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  • 1. Andersen, A.
    et al.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Koelsch, P.
    Wantke, D.
    Motschmann, H.
    Oscillating Bubble SHG on Surface Elastic and Surface Viscoelastic Systems: New Insights in the Dynamics of Adsorption Layers2006In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 110, no 37, p. 18466-18472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface rheology governs a great variety of interfacial phenomena such as foams or emulsions and plays a dominant role in several technological processes such as high-speed coating. Its major difference with bulk rheology resides in the high compressibility of the surface phase, which is the direct consequence of the molecular exchange between adsorbed and dissolved species. In analogy to bulk rheology, a complex surface dilational modulus, ε, which captures surface tension changes upon defined area changes of the surface layer, can be defined. The module ε is complex, and the molecular interpretation of the dissipative process that gives rise to the imaginary part of the module is subject to some controversy. In this contribution, we used the oscillating bubble technique to study the surface dilational modulus in the mid-frequency range. The dynamic state of the surface layer was monitored by a pressure sensor and by surface second-harmonic generation (SHG). The pressure sensor measures the real and imaginary part of the modulus while SHG monitors independently the surface composition under dynamic conditions. The experiment allows the assessment of the contribution of the compositional term to the surface dilational modulus ε. Two aqueous surfactant solutions have been characterized:  a surface elastic and a surface viscoelastic solution. The elastic surface layer can be described within the framework of the extended Lucassen−van den Tempel Hansen model. The change in surface concentration is in phase with the relative area change of the surface layer, which is in strong contrast with the results obtained from the surface viscoelastic solution. Here, surface tension, area change, and surface composition are phase-shifted, providing evidence for a nonequilibrium state within the surface phase. The data are used to assess existing surface rheology models.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of coatings applied to flexible substrates to enhance quality of ink jet printed silver nano-particle structures2012In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Part C, ISSN 1083-4400, E-ISSN 1558-1241, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 342-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of the commercial surface treatment InkAid have been evaluated as a surface treatment to enhance print quality of silver nano-particle ink structures printed on polyimide and polyethene substrate. Originally these coatings have been specified to be applied on substrates for graphical ink jet printing. On the coated polyimide and polyethene substrates lines of different widths have been printed using a Dimatix materials printer together with silver nano-particle ink manufactured by Advanced Nano Products. The prints have then been evaluated in terms of print quality and resistivity before and after sintering. The results show that the application of these coatings can improve the print quality considerably, making it possible to print lines with a good definition, which is not  otherwise possible with this type of ink on this substrate types. It has been found that the coating Semi Gloss provides the best results, both in terms of print quality as well as the lowest resistivity. The resistivity on polyethene is 3.5*10-7Ωm at best when sintered at 150°C and for polyimide  8.9*10-8Ωm sintered at 200°C. This corresponds to a conductivity of about  4.5% and  18%of bulk silver, respectively. It can be concluded that applying such PVP based coatings to polyethene and polyimide will increase the print quality quite substantially, making it possible to print patterns with requirements of smaller line widths and more details than what is possible without coating.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schmidt, Wolfgang
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH and Co. KG, Burg Gretesch, D-49086, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    The influence of paper coating content on room temperature sintering of silver nanoparticle ink2013In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 24, no 45, p. Art. no. 455203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resistance of inkjet printed lines using a silver nanoparticle based ink can be very dependent on the substrate. A very large difference in resistivity was observed for tracks printed on paper substrates with aluminum oxide based coatings compared to silica based coatings. Silica based coatings are often cationized with polymers using chloride as a counter ion. It is suggested that the precipitation of silver salts is the cause of the high resistivity, since papers pretreated with salt solutions containing ions that precipitate silver salts gave a high resistance. Silver nitrate has a high solubility and paper pretreated with nitrate ions gave a low resistivity without sintering. The results obtained show that, by choosing the correct type of paper substrate, it is possible to manufacture printed structures, such as interconnects on paper, without the need for, or at least to reduce the need for, post-print sintering. This phenomenon is, of course, ink specific. Inks without or with a low silver ion content are not expected to behave in this manner. In some sensor applications, a high resistivity is desired and, by using the correct combination of ink and paper, these types of sensors can be facilitated.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of InkAid surface treatment to enhance print quality of ANP silver nano-particle ink on plastic substrates2010In: Large Area, Organic & Printed Electronics (LOPE-C) 2010, Frankfurt, 2010, p. 241-245Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Andersson, Nina
    et al.
    Alberius, Peter
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Bergström, Lennart
    Photochromic mesostructured silica pigments dispersed in latex films2005In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 25, p. 3507-3513Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Busson, Philippe
    et al.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Ihre, Henrik
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    Hult, Anders
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Ferroelectric Liquid Crystalline Dendrimers: Synthesis, Thermal Behavior, and Electrooptical Characterization2001In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 34, p. 1221-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation and characterization of a series of novel ferroelectric liquid crystalline dendrimers are presented. End-capping of 1-, 2-, and 3-generation dendrimers based on 2,2-bis- (hydroxymethyl)propionic acid with mesogens gave surface-functionalized liquid crystalline compounds with 6, 12, and 24 mesogen-containing units, respectively. 4¢¢-((R)-1-Methylheptyloxy)phenyl 4-{4¢-[10- (hydroxycarbonyl)decyloxy]phenyl}benzoate was synthesized and used as a mesogen-containing unit. The purity and structure of each compound were determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and elemental analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy were used to investigate the mesomorphic properties of the mesogen-functionalized dendrimers. The materials displayed a variety of mesophases, including the smectic C* phase. All the liquid crystalline dendrimers showed ferroelectricity, and tilt angle and spontaneous polarization measurements were performed. The obtained results show that the ferroelectric properties of the materials are independent of the generation number of the dendritic scaffold.

  • 7.
    Busson, Philippe
    et al.
    KTH.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    KTH.
    Ihre, Henrik
    KTH.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Linköping University.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Linköping University.
    Preparation of Mesogen-Functionalized Dendrimers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics2002In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, Vol. 35, p. 1663-1671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid crystalline dendrimers with peripheral mesogen-containing units have been prepared. Multistep synthesis with several selective reactions was used in the preparation of the mesogen-containing molecules, 4¢¢-[10-(hydroxycarbonyl)decyloxy]phenyl 4-[4¢-(2-(R)-octyloxy)-3¢-nitrophenyl]benzoate and 4¢¢- [10-(hydroxycarbonyl)decyloxy]biphenyl 4-[4¢-(2-(R)-octyloxy)-3¢-nitrophenyl]benzoate. Both molecules possessed an electron-accepting nitro group placed perpendicular to the long axis of the molecules in order to enhance the nonlinear optical activity. A second generation hydroxyl functional aliphatic dendrimer based on the dihydroxy acid, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, was used as dendritic scaffold and was subsequently functionalized with the aforementioned groups. The purity and structure of the two liquid crystalline dendrimers were determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and elemental analysis. The synthesis of both the mesogen-containing units and the liquid crystalline dendrimers is described in detail. Investigation of the liquid crystalline properties of the materials by differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy showed that they exhibited different mesophases, including the chiral smectic C phase. Ferroelectric switching was observed in this tilted phase, and electrooptical properties, including tilt angle and spontaneous polarization measurements, were investigated. Finally, the nonlinear optical properties of one of the materials were preliminary characterized.

  • 8.
    Engisch, Lutz
    et al.
    Queensland University of technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Goedl, W
    Queensland University of technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Studies on inkjet ink with confocal Raman microscopy2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical properties of ink, substrate and the interface between them influence the printing process and the achievable printing quality. Several methods to characterize these properties are developed and used in the recent years. The usage of vibration spectroscopy methods are opening a new way to characterize printouts on the molecular level. The raman spectroscopy, mainly working with visible light and a low level sample preparation, has a high potential in this field. Starting with chemical characterization of the composition up to using this method as an online observation tool in printing systems, a wide area of applications is thinkable.

     

    This work presents the first results of using a confocal raman microscope to characterize oil and water based inkjet inks on different substrates. Using the proper measurement parameters, we were able to observe the spreading and penetration of the ink into the substrate. Further work shows the possibility of using the results for three dimensional ink distribution analyzing.

     

     

  • 9.
    Engish, L
    et al.
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Rintoul, R
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Fredericks, P
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Buschmann, M
    MoRe Research, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Gepp, Sebastian
    MoRe Research, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Application of Raman spectroscopy and infrared synchrotron radiation for digital print analysis2008In: Proceedings of Non-Impact Printing, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008, , p. 1p. 449-449Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical properties of ink, substrate and the interface between them influence the printing process and the achievable print quality. Several methods to characterize these properties have been developed and used in recent years. The usage of vibrational spectroscopy methods are opening a new way to characterize printouts at the molecular level. The Raman spectroscopy, mainly working with visible light and a low level of sample preparation, has a high potential in this field.

     

    In the present work, the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation-based infrared (SR-FTIR) spectro-microscopy offers a powerful, non-destructive method for the study and the identification of inks on paper and the comparison of them to one another without the need for chemical preparation and related laboratory work.

     

    Using the proper measurement parameters, the 3-D distribution of ink in paper was studied and related to the spreading and penetration of single inkjet droplets. This research was undertaken at the IR beamline at the Australian Synchrotron, Victoria Australia.

     

     

  • 10. Erikson, Arne
    et al.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hompland, Tord
    de Lange Davies, Catharina
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Quantification of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility of collagen I using a laser scanning microscope2007In: Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN 1083-3668, E-ISSN 1560-2281, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 044002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characteristic changes in the organization of fibrillar collagen can potentially serve as an early diagnostic marker in various pathological processes. Tissue types containing collagen I can be probed by pulsed high-intensity laser radiation, thereby generating second harmonic light that provides information about the composition and structure at a microscopic level. A technique was developed to determine the essential second harmonic generation (SHG) parameters in a laser scanning microscope setup. A rat-tail tendon frozen section was rotated in the xy-plane with the pulsed laser light propagating along the z-axis. By analyzing the generated second harmonic light in the forward direction with parallel and crossed polarizer relative to the polarization of the excitation laser beam, the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of the collagen fiber were determined. Systematic variations in SHG response between ordered and less ordered structures were recorded and evaluated. A 500µm-thick z-cut lithiumniobate (LiNbO3) was used as reference. The method was applied on frozen sections of malignant melanoma and normal skin tissue. Significant differences were found in the values of d22, indicating that this parameter has a potential role in differentiating between normal and pathological processes.

     

  • 11. Fazio, Valentina
    et al.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Koelsch, Patrick
    Andersen, Audree
    Wantke, Dieter
    Möhwald, Helmut
    Motschmann, Hubert
    New insights in static and dynamic properties of soluble monolayers2003In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 5223, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract In this paper we discuss selected equilibrium and dynamic properties of adsorp-tion layers of soluble surfactants. The surface state has been investigated by nonlinearoptical techniques based on second order χ(2)effects which exhibit a high surface specificityand suppress bulk contributions. The surface tension isotherm σ(c) of the homologousseries of n-alkyldimethylphosphine (n =8 − 12) can be described by Frumkin’s equation ofstate which yields the surface interaction parameter, surface coverage and the correspondingarea per molecule A. The comparison of the surface tension σ at a given area per moleculeA reveals a strong alternation within the homologous series. Odd C2n±1 layers show alower surface tension than the adjacent even members C2n of the homologous series. Thiseffect is also present at low surface coverage (A =1.4nm2) and cannot be attributed to adifferences in the chain-packing within a crystalline state. Infrared-Visible Sum-FrequencyGeneration Spectroscopy (SFGS) has been used to monitor the orientation and chain orderwithin the aliphatic tail. SFGS spectra have been recorded for different chain lengths andat different areas per molecule. The analysis of the spectra yields an order parameterG which is proportional to the number of gauche defects within the aliphatic tail. Theodd-even effect in the surface tension turned out to be accompanied by an odd-even effectin the order parameter G. The data suggest that an ordered structure has a bigger impacton the surface tension than an unordered structure. The odd-even effect is also observedin the orientation of the terminating methyl group as retrieved by polarization dependentSFGS measurements. The data shed some light in the relation between molecular andmacroscopic properties. Furthermore surface dilatational viscoelastic properties of afluorinated amphiphile have been measured by a novel version of the oscillating bubble.The oscillating bubble method generates a non-equilibrium state by a harmonic compressionand expansion of the surface layer formed at the tip of a capillary. The surface state ismonitored by Surface Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). This technique is highly surfacespecific and discriminates between monolayer and subsurface coverage. Our set-up allowsto measure the monolayer coverage under dynamic conditions and to relate this to surfacedilatational viscosity and elasticity. For a purely elastic surface layer the prediction of theLucassen van den Temple model (LvdT) are fulfilled.

  • 12.
    Gepp, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hägglund, Jan-Erik
    Alfthan, Elisabeth
    Measuring cockling on-line in high speed inkjet printing2009In: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, 2009, p. 521-523Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cockling of paper is unwanted out-of-plane deformation arising from variations in humidity. Paper is typically characterised by measurements of dimensional changes when slowly changing the humidity or by measurements of cockling on printed paper after printing. Here, a novel experimental set-up is presented in which cockling can be measured on-line at high speed in the inkjet printing process. Cockling was recorded as a function of time. It is shown that the cockling is several orders of magnitude higher during printing than after printing. Measurements on three papers are reported.

     

     

  • 13.
    Jonas, Örtegren
    et al.
    KTH.
    Busson, Philippe
    KTH.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Chalmers.
    Cone motion viscosity and optical second harmonic generation of ferroelectric liquid crystalline dendrimers2001In: Liquid crystals (Print), ISSN 0267-8292, E-ISSN 1366-5855, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 861-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report second harmonic generation in a ferroelectric liquid crystalline trimer and ferroelectric liquid crystalline dendrimers of first, second and third generation. Thin cells were filled with the compounds by capillary forces at elevated temperature, and cooled from the surface stabilized ferroelectric state to below the glass transition temperature, while kept in an electric field. The cone motion viscosity and the threshold electric field for unwinding of the helix axis of the chiral tilted smectic mesophases were studied separately at elevated temperature, and these data were used to optimize the preparation of the films. The measured response time was between 0.3 and 3ms, which corresponds to a cone motion viscosity between 0.5 and 50 Pa s. Second harmonic generation was studied both at elevated temperature with an electric field and at room temperature with and without electric field. The first generation dendrimer exhibited a strong increase in the second order non-linear optical response with time at room temperature. The d23-coefficient of this dendrimer was approximately four times larger than for the other macromolecules and was 0.045 pm/V. The relatively large d-coe cient of the first generation dendrimer is ascribed to crystallization, which improved the orientation of the molecular dipoles.

  • 14.
    Lundberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Alfthan, Elisabeth
    On the Effect of Variations in paper composition on print quality2009In: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies 2009, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009, p. 316-319Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years, digital printing technology has begun to play a significant role in the printing industry due to the quest for short runs and variable data printing. Digital printing using inkjet technology makes heavy demands on the paper's ability to rapidly absorb liquid and thereby increases the need to understand what parameters that affect the dynamics and interactions between paper and ink and how print quality is affected by these parameters. In this paper, the print quality for nine pilot papers with varying composition and eight different commercial papers has been studied. The printouts have been made with two small office/Home office printers; the print quality measurements for this study have been line quality-measurements and color -gamut volume measurements. The line quality and the color gamut volume for the commercial papers and the pilot papers are discussed.

     

     

  • 15.
    Lundberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Alfthan, Elisabeth
    Kommendörsgatan 44, SE-114 58 Stockholm.
    Ström, Göran
    Innventia, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Microscale droplet absorption into paper for inkjet printing2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 142-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital printing using high-speed inkjet technology puts heavy demands on paper's ability to rapidly absorb the liquid. This is important for both the runability during the printing process and for the print quality. In this article, the dynamics of inkjet droplet absorption and penetration is discussed. The LucasWashburn equation has been applied to experimental results from inkjet printing on paper. The ink absorption on different paper grades is discussed in terms of the physical properties of the surface such as surface energy, surface roughness and porosity. The results of this study indicate that ASA used as internal sizing reduces the absorption speed of water based dye inkjet ink and that evaporation affects the result. The Lucas-Washburn equation can be used to some extent for describing micro-scale droplet absorption into paper, depending on the properties of the paper.

  • 16.
    Lundberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norberg, Ole
    Voxvil AB, 892 43 Domsjö, Sweden .
    Aggregation of Color pigments by Surface fixation treatment2011In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of a printed image is strongly influenced by the physical and the chemical interactions between the ink and the paper. Print quality can be evaluated either by objective measurements using instruments or by visual assessment studies involving panel of observers judging the final print. In this article, the print quality on commercial papers as well as on non-commercial papers with different amounts of salt for surface fixation has been studied. Perceived detail reproduction depends not only on sharp edge definition but also on the level of color saturation (Chroma). Color saturation and edge definition originate from two different ink and paper interaction processes. Color saturation is heavily dependent on ink penetration while edge definition correlates to ink spreading. In order to gain understanding of the performance of surface treatment by salt, large efforts have been put on splitting up of the increase in color saturation (Chroma) and improved edge definition. The printouts have been made with a desktop printer using pigmented inks. Cross section images have been taken with a light microscope to analyze the ink penetration depth. SEM analysis has been made to analyze the aggregation of the pigments on the surface. The print quality measurements have been both objective measurements such as print density and subjective image evaluation using a test panel of observers in a perceptual study. The perceptual study focused on detail reproduction, and efforts were made to separate the influence of the print density from the edge definition on the detail reproduction. The result from this study shows that an increased level of salt as surface fixation improves the detail reproduction due to aggregation of the pigments on the surface and that the ink penetration depth can be reduced by adding salt as surface fixation resulting in a higher print density.

  • 17.
    Lundberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norberg, Ole
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wågberg, K
    Improved Print quality by Surface fixation of Pigments2010In: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2010, , p. 5p. 251-255Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing is a non impact printing method that deposits a limited amount of ink onto the paper surface. To improve runnabillity and printability the demands on papers ability to rapidly absorb the fluid and make the colorants stay on the surface increase. These demands get more pronounced as the technology develops and the print speed significantly increases.

    The quality of a printed image is strongly influenced by the physical and the chemical interactions between the ink and the paper. Some print quality parameters can be measured objectively by physical measurements using instruments. Subjective print quality evaluation involves human judgments of the final print.

    In this article, the print quality on commercial papers as well as on trial papers with different amounts of salt for surface fixation has been studied. The printouts have been made with a desktop printer that uses pigmented inks. The print quality measurements have been both objective measurements such as print density and line quality and subjective image evaluation using a test panel in a perceptual study. The perceptual study focused on detail reproduction, and efforts were made to separate the influence of the print density from the edge definition on the detail reproduction. The study confirms the influence of ink and paper interaction on print quality and the relation to different levels of surface fixation.

  • 18. Marianne, Klaman
    et al.
    Erik, Blohm
    Per-Åke, Johansson
    Jon, Lofthus
    Viviane, Alecrim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jonas, Örtegren
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hybrid printing - print quality mechanisms when offset and inkjet are combined2011In: Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Vol. XXXVIII / [ed] IARIGAI, International Association of Research Organizations for the Information, Media and Graphic Arts Industrie (IARIGAI), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Niga, Petru
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Klaman, Marianne
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blohm, Erik
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lofthus, Jon
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hybrid printing: paper media for combined flexographic and inkjet printing2012In: Conference proceedings International Paper Physics Conference, Stockholm: Innventia , 2012, p. 79-81Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid printing combining inkjet technology with flexography can be used to add customer specific information into the production of packaging and print. However, in order to improve print quality, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms governing print quality is required. In this work, inkjet printing using three aqueous inkjet inks was performed on top of flexographic printouts on four paper substrates. For comparative reasons, inkjet printouts were made on the four papers as well. The flexographic film contained tone values ranging from 0 to 100% ink coverage. Line width and print density of the inkjet printouts were evaluated. It was found that paper characteristics such as surface energy, porosity, absorption coefficient and surface roughness play an important role in defining the final print quality. These findings are further supported by micrograph images.

  • 20.
    Niga, Petru
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Klaman, Marianne
    Innventia.
    Blohm, Erik
    Innventia.
    Lofthus, Jon
    Innventia.
    Hybrid package printing. Assessment of the influence of paper media parameters for inkjet printing on flexographic printed paper.2014In: Narrow WebTech, ISSN 1617-206X, no 1, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid printing combining inkjet technology with flexography can be used to add customer specific information in the production of packaging and print. However, in order to improve print quality a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms governing print quality is required. In this work, inkjet printing using three aqueous inkjet inks was performed on top of flexographic printouts on four paper substrates. The flexographic film contained tone values ranging from 0 to 100% ink coverage. Line quality and print density of the inkjet print were evaluated in order to estimate the influence of paper parameters on the print quality. Specifically, it was found that for the system studied, the flexographic film essentially dictates the surface energy while keeping the porosity and the surface roughness of the paper unaltered. These findings are further supported by micrograph images.

  • 21.
    Olsen, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Yang, Ya
    CAS Center for excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Science.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Frequency and voltage response of a wind-driven fluttering triboelectric nanogenerator2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 5543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG:s) are used as efficient energy transducers in energy harvesting converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Wind is an abundant source of mechanical energy but how should a good triboelectric wind harvester be designed? We have built and studied a TENG driven by air flow in a table-top sized wind tunnel. Our TENG constitutes of a plastic film of size10 cm × 2 cm which is fluttering between two copper electrodes generating enough power to light up a battery of LED:s. We measured the voltage and frequency of fluttering at different wind speeds from zero up to 8 m/s for three electrode distances 6 mm, 10 mm and 14 mm. We found that the frequency increases linearly with the wind speed with a cutoff at some low speed. Power was generated already at 1.6 m/s. We seem to be able to explain the observed frequency dependence on wind speed by assuming excitation of the film into different harmonics in response to von Kármán vortices. We also find that the voltage increase linearly with frequency. We anticipate that TENG:s of this design could be useful both as generators and speed sensors because they work at low air speeds.

  • 22.
    Olsen, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schottky model for triboelectric temperature dependence2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 5293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triboelectric effect, charging by contact, is the working principle in a device called a triboelectric nanogenerator. They are used as efficient energy transducers in energy harvesting. In such generators the charging of surfaces at contact is followed by a separation of the surfaces increasing the electrical energy which can subsequently be used. Different materials have different triboelectric potentials leading to charging at contact. The temperature dependence of the charging has just recently been studied: the triboelectric effect is decreasing with temperature for a generator of Al-PTFE-Cu. Here, we suggest a mechanism to explain this effect assuming ion transfer using a two-level Schottky model where the two levels corresponds to the two surfaces. The difference in binding energy for ions on the two surfaces then enters the formula for charging. We fit the triboelectric power density as a function of temperature obtained from a two-level Schottky model to measured data for nanogenerators made of Al-PTFE-Cu found in three references. We obtain an average separation energy corresponding to a temperature of 365 K which is of the right magnitude for physically adsorbed atoms. We anticipate that this model could be used for many types of triboelectric nanogenerators.

  • 23.
    Phadatare, Manisha R.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Deemed Univ, Maharashtra, India.
    Patil, Rohan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Meshram, Jagruti
    Deemed Univ, Maharashtra, India.
    Hernández, Guiomar
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Sathyanath, Sharath Kumar Manjeshwar
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Silicon-Nanographite Aerogel-Based Anodes for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 14621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the energy storage density of lithium-ion batteries, silicon anodes have been explored due to their high capacity. One of the main challenges for silicon anodes are large volume variations during the lithiation processes. Recently, several high-performance schemes have been demonstrated with increased life cycles utilizing nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, and thin films. However, a method that allows the large-scale production of silicon anodes remains to be demonstrated. Herein, we address this question by suggesting new scalable nanomaterial-based anodes. Si nanoparticles were grown on nanographite flakes by aerogel fabrication route from Si powder and nanographite mixture using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This silicon-nanographite aerogel electrode has stable specific capacity even at high current rates and exhibit good cyclic stability. The specific capacity is 455 mAh g−1 for 200th cycles with a coulombic efficiency of 97% at a current density 100 mA g−1.

  • 24. Rehberger, M
    et al.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, A
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    VDP on packaging - Elementary velocity study on inkjet-printed papers for corrugated board production2010In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphics Arts, TAGA, 2010, p. 198-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of the "HybSpeed Printing" Project at Innventia AB is to facilitate the combination of a conventional printing process with inkjet printing, in-line, in the converting process. Inkjet print is "the" printing technique for adding variable data to a conventional printed layout (van Daele, 2005). It is already available, but the current processes do not guarantee high-quality print at high speed, but the constant progress in inkjet technology will mean that this is soon provided. The aim of the present project is to evaluate the practicability of attaining high-quality variable-data print (VDP) at high speed.

  • 25. Wandtke, K.-D.
    et al.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fruhner, H.
    Andersen, A.
    Motschmann, H.
    The influence of the sublayer on the surface dilatational modulus2005In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 261, no 1-3, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency dependence of the surface dilatational modulus is valuable for an assessment of surface models of aqueous surfactant solutions. Precise data of the complex surface dilatational modulus can be obtained with an oscillating bubble device. The technique covers a broad frequency range (3–500 Hz) and has been used to study several surfactant systems. So far, the surface rheology has been mainly described by the well-established Lucassen–van den Tempel–Hansen model (LvdTH model). This model can describe the dynamic surface behavior of many surfactant solutions, but a few puzzles remain. First, the measured data do not match the corresponding model fit, in particular near the CMC or the limit of solubility. Moreover, the frequency dependence of the modulus of some surfactant systems provides clear evidence for the existence of an intrinsic surface dilatational viscosity. All contradictions and observational facts can be bridged by applying the Guggenheim convention with an extended surface phase, which explicitly includes a molecular exchange between the monolayer and an adjacent sublayer as intrinsic properties. Neglecting these substructures one obtains the classical Gibbs model of the surface. Furthermore, the model takes into consideration the dissipative losses in the extended effective surface layer. The significance of this finding requires an independent verification; therefore, independent measurements with surface second harmonic generation, SHG, have been carried out. SHG is a non-linear optical technique with an inherent surface specificity. It can be used for the measurement of the monolayer coverage under dynamic conditions. SHG measurements carried out on an oscillating bubble provide evidences for the extended surface model. The surface dilatational viscosity is a system quantity which has consequences for variety of technological processes such as high speed coating processes. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that surface dilatational viscosity is a prerequisite for stable foams. The paper discusses also the surface properties of high concentrated solutions and solutions of surfactant/polyelectrolyte mixtures, which require a different treatment.

  • 26.
    Wantke, K-D
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institute.
    Fruhner, H.
    Max-Planck-Institute.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Max-Planck-Institute.
    Surface dilational properties of mixed sodium dodecyl sulfate/dodecanol solutions2003In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 221, no 1-3, p. 185-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface dilatational properties of aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and n-dodecanol areinvestigated in the frequency range 15/f5/500 Hz using the oscillating bubble method. The results demonstrate that apure dodecanol solution has an elastic surface without viscous effect whereas the surface of a SDS solution withoutadded dodecanol exhibits a strong viscoelastic behavior. Mixtures show graduated properties. The time behavior oftheir surface dilatational moduli demonstrates that dodecanol molecules drive the SDS molecules slowly out of thesurface. Therefore, the known one-component model describing the surface dilatational modulus can be used also forthese mixtures. A simple theoretical consideration explains this effect.

  • 27.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    High-performance transparent and flexible electrodes made by flash-light sintering of gold nanoparticles2018In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 1, no 12, p. 7191-7198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic nanowire-based transparent electrodes (TEs) are potential alternatives to indium tin oxide (ITO). To achieve a high performance [sheet resistance (Rs) < 100 Ω/sq, transmittance (T%) > 90%], the nanowires must have a high length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio to minimize the number of wire-to-wire junctions. Attempts to produce TEs with gold nanowires have been made, and the results reveal difficulties in achieving the requirements. A successful strategy involves creating templated gold nanonetworks through multiple procedures. Here, we present a simple and efficient method that uses flash-light sintering of a gold nanonetwork film into gold TEs (Rs: 82.9 Ω/sq, T %: 91.79%) on a thin polycarbonate film (25 μm). The produced gold TEs have excellent mechanical, electrical, optical, and chemical stabilities. Mechanisms of the formation of gold nanonetworks and the effect of flash-light have been analyzed. Our findings provide a scalable process for producing transparent and flexible gold electrodes with a total processing time of less than 8 min without the use of heating, vacuum processing, and organic chemicals and without any material loss. This is possible because all the gold nanoparticles have been aggregated and filtrated on the filter membranes. The area density of gold is 0.094 g/m2 leading low material costs, which is very competitive with the price of commercial TEs.

  • 28.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Photoconductivity of acid exfoliated and flash-light-processed MoS2 films2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 3296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MoS2 has been studied intensively during recent years as a semiconducting material in several fields, including optoelectronics, for applications such as solar cells and phototransistors. The photoresponse mechanisms of MoS2 have been discussed but are not fully understood, especially the phenomenon in which the photocurrent slowly increases. Here, we report on a study of the photoresponse flash-light-processed MoS2 films of different thicknesses and areas. The photoresponse of such films under different light intensities and bias voltages was measured, showing significant current changes with a quick response followed by a slow one upon exposure to pulsed light. Our in-depth study suggested that the slow response was due to the photothermal effect that heats the MoS2; this hypothesis was supported by the resistivity change at different temperatures. The results obtained from MoS2 films with various thicknesses indicated that the minority-carrier diffusion length was 1.36 mu m. This study explained the mechanism of the slow response of the MoS2 film and determined the effective thickness of MoS2 for a photoresponse to occur. The method used here for fabricating MoS2 films could be used for fabricating optoelectronic devices due to its simplicity.

  • 29.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nanogenerator made of ZnO nanosheet networks2017In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 32, no 5, article id 054002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The piezoelectricity of nanomaterials attracts a great deal of attention due to its broad application, including the harvesting of ambient mechanical energy to power small electronics devices. We report here a simple method to fabricate piezoelectric nanogenerators consisting of networks of ZnO nanosheets grown on aluminum (Al) foils, where the Al acts as both a substrate for growth and as an electrode contacting the ZnO network. A second, top electrode was tapped, rolled, or rubbed against the ZnO to generate piezoelectricity. This second electrode was either a copper foil or fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. A piezo voltage of up to 0.924 V was detected during rolling and 6 μA was the highest current observed when rubbing the ZnO film with a FTO glass. Due to its simplicity, this nanogenerator fabrication method has the potential to be scaled up for the industrial production of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  • 30.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Interaction of the human body with triboelectric nanogenerators2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 57, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) is a new technique for energy harvesting at both small and large scales. Almost all types of mechanical energy can be harvested with TENGs by using four modes of operation that cover almost all mechanical motions. The interactions of the human body with TENGs range from energy harvesting, motion sensing, and biomedical applications to human-computer communications. Different types of TENGs have been developed to directly or indirectly involve the human body. This review will summarize the recent advances in the interaction of the human body with TENGs.

  • 31.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Yang, Ya
    CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, P. R. China.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Human body constituted triboelectric nanogenerators as energy harvesters, code transmitters and motion sensors2018In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 2955-2960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human skin is a dielectric material that can be used as a triboelectric material for harvesting energy from body motions. The output power of such a human skin-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is relatively low. Here, we assembled high-output human body constituted TENGs (H-TENGs) by taking advantage of the unique electrical properties of the human body, such as high skin impedance, low tissue resistance, body capacitance, and conductivity. The output of a H-TENG can reach 30 W/m2, which is enough to drive small electronic devices, such as a timer or a calculator. The unique feature of the H-TENG is that it can perform the four fundamental modes of TENGs, which has not been reported elsewhere. Such a feature allows the H-TENG to act as a code transmitter to send light and electrical signals, such as Morse code. H-TENGs also benefit the development of high-performance, self-powered body motion sensors. Our findings suggest new strategies for harvesting energy from human body motions, as well as new types of motion sensors and signal senders.

  • 32.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Yang, Ya
    Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, PR China.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Balliu, Enkeleda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wang, Zhong Lin
    Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, PR China; Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sensing body motions based on charges generated on the body2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 63, article id 103842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensing of body motions is of great importance in areas such as healthcare, rehabilitation, and human-computer interactions. Different methods have been developed based on visual or electrical signals. However, such signals are acquired by external devices and are not intrinsic signals that are created on the body. Here, we report a new universal body motion sensor (UBS) to detect motions based on the intrinsic contact electrification (CE) of the skin or electrical induction (EI) of the body. The CE or EI generates charges on the body, leading to potential differences between the body and ground that can be measured to identify different body motions, such as motions of the head, arms, fingers, waist, legs, feet and toes. Proof-of-concept experiments have demonstrated that the UBS can be used to monitor the conditions of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to quantitatively monitor the recovery of those with a leg injury, suggesting great potential for healthcare applications.

  • 33.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Harvesting triboelectricity from the human body using non-electrode triboelectric nanogenerators2018In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 45, p. 298-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triboelectrification has been known and discussed since antiquity. Triboelectrification occurs in the human body due to friction between human skin and other materials such as clothing. However, charges on the body have not been harvested to power small electronics. Here, we report for the first time that the electricity generated on the human body due to triboelectrification can be measured and harvested using human body-based non-electrode triboelectric nanogenerators (H-TENGs). The H-TENGs can have an output of up to 3.3 W/m(2) and can spontaneously harvest energy from several people. The functions of the human body in the H-TENGs are analyzed and experimentally proven to be those of a triboelectric material, conductor and capacitor. Our results demonstrate that the triboelectricity generated on a human body can be harvested using H-TENGs and provide scientific insights into body functions that will promote further studies of TENGs.

  • 34.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sintering Methods for Metal Nanoparticle Inks on Flexible Substrates2009In: NIP 25: DIGITAL FABRICATION 2009, TECHNICAL PROGRAM AND PROCEEDINGS, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009, p. 614-617Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a number of selective sintering methods suitable for inkjet printed nanoparticles are demonstrated on two different coated papers. The selective methods demonstrated here are electric current heating, microwave sintering and photonic curing. As a reference, conventional heat chamber sintering is also included. Conductivity measurements and studies of sintered structures with optical and scanning electron microscopy are performed, as well as a qualitative evaluation of how the heat-sensitive substrates are affected. The purpose is to analyze characteristics of each method and gain insight in how different process parameters affect overall performance and reliability. With heat chamber sintering the best achievable conductivity without substrate deformation corresponded to less than 20% of pure silver. With some selective methods, conductivity reached well above 50% of pure silver.

     

     

  • 35.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The importance of surface characteristics for structure definition of silver nanoparticle ink patterns on paper surfaces2010In: NIP26 and Digital Fabrication, Austin: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2010, p. 309-313Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Paper Surfaces for Metal Nanoparticle Inkjet Printing2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 259, p. 731-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread usage of paper and board offer largely unexploited possibilities for printed electronics applications. Reliability and performance of printed devices on comparatively rough and inhomogenous surfaces of paper does however pose challenges.Silver nanoparticle ink has been deposited on ten various paper substrates by inkjet printing. The papers are commercially available, and selected over a range of different types and construction. A smooth nonporous polyimide film was included as a nonporous reference substrate. The substrates have been characterized in terms of porosity, absorption rate, apparent surface energy, surface roughness and material content. The electrical conductivity of the resulting printed films have been measured after drying at 60°C and again after additional sintering at 110°C. A qualitative analysis of the conductivity differences on the different substrates based on surface characterization and SEM examination is presented. Measurable parameters of importance to the final conductivity are pointed out, some of which are crucial to achieve conductivity. When certain criteria of the surfaces are met, paper media can be used as low cost, but comparably high performance substrates for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

  • 37.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Alfthan, Elisabeth
    Hägglund, Jan-Erik
    Paper for high speed inkjet: a study on dimensional stability and print quality2012In: Conference proceedings International Paper Physics Conference, Innventia AB, 2012, p. 129-130Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing technology has developed in recent years, and inkjet machines for print production are now on the market. Inkjet printing at high speed puts new demands on the paper. In this work, pilot papers with known content were produced in a pilot paper machine. Inkjet printing was carried out with waterbased inkjet ink and dimensional stability and print quality were evaluated.

  • 38.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Nina
    Alberius, Peter
    Bergström, Lennart
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Spectroscopic investigations of spirooxazine and spiropyran incorporated in hybrid organic/inorganic silica particles2005In: Proceedings of SPIE: Nanophotonic Materials and Systems II, Redondo Beach, CA: SPIE , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Eklund, Johan
    Norstedt-Moberg, Jakob
    Alfthan, Elisabeth
    Hägglund, Jan-Erik
    Engisch, Lutz
    Erikson, Arne
    Inkjet Printing Dynamics: Influence on Ink Distribution in Paper and Print Quality2007In: NIP 23: 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES, TECHNICAL PROGRAM AND PROCEEDINGS/DIGITAL FABRICATION 2007, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2007, p. 595-598Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet technology is becoming established as a production method and emerges as a printing technology for printing functionalities on various media. The development has encouraged intensified research in the fields of inkjet technology and paper media. The work presented here is pail of a research program that attempts to bridge the gap between the two disciplines. The overall objective is to control and improve the print quality and print functionality by observing and controlling the dynamic processes that occur in paper media in the inkjet printing process. Detailed information about the dynamic processes is however not available with the experimental methods present today, and improvements of experimental techniques is consequently a prerequisite for a better understanding. Therefore, inkjet printing machines were built and tested The printers allow for inkjet printing with various types of inks and print heads at freely chosen paper feeding speed Methods to study the inkjet printing process in-situ by use of camera and high-speed video camera were developed It is shown that the in-situ methods capture spreading and absorption processes of inkjet droplets on still-standing paper and paper fed at high speed The in-situ measurements and analysis are discussed in terms of relevant print quality parameters.

  • 40.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Swedish Defence Research Establishment.
    Pyroelectric liquid crystalline polymers for second order nonlinear optics2002In: Recent Research Developments in Optics, 2 / [ed] S.G. Pandalai, India: Trivandrum Research Signpost , 2002, p. 53-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundberg, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ink -Media Interaction: Aggregation Of Color Pigments By Salt With Different Valency And Impact On Print Quality2014In: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2014, p. 437-439Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We previously reported on the effect of surface properties on inkjet print quality and print functionality. Printing can furthermore be used to effectively functionalize paper surfaces or to modify surface properties of paper for subsequent inkjet printing. Migration of molecules and particles from the paper surface may cause destabilization of the pigment dispersion and result in aggregation of pigments, as shown previously for different concentrations of calcium chloride at the surface of uncoated paper. In this work, utilizing standardized methods such as inkjet printing, ink draw down and print density measurements, it is shown that surface functionalisation using di- and trivalent salts may effectively destabilize a pigment dispersion, causing aggregation of pigments which in turn has a major impact on the print quality.

  • 42. Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Wantke, Klaus-Dieter
    Motschmann, Hubert
    An oscillating bubble device for direct measurement of molecular exchange processes at the air-liquid interface in the medium frequency range2003In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 74, no 12, p. 5167-5172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment for the investigation of the exchange dynamics of adsorbed and dissolved surfactantsat the air–water interface is described. The experiment combines two established techniques: themethod of the oscillating bubble generates in a well-defined fashion a nonequilibrium state by aperiodic compression and expansion of the surface layer. The state of the adsorption layer is theninvestigated by surface second harmonic generation ~SHG!. SHG is a second order nonlinear opticaltechnique, which probes only the adsorbed molecules. Contribution of the bulk is widely suppressedand information on the orientational order of the surfactant and the corresponding number densityof the adsorbed species are gained. These data are of utmost importance to assess the establishedmodels of Gibbs adsorption layer. The combination of the nonlinear optical technique with a rapidlyoscillating bubble imposes severe experimental hurdles such as the synchronization of the laserpulses with the state of the bubble or problems arising from a bad signal to noise ratio. Theexperimental setup discussed in this article overcomes these problems and outlines all relevantdesign parameters.

  • 43. Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Wantke, Klaus-Dieter
    Motschmann, Hubert
    Möhwald, Helmut
    A study of kinetic molecular exchange processes in the medium frequency range by surface SHG on an oscillating bubble2004In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 279, p. 266-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dilatational properties of fluid surfaces and interfaces have been comprehensively investigated in recent years. For example, an im-proved oscillating bubble device provided experimental results that allow for critical testing of established surface models, such as theLucassen/van den Tempel (LvdT) model. The comparison of the LvdT model with the oscillating bubble experiments demonstrates a mis-match between the model parameters. For example, near the CMC or the limit of solubility the calculated parameters of surfactant solutionsbecome unrealistically large. The deviation can be explained by the introduction of more detailed surface models, in particular by the mod-ification of the effective thickness of the surface layer, its internal structure and the molecular exchange processes between these structures.For the verification of such processes an experimental setup was realized which allows for an independent determination of the instanta-neous adsorption state at the surface of an oscillating bubble inside a surfactant solution. The setup utilizes the Second Harmonic Generation(SHG)—effect at the air–solution interface generated by the light of a pulsed LASER. The set-up is described in detail, and the results of afirst experimental series are presented and discussed in this paper. As system, aqueous solutions of the fluortenside F381 were used.

  • 44.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Niga, Petru
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Makeen, Khalid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Print quality issues concerning inkjet printing of colour and electronics on paper2012In: PTS Symposium: Paper and Imaging 2012, Munich, Germany, 2012, p. 251-263Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The market value of the digital printing technologies electrophotography and inkjet is expected to grow during this decade. The introduction of multicolour high speed inkjet machines in recent years has again turned print quality into an important issue. In addition, the combination of digital printing and traditional printing technologies for variable data print production requires paper and ink which gives good and comparable print quality using different printing technologies. Printed electronics, most commonly utilizing the printing technologies screen, gravure, flexography or inkjet, is forecasted a bright future. The interest in paper as print media for printed electronics and flexible electronics has recently increased, mainly due to the widespread usage of paper, the low cost of paper, and due to the fact that paper is produced mainly from natural renewable resources. The requirements on the print concern here not primarily the visual impression, but rather the functionality, for example the conductivity of printed tracks.

    We have studied the effect of surface treatment of paper on inkjet print quality; we have looked more closely at the effect of different paper surface parameters, and shown that these parameters can have a large impact on both chroma and detail reproduction when printing with pigmented inkjet inks. Combination of inkjet with traditional printing technologies can give good print quality when carefully combining printing technology, ink and print media. Moreover, some knowledge concerning printing of colour may be transferred to the field of printed electronics, although the prerequisites on the print products are quite different. We have studied how the surface properties of coated paper affects the electrical conductivity and the print quality of inkjet printed electronics. In addition, coating of paper surfaces by laboratory methods and evaluation of functionality has been performed. The work is a base for our ongoing research on adding of functionalities to paper and packaging in a flexible and cost efficient way by utilization of printing technologies and novel materials.

1 - 44 of 44
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