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  • 1.
    Anttila, Sten
    et al.
    SBU.
    Barnett, Tony
    Benjaminsen, Lars
    SFI, Danmark.
    Blid, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Brolund, Agneta
    SBU.
    Brännström, Lars
    Jung, Siri
    Marsh, Kevin
    Reilly, Siobhan
    Housing programs and case management for reducing homelessness and increasing residential stability for homeless peopleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 25) states that everyone has a right to housing. Yet according to the UNHCR there are approximately 100 million homeless people worldwide. Homelessness has many negative detrimental consequences on an individual as well as on a societal level. The condition of homeless seriously affects well-being and health in general and may contribute to mental illness in particular. Once homeless, people tend to be deprived of economic, social and psychological resources that are necessary in order to get a new accommodation. If this happens the resources of some clients may be too poor and few to prevent future evictions.

    Case management is a collaborative process, including assessment, planning, facilitation and advocacy for options and services, intended to make sure that the client’s needs are met. Intensive case management, including assertive community treatment, is intended to ensure that the client receives sufficient services, support and treatment when and where it is needed. In this way intensive case management (case load <1:15, 24-7 availability, and the combined competence of a multidisciplinary team), may help homeless people to obtain accommodation, and once housed avoid eviction.

    Housing programs are more or less based on housing philosophies. According to one philosophy stable and independent housing is needed for the client to become treatment ready. Housing should neither be contingent on sobriety nor on treatment compliance, but only on rules that apply for ordinary tenants. In other words housing is parallel to and not integrated with treatment, or with other services. An alternative philosophy is based on the assumption that some clients (possibly those with a bio-chemical dependence on drugs) may need a transitional period of sobriety and treatment compliance, before they can live independently in their own apartments. Without this transitional phase the assumption is that they will soon face eviction, and return to homelessness. According to this philosophy housing is integrated with treatment. By combining housing and case management within the framework of a comprehensive program, the work to find accommodation and to prevent eviction is assumed to be facilitated.

    The objective was to assess the effectiveness of 9 possible combinations of housing programs and case management as means to increase residential stability and reduce homelessness. The possible combinations were based on three housing alternatives and three case management alternatives which entails 36 possible comparisons:

    • Housing parallel to treatment, housing integrated with treatment, and no housing
    • Intensive of case management (ICM and ACT), ordinary case management, and no case management.

    Electronic databases were searched by means of terms referring to population, intervention, and design (Campbell Library, Cochrane Library (including CENTRAL), PubMed, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, ASSIA, CINAHL, ERIC, and Dissertation Abstracts International). Reference lists were hand searched, and international experts were contacted. 

    For a study to be included the following criteria had to be met:

    • Population: homeless or at risk of becoming homeless
    • Intervention: housing programs with case management, housing programs without case management, or case management without a housing program
    • Comparison: any of the alternative interventions above, plus usual care, waiting lists, or no intervention
    • Outcome: residential stability or homelessness
    • Design: randomized controlled trials or observational studies (with comparison groups matched at baseline or on propensity scores)

    Pairs of reviewers independently screened abstracts, and read full text documents. Data was extracted and coded by two reviewers. Two reviewers also assessed risks of bias for each study and their outcomes. In several cases data had to be recalculated in order to fit the format necessary for meta-analysis based on Review Manager.

    After screening 1, 764 abstracts and assessing 276 documents in full text, 32 unique studies were included (26 randomized controlled trials and 6 observational studies) in this review. All studies were from the USA except three, which were undertaken in the UK (two randomized controlled trials and one observational study). The number of included studies is thus relatively high, but the body of evidence is poor, as most studies are characterized by high risk of aggregated bias (11 studies) or moderate risk of aggregated bias (15 studies and 19 comparisons). Only 6 studies were classified as having low aggregated risk of bias. In addition, most studies are rather old. The median publication year is 1998. There are 16 studies published between 2000 and 2010 (11 randomized trials and five observational studies). Since 2005 only five included studies were published (three randomized trials and two observational studies). The results can be summarized in seven points:

    a)     Housing parallel to treatment is not superior to housing integrated with treatment or vice versa.

    b)     Empirical results indicate that parallel housing as such is superior to no housing.

    c)     There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that integrated housing as such is superior to no housing.

    d)     Empirical results indicate that intensive case management as such (ACT and ICM) is superior to usual care (such as drop in centers, outpatient treatment, ordinary after care, etc.).

    e)     Empirical results indicate that parallel housing in combination with intensive case management (ACT and ICM) is superior to usual care (such as drop in centers, outpatient treatment, ordinary after care, etc.).

    f)There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that integrated housing in combination with intensive case management (ACT and ICM) is superior to usual care (such as drop in centers, outpatient treatment, ordinary after care, etc.) 

    Conclusion: 

    Parallel housing, in combination with intensive case management (ICM and ACT), improves housing outcomes in comparison to usual care (outpatient treatment, drop in centers, ordinary after care, brokered case management, etc.). Intensive case management as well as housing contributes to this effect. However, evidence is not decisive when parallel housing is compared to integrated housing. Empirical results are highly contradictory. Studies focusing on specific subgroups such as women and persons with severe substance abuse problems are required.

  • 2.
    Blid, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Blid M (2002). Utvärdering av ett kategoriboende för personer med missbruksproblem. Rapport 2. Servicehuset Furan i Västerås. (Evaluation of a category house for persons with misuse problems. Report 2. The Service Home Furan in Västerås).2002Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Blid, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Boende och stöd: En nationell inventering av kommunernas boendeinsatser för utsatta grupper2006In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 291-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article introduces a national inventory of housing intervention programmes for individuals who for various reasons do not have stable accommodation. Housing intervention implies both personal support in one’s own apartment and an offer of different forms of accommodation. The interventions are studied on the basis of different characteristics. The empirical material comes from a survey of 147 randomly chosen municipalities (about half of Sweden) reporting 386 housing interventions with a caseload of 11,187 individuals. They could be categorized in the following groups: night shelter, camping and hotel, low-threshold housing, treatment institution, half-way house, after-care housing, re-entry/training apartment, boarding home, category house (group housing for alcoholics), sub-leased normal apartment and two kinds of housing support (organized within a social-psychiatric context or not) . The different housing interventions were statistically analysed to distinguish similarities and differences, and two indexes level of normality and level of care were created. Based on these, all housing interventions were categorized in five groups: social sublet contract in normal housing, support and care in regular housing, residence and care institutions, low-threshold housing outside the continuum of care and re-entry housing at the end of the continuum of care. The findings should facilitate further studies on housing intervention policies and promote coordination of interventions to meet individual needs.

  • 4.
    Blid, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Boendeinsatser för personer med instabila boendeförhållanden: Poster2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boendestöd - en kartläggning av kommuners boendeinsatser för vuxna Syftet: att presentera en nationell inventering av ett representativt urval kommuners insatser för vuxna personer som har problem med att erhålla eller bibehålla stabilitet i sitt boende. Metod och material: Undersökningen gäller dels boendeinsatser som t.ex. korttidsboenden, kategoriboenden, boendelösningar i samband med missbrukar- eller psykvård, träningsboenden och olika former av sociala andrahands/övergångskontrakt, samt personellt stöd i mer permanenta boenden, t.ex. i form av boendestöd eller mobila team. Avgränsning: boendeinsatser för ungdomar, äldre, eller funktionshindrade i permanenta gruppboenden ingår ej i undersökningen. Datainsamlingen skedde via en webb-baserad enkät som skickades ut via e-post till ett representativt urval (n=147) kommunföreträdare för socialtjänstens individ- och familjeomsorg samt handikapp och omsorg (social psykiatri/kommunal psykiatri). I nästa led vidarebefordrades enkäten till verksamhetsansvariga för de boendestödsverksamheter som listats i enkäten. Ett omfattande uppföljningsarbete har också skett via telefonintervjuer för att få kompletta svar från varje kommun vilket resulterade i inget bortfall. Slutsats: Trots att samtliga boendeinsatser för personer med instabila bostadslösningar huvudsakligen riktar sig till missbrukare, bostadslösa/hemlösa och psykiskt funktionshindrade så innehåller insatserna i mycket liten utsträckning några vård- och behandlingsinsatser.

  • 5.
    Blid, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ett folkhem för alla?: Kommunala insatser mot hemlöshet2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this dissertation is to explore and describe Swedish local authorities’ measures to prevent and manage homelessness; how these measures diverge between different municipal categories; what factors predict homelessness, provisions of accommodation and cov-erage rates between the number of accommodations and the respective municipalities’ housing interventions.

    Measures studied are policies and housing interventions. The housing interventions re-ferred to here are those provided by or through the social welfare authorities to persons living with unstable housing or who are homeless. The interventions can be divided into two main categories: 1) preventive interventions in the form of daily-life support, usually in the form of personnel support in the individual’s own apartment, designed to help persons at risk of becom-ing homeless to remain housed and prevent eviction; 2) accommodation support for persons who are already homeless and in need of housing. Such accommodations may be more or less temporary, more or less integrated and include a greater or lesser amount of care.

    Two sets of data were collected for the study: 1) a case study of two category-housing programmes using both qualitative and quantitative data; 2) a survey of 147 randomly chosen municipalities (about half of the municipalities in Sweden) to explore the prevalence and charac-teristics of policies and housing interventions.

    Findings from the case study show that special-category housing has positive direct effects on the housing stability of the residents and their feelings regarding their quality of life, but does not have a direct effect on their substance misuse. Moreover, the increased housing stability seems to be more a direct effect of the person having stayed on the programme, rather than a long-term effect. Furthermore, although their quality of life improves, the residents still experi-ence a lack of belonging and feel that their lives lack meaningful content.

    On the national level, the findings show that an array of housing interventions divided into 12 sub-categories is offered to counteract homelessness. These categories vary along two central dimensions: care and normality. The two most frequent types of housing interventions in all types of municipalities are daily-life support and social contracts. Other housing interventions are marginal compared with these two. There is greater fluctuation between municipalities in the level of care provided than in the level of normality. Furthermore, the more densely populated municipalities are more highly engaged in developing housing policies and the administrative means to handle them. Such policies, however, seem to decrease the level of normality without promoting levels of care.

    When exploring factors that predict homelessness, the findings show that urbanisation is central to understanding variations in homelessness, not only in the largest cities but also in less densely populated areas. In addition, higher rent levels and more of aggregated psychiatric prob-lems in the municipality seem to increase homelessness. The apartment rate and the proportion of public housing within the stock of apartments are both important for the possibility to pro-vide accommodations. Moreover, the proportion of single-parent households seems to enhance the need to provide such accommodations. Political majority and the functional organisation of the social services both seem to have an impact on the coverage rates. Thus, the findings indicate that the municipalities have various options for managing factors that impact on the homeless-ness rate.

    Keywords: housing interventions, level of care, level of normality, policies, municipality, predicting homelessness

  • 6.
    Blid, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Normality or care: An inventory of Swedish municipalities’ responses to unstable accommodation for vulnerable groups2008In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 397-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an inventory of policies and housing support interventions to the homeless and those at risk of becoming homeless in a representative sample of Swedish municipalities. Two types of intervention are included: various types of accommodation for those who are already homeless and daily life support for those at risk, either provided or financed by the social services in the municipality. Data were collected in 2004-2005 through a questionnaire e-mailed to local authority officials, in a stratified sample of about half of the Swedish municipalities (n=147). The results show that two types of housing intervention dominate the field: daily life support and sublet contracts, both of which have a relatively high normality factor, with a setting in normal housing. Daily life support includes care and is usually implemented before the tenant is evicted. The level of care related to various interventions fluctuates more between the municipalities than normality does. The more densely populated municipalities were more engaged in developing housing policies and administrative bodies to handle these. However, the implementation of housing policies does not seem related to improvements in the qualities of the interventions. On the contrary, the local authorities that have housing policies and administrative tools adapted to these policies provided a lower degree of both normality and care in the interventions. The results suggest that aspects of normality and care in the same type of housing interventions vary depending on the type of municipality, while the existence of policies has no influence on care and a negative effect on the degree of normality provided through the interventions.

  • 7.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work. Socialstyrelsen.
    Anttila, Sten
    SBU.
    Del 2 - den systematiska kartläggningen2009In: Boendelösningar för hemlösa personer - en kunskapsöversikt: En systematisk kartläggning av internationellt publicerade effektutvärderingar, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2009, , p. 64p. 29-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för regeringens hemlöshetsstrategi har Socialstyrelsen haft iuppdrag att, i samråd med Boverket, ta fram en kunskapsöversikt om olikaboendelösningar för att lösa hemlöshet.Grunden för kunskapsöversikten är en systematisk kartläggning avgenomförda effektutvärderingar av olika boendeprogram. Den systematiskakartläggningen bygger på internationellt publicerad forskning. De flesta avstudierna kommer från USA och avser till största delen grupper med svårsocial problematik.Kunskapsöversikten ska ses som ett steg i utvecklingen mot en evidensbaseradpraktik på hemlöshetsområdet. Innehållet i rapporten är komplextoch ger snarare en bild av forskningens kvalitet och inriktning än en direktvägledning i det praktiska arbetet. Materialet utgör dock en förutsättning föratt kunna gå vidare mot en konkretisering av insatserna. Nästa steg blir attSocialstyrelsen kommer att utarbeta ett konkret, vägledande material riktattill relevanta aktörer. Arbetet ska ske i samverkan med forskares kommuneroch brukarorganisationer.Ett antal slutsatser av övergripande principiell karaktär kan dras utifrånrapporten.En övergripande slutsats är att en så permanent boendelösning som möjligt– kompletterad med individuellt, behovsanpassat stöd – är ett krav.Hemlösa personer har samma behov som andra av ett tryggt och långsiktigtboende, oavsett eventuella övriga problem. Ett resultat tyder på att ett tryggtboende ibland också är en förutsättning för att stöd och vård i olika formerska ha effekt. Vägen till ett självständigt boende sker i många fall stegvis,med successivt minskat behov av vård och stöd. Den minskningen kanmycket väl ske i en och samma bostad.Ett könsperspektiv behövs i valet av boendelösningar. Ett resultat tyder påatt om insatser ska ha god effekt för kvinnor bör de vara direkt riktade tilldem.Två huvudtyper av boendeprogram har kunnat urskiljas – ”Bostad först”(parallellt boende) och vårdkedjemodellen (integrerat boende). Det bör poängterasatt inget av de program som beskrivs är renodlade, utan snararehybrider där man tillämpar inslag från olika program. Kopplade till de olikaboendeprogrammen finns ofta ett antal specifika metoder för vård och stöd.Dessa kan kombineras på olika sätt.I den internationellt publicerade forskningen saknas effektutvärderingarav boendetrappor, som är den vanligaste modellen i Sverige. Det är dockmöjligt att peka på likheter i bakomliggande tankesätt mellan boendetrapporoch de program som internationellt beskrivs i termer av vårdkedjemodeller.Detta, plus det faktum att ”Bostad först” börjat praktiseras i svenska kommunergör att de resultat som framkommit vid genomgången av studierna ärrelevanta för svenska förhållanden.

    En slutsats från genomgången av de två huvudtyperna av boendeprogramtalar för att ”Bostad först” är en lovande strategi. Det finns goda skäl att iSverige bygga vidare på de erfarenheter man gjort i arbetet med dessa program.Kunskapsöversikten ger dock inte underlag för att avfärda vårdkedjemodellensom ett verkningslöst program. För svenskt vidkommande betyderdet att boendetrappor kan vara verksamma program om det finns behovsanpassadevård- och stödinsatser kopplade till dessa.I en evidensbaserad praktik vägs tre kunskapskällor samman i dialog: bästavetenskapliga kunskap, de professionellas erfarenhet och brukarnas erfarenhetoch önskemål. Det sätt på vilket informationen från dessa källor vägssamman beror på det nationella och lokala sammanhanget, till exempel lagstiftning,riktlinjer och de resurser som finns tillgängliga.För att kunna jämföra de insatser som görs i Sverige med dem som kunskapsöversiktenavser är det nödvändigt att utförligt beskriva de svenskainsatserna vad gäller innehåll och metod. Att insatserna dokumenteras ochföljs upp är ett grundläggande krav. Detta är en viktig del i utvecklingenmot en evidensbaserad praktik.Efter den systematiska kartläggningen finns nu förutsättningar att gå vidaremed en systematisk översikt där analysen kan fördjupas. Institutet förutveckling av Metoder i Socialt arbete (IMS) planerar att under 2009–2010,inom ramen för det internationella samarbete som koordineras av CampbellCollaboration, genomföra en sådan systematisk översikt.Det som framförallt diskuteras i denna rapport är insatsernas utformning iSverige inom ramen för det handlingsutrymme som den kommunala socialtjänstenhar. En annan aspekt är hur kommunerna ska få tillgång till bostäderatt fördela till hemlösa personer och därigenom få ett reellt handlingsutrymmei valet av olika typer av insatser. För att komma tillrätta med hemlöshetsproblemetkrävs en samlad politisk vilja och insatser på flera nivåer.

  • 8.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Outcome of housing support to severely dependent homeless alcoholics and effects on their substance abuse: Paper presented at the Nordic Research Network on Homelessness, Helsinki, September 1-2.2001Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Outcome of Housing Support to Severely Dependent Homeless Alcoholics and Effects on their Substance Abuse.2002In: Bostadslöshet som problem och politik: aktuell nordisk forskning, Københamn: Nordisk ministerråd, 2002, p. 255-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Prediction of homelessness and housing provisions in Swedish municipalities.: Nordiska nätverket för forskning om hemlöshet (Nordic Network on Homelessness Research), Kuopio, Finland, October2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The study explores predictors of homelessness in Swedish municipalities and of the amount of accommodations provided to the homeless. Theoretically, structural factors (e.g. housing market) and individual factors (e.g. social and health factors) have competed in theories explaining homelessness. Here, the focus is not on individuals, but rather the aggregated levels of such problems. Methods: Homelessness rates were collected in a national inventory (NBHW 2006.) and data on municipal support provisions were collected in a representative sample of half of the Swedish municipalities. Candidate explaining factors of homelessness studied here are variables related to urbanisation, economy of the municipality, various housing market factors, level of social and health problems and demographic factors. Level of homelessness and political majorities are also used as predictors of provisions. Results: Homelessness rate (per 10 k inhabitants) is predicted (R2= .36) by urbanisation (no of inhabitants), market (rent level) and level of psychiatric health problems in the municipality. Amount of accommodations (per 10 k inh.) is predicted (R2= .18) by homelessness rate, social welfare costs and structure of housing market, i.e. greater public owned sector in normal housing. Conclusions: Structural factors and level of individual problems both add to the explanation of homelessness. In addition, degree of urbanisation seems to be an additional factor. This however, may in turn indicate more specific factors not studied here. The amount of accommodations per inh. is, as expected, related to the level of homelessness and the level of social problems in the municipality. Additionally, the structure of the housing market seems to have important impact on the amount of provisions, independent of problem levels.

  • 11.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Socially excluding housing support to homeless substance misusers: Two Swedish case studies of special category housing2006In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses special category housing for homeless addicts, based on case studies of two different housing programmes, using both qualitative and quantitative data. The staff and residents were interviewed about their experiences of the programmes. Longitudinal data was collected on various indicators of substance misuse and the frequency of contact with the social services at different levels. Our findings show that the special category housing has positive direct effects on the housing stability of the residents and their feelings regarding their quality of life, but not on their substance misuse. However, the increased housing stability seems to be more a direct effect of them staying on the programme, rather than a long-term effect. Furthermore, although their quality of life improves, the residents still experience a lack of belonging and that their lives lack a meaningful content. The choice of special category housing as an intervention model thus seems to perpetuate rather than prevent social exclusion and can possibly be described as an expression of institutionalised resignation

  • 12.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Utvärdering av kategoriboende för personer med missbruksproblem. Rapport 1. Skogsgläntan i Östersund (Evaluation of a category house for persons with misuse problems. Report 1. Service Home Skogsgläntan in Östersund).2001Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Prediction of homelessness and housing provisions in Swedish municipalities2008In: European Journal of Housing Policy, ISSN 1461-6718, E-ISSN 1473-3269, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 399-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores key predictors of homelessness rates in different Swedish munici-palities, the accommodation provided and the coverage of accommodation to homeless-ness. In order to create realistic models, seven sets of factors represent various structural levels in stepwise regressions. These sets are urbanisation, economy, demographic com-position, housing market, aggregated individual problems, political majority and policies and organisational features of the social services. The findings show that urbanization is central to understanding variations in homelessness and has also impact on housing pro-visions. In addition, higher rent levels as well as aggregated psychiatric problems seem to increase the level of problems. Overall supply of apartments and the proportion of public housing are important factors in providing accommodation, and a demographic factor, such as the proportion of single-parent households, seems to enhance such a provision. Political majority as well as the functional organization of the social services seems to independently impact coverage rates. Despite the importance of urbanization, findings indicate that a number of factors with impact on the problem and on the possibilities to handle them are manageable by the municipalities. Key words: predicting homelessness, accommodation, housing provisions, local author-ity, social services.

  • 14.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Källmen, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Evaluation of effects of housing first for homeless with drug use and psychiatric problems2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Källmén, Håkan
    Karolinska institutet.
    En kvalitativ studie av hemlösa människors erfarenhet av boendestöd i två  boendeprogramManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely accepted that homelessness has increased in many countries and nationally the number also seems to increase (EU, 2011; The National Board of Welfare and Health, 2011). Ways to respond to that increase is by developing and implement new programs to handle long-time homelessness, and in Sweden and in Stockholm a version of the Housing First program has been tried out for almost two years. That project has being evaluated (Källmén & Blid, 2013) and this study is an extension of the original study and further exploration of questions concerning users’ and social workers´ experiences and satisfaction of housing support within  two different programs.   The aim of this study is to follow-up people who have experienced long-time homelessness and their experiences of the two programs: the staircase model and housing First model in a Swedish context.

    A qualitative study was undertaken in inner city Stockholm with adults who have experienced homelessness. Information came from interviews. Results shows that participants experiences primarily didn´t depend on what type of program they were in but rather if it succeeded in filling their days with meaningful activities including help to handle misuse problems.

     

  • 16.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vackermo, Marie
    FoU-Jämt.
    Mångbesökare inom beroendevården i Jämtland: En studie av brukares erfarenheter av socialtjänstens och landstingets vård samt vårdkonsumtion och kostnader.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequent attenders in substance misuse care

  • 17.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Blid, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hemlösa i fem kommuner - en aktstudie av 210 hemlösa och närmare 2.250 flyttningsrörelser: Nordiska nätverket för forskning om hemlöshet, Köpenhamn, mars 20032003Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 18.
    Källmen, Håkan
    et al.
    Stad, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet.
    Blid, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Free from homelessness: Is "Housing first" the solution?: A comparison across time between homeless clients who have acquired a home of their own and a control group2016In: International archives of addicition research and medicine, ISSN 2474-3631, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Homelessness is as large political question globally as it is in Sweden with a growing number of homeless. “Housing First” is a municipality based program aiming to offer stable and enduring housing to homeless people immediately. This model was imported to Sweden and was tried in Stockholm and Helsingborg, a provincial town in the southwest of Sweden. This prevailing study is to test the feasibility of making longitudinal studies on homeless individuals.

    Method: A longitudinal study using repeated measures of selfreports on questionnaires.

    Result: This study report results from baseline and a 24 month follow-up of the program compared to a treatment-as-usual control group. It was shown that although the former homeless in the Housing First group perceived an increased housing normality and empowerment there were no significant differences between groups across time.

    Conclusion: Although individuals living in a Housing First apartment tended to have a more normal way to live they seem to not improve psychologically. However some problems that is connected to longitudinal research on the homeless was detected. Since Housing First is a program consisting of housing and support the effect is dependent on both. The null result in this study was discussed as a consequence of foremost insufficient support in housing.

  • 19.
    Svensson, Jessika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Jönsson, Jessica H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kamali, Masoud
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kaffrell-Lindahl, Angelika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Espvall, Majen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Blid, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Miller, Emelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Andoh-Appiah, Charlotte
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Mårtenson, Anneli
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Calbucura, Jorge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Thörn, Carina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hoppstadius, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Jonsson, Ummmis
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Östman, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Karlsson-G, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hedman, Åsa-Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Socialtjänsten ska inte fungera som angivare2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 19 of 19
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