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  • 1.
    Niga, Petru
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Crown ethers at the aqueous solution–air interface: 1. Assignments and surface spectroscopy2011In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 13, no 17, p. 7930-7938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface of aqueous solutions of 4-Nitro Benzo-15-Crown-5 (NB15C5) and Benzo-15-Crown-5 (B15C5) has been studied using the surface sensitive technique vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS). The NO, CN, COC and CH vibrational modes of these compounds at the air–water interface as well as OH vibrational modes of the surface water hydrating this compound have been targeted in order to obtain molecular information about arrangement and conformation of the adsorbed crown ether molecules at the air–water interface. The CH2 vibrational modes of crown ethers have been identified and found to be split due to interaction with ether oxygen. The spectra provide evidence for the existence of a protonated crown complex moiety at the surface leading to the appearance of strongly ordered water species. The interfacial water species are influenced by the resulting charged interface and by the strong Zundel polarizability due to tunneling of the proton species between equivalent sites within the crown ring.

  • 2.
    Niga, Petru
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Crown ethers at the aqueous solution–air interface. Part 2. Electrolyte effects, ethylene oxide hydration and temperature behaviour2011In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 13, no 17, p. 7939-7947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy (VSFS) was employed to study adsorbing films of 4-Nitro Benzo-15-Crown-5 (NB15C5) and Benzo-15-Crown-5 (B15C5) at the aqueous solution–air interface. The surface of the solution is strongly influenced by the presence of crown ether species. Changes in the orientation of NB15C5 were monitored as a function of solution concentration, by targeting the ratio of peak intensities of the CN and NO2 vibrational modes. The water of hydration has also been probed as a function of crown concentration, salt concentration, and temperature. The latter study strongly suggests that the surface can be treated as a charged interface, and that the associated ordered water decreases with increasing ionic strength of the bulk solution.

  • 3.
    Niga, Petru
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Klaman, Marianne
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blohm, Erik
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lofthus, Jon
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hybrid printing: paper media for combined flexographic and inkjet printing2012In: Conference proceedings International Paper Physics Conference, Stockholm: Innventia , 2012, p. 79-81Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid printing combining inkjet technology with flexography can be used to add customer specific information into the production of packaging and print. However, in order to improve print quality, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms governing print quality is required. In this work, inkjet printing using three aqueous inkjet inks was performed on top of flexographic printouts on four paper substrates. For comparative reasons, inkjet printouts were made on the four papers as well. The flexographic film contained tone values ranging from 0 to 100% ink coverage. Line width and print density of the inkjet printouts were evaluated. It was found that paper characteristics such as surface energy, porosity, absorption coefficient and surface roughness play an important role in defining the final print quality. These findings are further supported by micrograph images.

  • 4.
    Niga, Petru
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Klaman, Marianne
    Innventia.
    Blohm, Erik
    Innventia.
    Lofthus, Jon
    Innventia.
    Hybrid package printing. Assessment of the influence of paper media parameters for inkjet printing on flexographic printed paper.2014In: Narrow WebTech, ISSN 1617-206X, no 1, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid printing combining inkjet technology with flexography can be used to add customer specific information in the production of packaging and print. However, in order to improve print quality a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms governing print quality is required. In this work, inkjet printing using three aqueous inkjet inks was performed on top of flexographic printouts on four paper substrates. The flexographic film contained tone values ranging from 0 to 100% ink coverage. Line quality and print density of the inkjet print were evaluated in order to estimate the influence of paper parameters on the print quality. Specifically, it was found that for the system studied, the flexographic film essentially dictates the surface energy while keeping the porosity and the surface roughness of the paper unaltered. These findings are further supported by micrograph images.

  • 5.
    Wakeham, D.
    et al.
    Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
    Niga, Petru
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Surface & Corros Sci, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ridings, C
    Centre for Nano Scale Science and Technology, Flinders University, SA 5001, Australia.
    Andersson, G
    Centre for Nano Scale Science and Technology, Flinders University, SA 5001, Australia.
    Nelson, A
    Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234, Australia.
    Warr, G
    School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Baldelli, S
    Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5003, United States.
    Rutland, M
    Department of Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Drottning Kristinas Väg 51, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Atkin, R
    Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
    Surface structure of a "non-amphiphilic" protic ionic liquid2012In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 5106-5114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanostructure of the ethanolammonium nitrate (EtAN)-air surface has been investigated using X-ray reflectometry (XRR), vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) and neutral impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (NICISS). The XRR data decays more rapidly than expected for a perfectly sharp interface, indicating a diffuse electron (scattering length) density profile. Modelling of the XRR data using three different fitting routines produced consistent interfacial profiles that suggest the formation of interfacial EtAN clusters. Consistent with this, VSFS reveals that the EtAN surface is predominantly covered by -CH 2- moieties, with the -NH 3 + and -OH groups of the cation buried slightly deeper in the interface. The elemental profiles determined using NICISS also show enrichment of carbon relative to nitrogen and oxygen in the outermost surface layer, which is consistent with the surface cation orientation deduced from VSFS, and with the presence of EtAN aggregates at the liquid surface. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  • 6.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Niga, Petru
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Makeen, Khalid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Print quality issues concerning inkjet printing of colour and electronics on paper2012In: PTS Symposium: Paper and Imaging 2012, Munich, Germany, 2012, p. 251-263Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The market value of the digital printing technologies electrophotography and inkjet is expected to grow during this decade. The introduction of multicolour high speed inkjet machines in recent years has again turned print quality into an important issue. In addition, the combination of digital printing and traditional printing technologies for variable data print production requires paper and ink which gives good and comparable print quality using different printing technologies. Printed electronics, most commonly utilizing the printing technologies screen, gravure, flexography or inkjet, is forecasted a bright future. The interest in paper as print media for printed electronics and flexible electronics has recently increased, mainly due to the widespread usage of paper, the low cost of paper, and due to the fact that paper is produced mainly from natural renewable resources. The requirements on the print concern here not primarily the visual impression, but rather the functionality, for example the conductivity of printed tracks.

    We have studied the effect of surface treatment of paper on inkjet print quality; we have looked more closely at the effect of different paper surface parameters, and shown that these parameters can have a large impact on both chroma and detail reproduction when printing with pigmented inkjet inks. Combination of inkjet with traditional printing technologies can give good print quality when carefully combining printing technology, ink and print media. Moreover, some knowledge concerning printing of colour may be transferred to the field of printed electronics, although the prerequisites on the print products are quite different. We have studied how the surface properties of coated paper affects the electrical conductivity and the print quality of inkjet printed electronics. In addition, coating of paper surfaces by laboratory methods and evaluation of functionality has been performed. The work is a base for our ongoing research on adding of functionalities to paper and packaging in a flexible and cost efficient way by utilization of printing technologies and novel materials.

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