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  • 1.
    Badland, Hanna
    et al.
    Auckland Univ Technol, Ctr Phys Act & Nutr, Auckland, New Zealand .
    Oliver, Melody
    Auckland Univ Technol, Ctr Phys Act & Nutr, Auckland, New Zealand .
    Duncan, Mitch
    CQ Univ, Ctr Phys Act Studies, Brisbane, Qld, Australia .
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Measuring children´s independent mobility - Comparing objective and self-report approaches: Editorial2011Inngår i: Children's Geographies, ISSN 1473-3285, E-ISSN 1473-3277, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 263-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    De Vries, Sjerp
    et al.
    Wageningen UR, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Claßen, Thomas
    University of Bielefeld, Germany.
    Eigenheer-Hug, Stella-Marie
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland.
    Korpela, Kalevi
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Maas, Jolanda
    EMGO Institute of VU University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Mitchell, Richard
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Contributions of Natural Environments to Physical Activity: Theory and Evidence Base2011Inngår i: Forests, Trees and Human Health / [ed] Nilsson, K.., Sangster, M., Gallis, C., Hartig, T., de Vries, S., Seeland, K.. & Schipperijn, J., New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, s. 205-243Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between modern lifestyles and increasing levels of chronic heart disease, obesity, stress and poor mental health is a concern across the world. The cost of dealing with these conditions places a large burden on national public health budgets so that policymakers are increasingly looking at prevention as a cost-effective alternative to medical treatment. Attention is turning towards interactions between the environment and lifestyles. Exploring the relationships between health, natural environments in general, and forests in particular, this groundbreaking book is the outcome of the European Union’s COST Action E39 ‘Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing’, and draws together work carried out over four years by scientists from 25 countries working in the fields of forestry, health, environment and social sciences. While the focus is primarily on health priorities defined within Europe, this volume explicitly draws also on research from North America and elsewhere and will have relevance worldwide. A state-of-the-art analysis of the global research on the topic of forests and human health, a key contribution of the book is its synthesis of material across both disciplines and nations, providing a vital reference for researchers in forestry, health, natural resource management and environmental policy. Currently the only unified body of work on this topic, the book will also be an important tool for those working in both health and environment policy and practice.

  • 3. Rosdahl, Hans
    et al.
    Gullstrand, Lennart
    Salier-Eriksson, Jane
    Johansson, Patrik
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method2010Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 109, nr 2, s. 159-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two versions of the Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system, (OMPS1 and OMPS2) in a wide range of oxygen uptake, using the Douglas bag method (DBM) as criterion method. The metabolic variables VO2, VCO2, respiratory exchange ratio and VE were measured during submaximal and maximal cycle ergometer exercise with sedentary, moderately trained individuals and athletes as participants. Test-retest reliability was investigated using the OMPS1. The coefficients of variation varied between 2% and 7% for the metabolic parameters measured at different work rates, and resembled those obtained with the DBM. With the OMPS1, systematic errors were found in the determination of VO2 and VCO2. At submaximal work rates VO2 was 6-14% and VCO2 5-9% higher than with the DBM. At VO2max both VO2 and VCO2 were slightly lower as compared to DBM (-4.1% and -2.8% respectively). With OMPS2, VO2 was determined accurately within a wide measurement range (about 1-5.5 L*min-1), while VCO2 was overestimated (3-7%). VE was accurate at submaximal work rates with both OMPS1 and OMPS2, whereas underestimations (4-8%) were noted at VO2max. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a wide range of VO2 can be measured accurately with the Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system (second generation). Future investigations are suggested to clarify reasons for the small errors noted for VE and VCO2 versus the Douglas bag measurements, and also to gain knowledge of the performance of the device under applied and non-laboratory conditions.

  • 4.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth, Lab Appl Sport Sci, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth, Lab Appl Sport Sci, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions2012Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, nr 1, s. 345-355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: It is essential to validate portable metabolic systems, not only in laboratory settings, but also in field measuring conditions, such as prolonged moderate exercise at low temperatures, high humidity and with external wind.

     

    Methods: VO2, VCO2, RER and VE were measured using the Oxycon Mobile (OM), with a windshield, during cycle ergometer exercise: (I) indoors at three submaximal workloads with no wind or with external wind (13–20 m·s-1) from front, side and back; (II) at two submaximal workloads outdoors (12 ± 2oC; 86 ± 7% RH), with and without a system for drying the ambient air around the air sampling tube; and (III) at one workload outdoors for 45 min (5 ± 4oC; 69 ± 16.5% RH). Any physiological drift was checked for with pre- and postmeasurements by the Douglas bag method (DBM).

     

    Results: A minor effect of external wind from behind was noted in RER and VE (-2 and -3%).. The system for drying the ambient air around the gas sampling tube had no effect on the measured levels. A small difference in VCO2 drift between the OM and DBM (1.5 mL·min-2) was noted in the stability test.

     

    Conclusion: Heavy external wind applied from different directions generally does not affect the measurements of the OM. Furthermore, when using a unit for drying the ambient air around the gas sampling tube, the OM can accurately measure VO2, RER and VE   at submaximal workloads for at least45 min under challenging conditions with regard to humidity and temperature.

  • 5.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Från stumma till pedagogiska rum: Om när stenar börjar tala2011Inngår i: Lärande i friluftsliv: Perspektiv och ämnesdidaktiska exempel / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan , 2011, 1, s. 109-117Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Lättare steg längs Brunnsvikens stränder2009Inngår i: Hagabladet, ISSN 1400-7479, nr 2, s. 8-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Natur, kultur och landskap: Perspektiv på lärande i friluftsliv2011Inngår i: Lärande i friluftsliv: Perspektiv och ämnesdidaktiska perspektiv / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan , 2011, 1, s. 93-107Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    När mekanisk medicin gick om promenaden2014Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, Vol. KULTUR, nr 28 septemberArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingress: "Gå ut och gå, det hjälper för mjältsjuka!" Så låter det i en avhandling från 1763 om nyttiga rörelser. I början av 1800-talet tog Per Henrik Lings gymnastik över som den högsta formen av hälsogivande rörelse, och det är först i modern tid som promenaden åter har tillskrivits läkande egenskaper.

    Artikeln inleds med följande beskrivning av en motionspromenad sommaren 1783:

    Den 11 juni 1783 skrev skulptören Johan Tobias Sergel ett brev till sekreteraren vid den svenska ambassaden i Paris, Nils von Rosenstein. I det omnämner han sina motionsvanor och deras bakgrund: "Jag delar min tid mellan arbete om dagen och om aftnarna promenad till Jerfva, som konungen skänkt år herr Schröderheim. Denne har öfverlåtit ett rum åt mig. Jag går dit hvarje afton och återvänder tidigt på morgonen, ty jag måste ha motion, om jag vill lefva." Sergel skrev vidare att han led av "en däst fetma, full av galla och osunda vätskor; läkarens diagnos är att det är dessa som framalstrar gikten och melankolien". Sergels start- och målpunkter var ateljén i trakten av Hötorget respektive gården Nederjärva vid Haga-Brunnsvikens norra ände. Det är ej känt vilken väg Sergel tog, men om han gick den kortaste vägen i båda riktningarna så motsvarar det drygt 13 km per dag. Det är en ansenlig sträcka, inte minst för en person med Sergels rondör.

    Sergels promenad var ordinerad av en läkare och framstår i dag som så modern att man skulle kunna tro att den speglar ett synsätt som präglats av kontinuitet ända sedan 1700-talet. Men så är ingalunda fallet. På 1800-talet kom ett trendbrott med långvarig verkan. Mer om det senare, men först något om de bedömningar av rörelse och hälsa som präglade Sverige under 1700-talets andra hälft.

  • 9.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Om färdvägsmiljöers betydelse för gång, cykling, hälsa och välbefinnande2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Riksdagens transportpolitiska mål är att transportsystemets utformning,

    funktion och användning ska ”bidra till att miljökvalitetsmålen uppnås och till

    ökad hälsa.” Ett sätt att verka för det är att stimulera till mer av gång och

    cykling, och säkerställa att det kan ske i säkra, trygga och attraktiva

    färdvägsmiljöer.

    Denna rapports primära målsättning är att utgöra ett stöd för en sådan

    utveckling genom att bidra till en ökad förståelse och kunskap om dels

    färdvägsmiljöers betydelse för gång, cykling, hälsa och välbefinnande, dels hur

    färdvägsmiljöer kan studeras för såväl trafik- och folkhälsoplanerares behov

    som i ett vetenskapligt sammanhang.

    Inledningsvis belyser rapporten samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och hälsa,

    nuvarande nivåer av fysisk aktivitet inom befolkningen, och vikten av vardagliga

    aktiva transporter för att kunna uppnå folkhälsomål knutna till fysisk aktivitet.

    När samhället idag söker stimulera till mer gång och cykling är det emellertid

    angeläget att skapa stödjande miljöer för dessa rörelseformer oavsett om syftet

    är transport, rekreation, motion, träning eller tävling.

    När vi går eller cyklar längs en färdväg påverkas vi av fem olika typer av

    miljödomäner; en fysisk miljö med fasta objekt, en trafikmiljö med rörliga

    objekt, en social miljö med människor, samt väder och ljusförhållanden. Var och

    en av dessa domäner innehåller olika miljöfaktorer som kan variera stort. Det

    gör att färdvägsmiljöer är komplexa, och därtill bidrar det faktum att de ofta

    ändrar karaktär längs en färdväg.

    För att skapa stödjande färdvägsmiljöer behöver vi veta vilka miljöfaktorer som

    är kritiska för att en färdvägsmiljö ska upplevas som trygg respektive

    stimulerande för gång och cykling. Och för att veta något om det behöver vi

    kunna mäta hur vi uppfattar olika miljöfaktorer. För det ändamålet finns

    numera färdvägsmiljöskalan ACRES (The Active Commuting Route

    Environment Scale).

    Ett sätt att nyttja ACRES är att låta fotgängare och cyklister skatta hur en

    färdvägs olika delar uppfattas i termer av otrygghet – trygghet respektive

    motverkande – stimulerande för gång eller cykling. Därigenom kan man utifrån

    ett brukarperspektiv lokalisera färdvägars svaga punkter, vilka sedan bör bli

    föremål för analyser av vilka åtgärder som bör vidtas för att förbättra dem. När

    sedan förändringar har gjorts kan dessa utvärderas med hjälp av ACRES.

    Vetenskapliga studier kan bidra till kunskap om lämpliga åtgärder för att skapa

    stödjande miljöer genom att, med hjälp av ACRES, bland annat studera

    samband mellan olika miljöfaktorer och om färdvägsmiljöer uppfattas som

    otrygga – trygga respektive motverkande – stimulerande för gång eller cykling.

    Denna typ av studier har nyligen inletts, och i rapporten redovisas

    färdvägsmiljöprofiler baserade på cyklisters skattningar av miljöfaktorer längs

    färdvägar i och utanför Stockholms innerstad. De illustrerar stora skillnader

    mellan dessa miljöer, och att färdvägsmiljöer utanför innerstaden uppfattas som

    mer trygga och stimulerande än i innerstaden. Men även i innerstaden varierar

    färdvägsmiljöernas karaktär, och sambandsstudier visar att ju mer cyklister

    uppfattar att färdvägsmiljöerna är gröna respektive vackra, desto mer stimulerar

    de till cykling. En motsatt verkan har avgaser, trängsel i blandtrafik och

    färdvägar som kräver många riktningsändringar. Inverkan av dessa

    miljöfaktorer på upplevelsen av om färdvägsmiljön hämmar eller stimulerar till

    cykling är stor.

    Studierna med ACRES ger ett stöd för att utifrån både ett perspektiv av trygghet

    och stimulans anlägga cykelbanor snarare än cykelfält längs mer trafikerade

    gator eller vägar. Vidare visar de alltså att träd och annan grönska längs

    färdvägsmiljöer stimulerar till cykling. Miljöpsykologisk och -medicinsk

    kunskap ger ytterligare stöd för att av hälsoskäl plantera träd längs våra gator

    och vägar, särskilt i stadsmiljöer.

    I rapporten redovisas utländska studier som visar att kraven på färdvägsmiljöer

    för att de ska nyttjas är klart högre hos potentiella nya cyklister jämfört med

    existerande cyklister. Infrastrukturen för cykling i utländska städer som står för

    en stor andel av transporter per cykel, såsom Köpenhamn, ger också stöd för att

    vi i Sverige bör skapa väsentligt bättre färdvägsmiljöer för cykling om de

    påtagligt ska stimulera fler människor till att cykla.

    Avslutningsvis, att skapa säkra, trygga och attraktiva färdvägsmiljöer för såväl

    fotgängare och cyklister bör bli ett prioriterat mål för svensk trafikplanering. För

    att främja denna målsättning finns det ett klart behov av kunskapsutveckling,

    både genom tillämpade lokala brukarstudier och genom forskning.

  • 10.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Om Lindhardskolan och dess betydelse i ett svenskt perspektiv2009Inngår i: Forskning i bevægelse. Et nyt forskningsfelt i et 100-årigt perspektiv / [ed] Anne Lykke Poulsen, Else Trangbæk, Kurt Jørgensen & Nikolai Nordsborg, København: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 2009, s. 137-167Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö. .
    Om människan i rörelse och i vila: Essäer2014Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna samling av essäer ger inblickar i de kroppsliga rörelsernas mångfald av syften, uttryck och förutsättningar, alltifrån vardagliga behov av transport, motion och träning, till att tävla, uppleva naturen eller uttrycka sig genom dans. Dessa skilda former av rörelser belyses genom perspektiv från historia, samhällsplanering, fysiologi, psykologi, hälsoekonomi och medicin. Andra essäer handlar mer om en andlig rörelse. De berör frågor om värden i, och relationer till landskap. Det gemensamma för dem är att de, i deras tillämpning i denna skrift, beror av den förändring i natursyn som ägde rum mellan 1600- och 1700-talen. Utan den, inget friluftsliv och naturmöte så som vi känner det idag.

    Bokens tolv essäer har följande rubriker:

     

    • Romerska speglingar

    • Pionjärverk om friluftslivets historia

    • Människans muskler unikt flexibla

    • Är förmåga att tåla smärta en del av undret?

    • Cyklisterna får hjulen att snurra

    • Idrott utan tävlingar är död

    • Lättare steg längs Brunnsvikens stränder

    • Om Palme och parken

    • När Stockholm byggde bort cyklisterna

    • Dansen i landskapet

    • När mekanisk medicin gick om promenaden

    • Sista vilan vid Brunnsviken

  • 12.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Physical activity behaviours and environmental well-being in a spatial context2014Inngår i: Geography and Health: A Nordic Outlook / [ed] Schærström, A., Jørgensen, S.H. & Sivertun, Swedish National Defence College; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); Universität Bonn, Institute for Hygiene and Public Health , 2014, 1, s. 142-156Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Every form of physical activity takes place in a certain physical environment. These settings can either be a specific delimited place, a facility or building (e.g., a school yard, a soccer field or a gymnastic hall) or they can be traces of movement in landscapes (e.g., after a walk in a forest, a kayak trip or a bicycle trip to work), and they can also be combinations of these two categories.

     

    If they had been mapped, we would have been able to see a vibrant development of artefacts connected with physical activity in the landscapes during the 20th century in Sweden. Just think of all the sport facilities, playgrounds, parks, walking paths in the mountains and exercise trails in the neighbourhood forests that were created during that period. In line with this, there was also a state-driven planning for the protection of landscapes of national value for outdoor life and recreation (Civildepartementet 1971; Kungl. Maj:t 1972). The climax in this respect occurred during the last decades of the Swedish welfare state, sometime during the 1970-80s. However, when we look at this period more closely it also becomes apparent that all forms of physical activity were not facilitated. Support for active transport by means of an infrastructure for cycling was not part of the dominant planning and investment agenda (Emanuel 2012a,b). Beginning with the 1990s, a neoliberal era followed, and with it a waning of interest in this respect by both the state and the municipalities was noted. Physical activity then became an issue that was up to the individual to solve on his/her own. Interestingly, this change in perspectives was followed by the establishment of a large number of private gyms. Consequences of the changed societal climate with respect to facilities for sport organisations are presented in a recent report from the Swedish Sport Federation (Riksidrottsförbundet 2012). 

     

    Given the potentially important effect of physical activity on public health (cf. Pedersen & Saltin 2006), the health-geographical dimension of physical activity is of clear relevance in many fields of study. In our times this dimension is also of importance for understanding, e.g. the effects of urbanisation, as well as ethnic and social segregation in urban areas (cf. Svastisalee et al. 2012). Furthermore, there is a great need to know more about circumstances in which levels of health-enhancing physical activity (cf. Haskell et al., 2007) can be encompassed within the population and at the same time contribute to a sustainable development (Schantz 2002a,b; Schantz & Lundvall 2014). 

     

    Considering all the above, it can be seen as a curious truth that scientific descriptions and analyses of physical activity and conditions for it in a spatial context are a very recent phenomenon. This is reason enough to start this chapter by placing the current interest in the physical activity–environment relationship in a historical context. Afterwards, some principal aspects of the relationship between physical activity, the environment and health will be illuminated. This will be followed by a listing of examples of different paths taken so far, particularly in Sweden, to analyse these relationships.

  • 13.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Planering för rörelse, hälsa och miljö i en ny tid2011Inngår i: Centre for Management of the Built Environment Årsbok 2011 / [ed] Stefan Hollertz, David Hollertz, Björn Stenvall, Göteborg: Centre for Management of the Built Environment (CMB), Chalmers Tekniska Högskola , 2011, 1, s. 36-37Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Changing perspectives on physical education in Sweden.: Implementing dimensions of public health and sustainable development2014Inngår i: Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice / [ed] Cristopher Edginton & Mingkai Chin, Urbana, Illinois, USA: Sagamore Publishing, 2014, 1, s. 463-475Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Health was introduced as part of physical education (PE) in Sweden in 1994. This chapter focuses on both transformational processes and the lack thereof in PE and in physical education teacher education (PETE) in Sweden with the introduction of "health." Prior to that PE focused entirely on different bodily movements for about 170 years, and the demanded changeover has been markedly lagging. At the same time, scientific development within the field of physical activity and health has been strong during the past two decades. Presently, the PETE at The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH in Stockholm, Sweden, is undergoing changes with the aim of creating a merger of perspectives from old, mainly sports-oriented, traditions in PE with newer individual and population health-related perspectives to a wider perspective of physical activity. These new perspectives are framed within diverse dimensions of the environment: for example, how the physical environment affects levels of physical activity and well-being and the need for sustainable development. The rationale for the latter perspective is that the contexts of bodily movement can affect the environment both positively and negatively and are thereby closely linked to both individual and public health. The transformational process described is still in an early state, and clearly future developmental steps are needed, some of which are described in the final section.

  • 15.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Stigell, Erik
    A Criterion Method for Measuring Route Distance in Physically Active Commuting2009Inngår i: Medicine and science in sports and exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 472-478Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a need for accurate,   reliable, and feasible methods for determining route distances in   physically active transportation. The aim of this study, therefore, was   to scrutinize if distances of commuting routes drawn by physically   active commuters and measured with a digital curvimetric distance   measurement device could serve such a purpose. Methods: Participants   were recruited when walking or bicycling in the inner urban area of   Stockholm, Sweden. Questionnaires and individually adjusted maps were   sent twice to the participants (n = 133). Commuting routes from home to   work were drawn on the maps. These were measured using a digital   curvimetric distance measurer that was carefully controlled for   validity and reproducibility. Marked points of origin and destination   were checked for validity and reproducibility using stated addresses   and address geocoding systems. Nineteen participants were followed with   a global positioning system (GPS) to control for validity of drawn   routes. An analysis of the effect on distance measurements of any   deviations between GPS route tracings and drawn routes was undertaken.   Results: No order effects were noted on distance measurements, and the   test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.999 (P <= 0.001).   The map markings of route origins and destinations were accurate and   reproducible. GPS tracings of actual commuting routes taken (n = 19) as   displayed in six cases had slight deviations from the routes drawn by   the commuters on maps. However, these deviations played an   insubstantial role (0.4%) for the distances measured. Conclusion: When   physically active commuters draw their commuting routes on maps, they   create a valid and reproducible basis for route distance measurements.   In combination with an accurate digital curvimetric distance-measuring   device, a potential criterion method for measuring the commuting route   distance is established.

  • 16.
    Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, GIH - The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Methods for determining route distances in active commuting: Their validity and reproducibility2011Inngår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 563-574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance is a variable of pivotal importance in transport studies. Therefore, after checking the validity of a potential criterion method for measuring active commuting route distances, this method was used to assess the validity and reproducibility of four methods of approximating the commuting route distances covered by pedestrians and bicyclists. The methods assessed were: self-estimated distance, straight-line distance, GIS shortest-route distance, and GPS-measured distance. For this purpose, participants were recruited when walking or bicycling in Stockholm, Sweden. Questionnaires and individually-adjusted maps were sent twice to 133 participants. The distances of map-drawn commuting routes functioned as criterion distances. The participants were also asked to estimate their distances. The straight-line distance between origin and destination was measured using map-drawn routes. The shortest route between home addresses and workplace addresses was calculated with three GIS algorithms. Eighty-six trips were measured with GPS. The main results were that test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) exceeded 0.99 for all methods, except for self-estimated distance (ICC = 0.76). No order effects existed between test and retest. Significant differences were, however, noted between criterion distance and self-estimated distance (114 ± 63%), straight-line distance (79.1 ± 10.5%), GIS shortest route (112 ± 18% to 121 ± 22%) and GPS distance (105 ± 4%). We conclude that commonly-used distance estimation methods produce systematic errors of differing magnitudes when used in a context of active commuting in suburban and urban environments. These errors can at average level be corrected for, whereas individual relative errors will remain.

  • 17.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting.2011Inngår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 6-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall results show: considerable criterion-related validity of the ACRES; ratings of advertisement-recruited participants mirroring those of street-recruited participants; and a higher degree of bikeability in the suburban commuting route environments than in the inner urban ones.

  • 18.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro university, Örebro, Sweden.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments2012Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, nr 168, s. Art. no. 168-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Route environments may influence people's active commuting positively and thereby contribute to public health. Assessments of route environments are, however, needed in order to better understand the possible relationship between active commuting and the route environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the potential associations between perceptions of whether the route environment on the whole hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and perceptions of environmental factors.

    Methods

    The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters' perceptions of their route environments in the inner urban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Bicycle commuters (n = 827) were recruited by advertisements in newspapers. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relation between predictor variables (such as levels of exhaust fumes, noise, traffic speed, traffic congestion and greenery) and the outcome variable (hindering – stimulating route environments). Two models were run, (Model 1) without and (Model 2) with the item traffic: unsafe or safe included as a predictor.

    Results

    Overall, about 40% of the variance of hindering – stimulating route environments was explained by the environmental predictors in our models (Model 1, R² = 0.415, and Model 2, R² = 0.435). The regression equation for Model 1 was: y = 8.53 + 0.33 ugly or beautiful + 0.14 greenery + (−0.14) course of the route + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + (−0.09) congestion: all types of vehicles (p ≤ 0.019). The regression equation for Model 2 was y = 6.55 + 0.31 ugly or beautiful + 0.16 traffic: unsafe or safe + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + 0.12 greenery + (−0.12) course of the route (p ≤ 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The main results indicate that beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, exhaust fumes, traffic congestion and low 'directness' of the route seem to be hindering factors. Furthermore, the overall results illustrate the complexity of a research area at the beginning of exploration.

  • 19.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)2014Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 8276-8300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  • 20.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, GIH, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Stigell, Erik
    The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, GIH, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    The active commuting route environment scale (ACRES): Development and evaluation2010Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 7, s. art 58-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people's behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possible relationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists' and pedestrians' perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof.Methods: Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation.Results: There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups' ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 'moderate' (0.42) to 'almost perfect' (0.87).Conclusions: The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. 

  • 21.
    Wallmann-Sperlich, B.
    et al.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University, Köln, D-50933, Germany .
    Bucksch, J.
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, D-33615, Germany.
    Hansen, S.
    Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 6229 ER, Netherlands .
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Froboese, I.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University, Köln, D-50933, Germany .
    Sitting time in Germany: An analysis of socio-demographic and environmental correlates2013Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. Art. no. 196-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour in general and sitting time in particular is an emerging global health concern. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of sitting time in German adults and to examine socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time. Methods. A representative sample of German adults (n = 2000; 967 men, 1033 women; 49.3 ±17.6 years of age) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, including one question on overall sitting time and answered questions about the neighbourhood environment, as well as concerning demographics. Daily sitting time was stratified by gender, age group, BMI, educational and income level, as well as physical activity (PA). To identify socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions. Results: The overall median was 5 hours (299 minutes) of sitting time/day and men sat longer than women (5 vs. 4 hours/day; p < 0.05). In both genders age and PA were negatively and the educational level positively associated with sitting time. The level of income was not a correlate of sitting time in multivariate analyses. Sitting time was significantly positively associated with higher neighbourhood safety for women. The variance of the multivariate model ranged from 16.5% for men to 8.9% for women. Conclusions: The overall sitting time was unequally distributed in the German adult population. Our findings suggest implementing specific interventions to reduce sitting time for subgroups such as men, younger aged adults and adults with a higher education and lower PA. Future studies should enhance our understanding of the specific correlates of different types and domains of sitting in order to guide the development of effective public health strategies.

  • 22.
    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sport University, D-50933 Cologne, Germany.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Physical Activity and the Perceived Neighbourhood Environment: Looking at the Association the Other Way Around2014Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 8093-8111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     The association between physical activity (PA) and variables of the perceived environment mainly originate from cross-sectional studies that introduced the idea that the environment influences the PA level of residents. However, the direction of cause and effect has not been solved with finality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether residents’ perception of their proximate environment differs depending on their level of PA in transport and recreation. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with residents of six different parts of thecity of Cologne, Germany. The sample of 470 adults (52.8% females; mean age =35.5 ± 13.8 years) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ),as well as the European Environmental Questionnaire ALPHA. To distinguishbetween residents with ‘low’ and ‘high’ PA, we split the samples into two on the basis of the specific median in transport- and recreation-related PA. In the ‘high’ vs. ‘low’ PA group of the overall sample, we noted 4–16% more ‘PA favourable’ environmental perceptions in seven of the 15 environmental variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of socio-demographic correlates and transport- and recreation-related PA on the dependent variables of the environmental perception. In this case,levels of PA were significant predictors for eight of the 15 items concerning environmental perceptions. Thus, the present study introduces the idea that residents with higher levels of transport and recreational PA may perceive their environment in a more ‘PA-favourable’ way than residents with lower levels.

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