of News Media Use and Political Participation in Europe2010In: European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA) conference, Hamburg 2010., 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    What is Public Good in Public Television?: A Cross-National Analysis of Public Broadcasting Characteristics and Television News Consumption in 16 European Countries2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Matter of Context: A Comparative Study of Media Environments and News Consumption Gaps in Europe2011In: Political Communication, ISSN 1058-4609, E-ISSN 1091-7675, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 110-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that individual-level characteristics such as socioeconomic status and political interest are becoming more important as predictors of news consumption in a rapidly changing media environment. Despite this general trend, this article argues that the importance of individual-level predictors of news consumption varies between national media environments. We use extensive survey data from 16 European countries and multilevel modeling in order to investigate both contextual-level as well as cross-level effects on news consumption.

    The results show that media environment characteristics have additional effects on news consumption beyond the effects of individual-level characteristics such as education and political interest, but also moderating impacts on these individual-level predictors of news consumption. More specifically, national media environments characterized by higher levels of newspaper-centrism are related to smaller gaps in newspaper reading between those with high and low levels of education and political interest. Lower degrees of newspaper-centrism is, on the other hand, related to a weaker “lower class bias” of television news and larger gaps in news consumption between those with and without high political interest. These findings are discussed in light of previous research on news consumption, knowledge- and participation gaps as well as cross-national comparative research.

  • 39.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Mediated Citizenship: Exploring the Linkages Between News Consumption and Media Environments2009In: Mediated Citizenship: Political Information and Participation in Europe, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that individual-level characteristics such as socioeconomic status and personal motivations have become more important as predictors of news consumption in a rapidly changing media environment. Despite this general trend, this article argues that the importance of individual-level predictors of news consumption varies between national media environments. We use extensive survey data from 16 European countries and multilevel modeling in order to investigate both contextual-level as well as cross-level effects on news consumption.

    The results show that media environment characteristics have independent effects on news consumption beyond the effects of personal resources and motivations, but also a moderating impact on these individual-level predictors of news consumption. More specifically, national media environments characterized by higher levels of newspaper-centrism narrow gaps in newspaper reading between those with strong and weak socioeconomic resources as well as personal motivations for attending the news. Higher degrees of television-centrism tend, on the other hand, to erode the “lower class bias” of television news and widen the gap in news consumption between those with and without strong personal motivations. These findings are discussed in light of previous research on news consumption, knowledge- and participation gaps as well as cross-national comparative research.

  • 40.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Media Malaise or a Virtuous Circle?: Exploring the Causal Relationships Between News Media Exposure, Political News Attention and Political Interest2010In: European Journal of Political Research, ISSN 0304-4130, E-ISSN 1475-6765, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 575-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being politically interested is one of the most important norms from a democratic perspective, as it is a crucial antecedent for voting, political knowledge, civic and political participation, and attentiveness to political information. However, only limited research has focused on the relationship between media use and political interest, despite the notion that modern politics is mediated politics. Even more important is the fact that the causal relationship between media use and political interest still has not been firmly established. Against this background, the purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between news media use and political interest.The results show that there are indeed causal and reciprocal relationships between political interest and attention to political news, and between political interest and exposure to some, but not all, news media. Overall these results lend stronger support to the perspective of media mobilisation theories than media malaise theories.

  • 41.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Mediation of Political Realities: Media as Crucial Sources of Information2014In: Mediatization of Politics: Understanding the Transformation of Western Democracies / [ed] Frank Esser & Jesper Strömbäck, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 1, p. 93-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Medieeffekter under svenska valrörelser2013In: Kampen om opinionen: Politisk kommunikation under svenska valrörelser / [ed] Strömbäck, Jesper & Nord, Lars, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, 1, p. 239-269Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Not (Yet) a New Era of Minimal Effects: A Study of Agenda Setting at the Aggregate and Individual Levels2013In: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 234-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, profound media environmental changes have sparked a controversy regarding whether we are entering a new era of minimal effects. Focusing on one of the most important media effect theories, agenda setting, this study combines a panel survey and a media content analysis to test three claims derived from the new era of minimal effects discussion: (1) that recent media environmental changes have reduced the agenda setting influence of traditional news media to non-significance, (2) that increased opportunities for media choice have made partisan selective exposure the key mechanism behind media effects, and (3) that the availability of alternative online news sources reduces susceptibility to agenda setting effects from the traditional news media. Among other things, the results show that traditional news media still exert agenda-setting influence on both the aggregate and individual levels, but that these effects are weakened by use of multiple online news media. Overall, the results suggest that a generalized “we” have not (yet) entered a new era of minimal effects, and that certain media system characteristics are likely to condition the pace of any potential transition to a new minimal effects era.

  • 44.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    van Aelst, Peter
    Universiteit Leiden.
    van Dalen, Arjen
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Members of Parliament, Equal Competitors for Media Attention?: An Analysis of Personal Contacts Between MPs and Political Journalists in Five Countries.2009In: International Communication Association, Chicago 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    van Aelst, Peter
    Universiteit Leiden.
    van Dalen, Arjen
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Members of Parliament, Equal Competitors for Media Attention?: An Analysis of Personal Contacts Between MPs and Political Journalists in Five Countries.2010In: Political Communication, ISSN 1058-4609, E-ISSN 1091-7675, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 310-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power relations between politicians and journalists are often depicted as an ongoing tango with one actor leading the other. This study analyzes interactions between politicians and journalists not by posing the question of who leads whom, but rather by investigating which politicians are invited to dance in the first place, and which are better positioned to take the lead. Building upon theories and past research into press-government relations, comparative politics, and an economic perspective on journalist-source relations, three groups of hypotheses on a personal, party, and political system level are derived and tested using a unique survey with members of parliament (MPs) in five democratic corporatist countries (Belgium, The Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark). The results display a similar pattern in all five countries where parliamentary experience and institutional position increase the frequency of contacts that MPs have with journalists. While these party variables have a more modest influence on the frequency of contacts, it is also shown that there are clear differences between countries attributed to parliament size in general and higher inter-MP competition in particular.

  • 46.
    Shehata, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wadbring, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Allt fler står utanför nyhetsvärlden2012In: I framtidens skugga / [ed] Oscarsson, Henrik; Weibull, Lennart & Bergström, Annika, Göteborg: SOM-institutet , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Shehata, Adam
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The Changing Dynamics of News Media Consumption and Political Distrust: A Longitudinal Analysis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The Dynamics of Political Interest and News Media Consumption: A Longitudinal Perspective2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    The Dynamics of Political Interest and News Media Consumption: A Longitudinal Perspective2013In: International journal of public opinion research, ISSN 0954-2892, E-ISSN 1471-6909, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 415-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study investigates whether the impact of political interest—a key motivational factor behind news consumption—on various forms of news consumption has increased over time. The analysis is based on a unique large-scale representative annual survey conducted in Sweden over the years 1986–2010, enabling a comprehensive analysis of citizens' total and specific news consumption across multiple channels and platforms. Results show that news consumption has become more polarized between news-seekers and news-avoiders over time, and that political interest has become a more important determinant of news consumption in today's high-choice media environment.

  • 50.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Swedish Journalists: Between Professionalization and Commercialization2012In: The Global Journalist in the 21st Century / [ed] David H. Weaver & Lars Willnat, New York: Routledge, 2012, p. 306-319Chapter in book (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 57
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