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  • 1.
    Abdalla, Suliman
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim [Lundgren], Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Architecture and Circuit Design for Color X-Ray Pixal Array Detector Read-Out Electronics2007In: 24th Norchip Conference, 2006, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 271-276, article id 4126997Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an area- and power-efficient implementation of the read-out electronics for color X-ray pixel detectors for imaging. Introducing multiple levels of energy discrimination will increase the complexity of the read-out electronics in each pixel. The proposed architecture has full resolution for the intensity and reduced resolution for the energy spectrum (color), which leads to a good compromise of image quality and circuit complexity. We show that the increase in complexity, compared to single energy-range pixel, will lead to increase in circuit area of less than 20%.

  • 2.
    Alam, Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Online surface roughness characterization of paper and paperboard using a line of light triangulation technique2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 662-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within both the paper and paperboard industries, real time monitoring and measurement of surface roughness of a paper moving at high velocities is an important and challenging area of research. The uniform surface, for an entire production, can be effectively achieved by monitoring and controlling the paper surface roughness, in real time during the manufacturing steps. Presently the majority of paper industries rely on traditional laboratory profilometers. The obvious limitations of lab profilometers are that these are slow, do not measure the quality of entire reels but rather deal with only a few small pieces of samples taken from the end of the reels and it is difficult to make any possible correction in the productionlines without knowing the online roughness data. To eradicate the disadvantages associated with conventional measurements, an online prototype instrument has been developed that measures the surface roughness during the manufacturing steps, and is based on a line of lighttriangulation technique. The prototype technique will be of assistance in ensuring tight process control in order to maintain both a better and auniform quality throughout the entire production. It measures the whole reel, meter by meter, in traditional units of roughness and is also capable of characterizing the topography in a wide range of wavelength spectra. The article presents the online analyses results obtained from the developed prototype. The real time measurements, in a paperboard pilot mill, have successfully characterized and distinguished 16 different grades of newspaper and paperboard reels including reels which have the same family of quality grades and materials.

  • 3.
    Alam, Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Online surface characterization of paper and paperboards in a wide-range of the spatial wavelength spectrum2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 258, no 20, p. 7928-7935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the paper industry, surface topography is the essence of both paper and paperboard, and accurate topographical measurements are equally essential in order to achieve a uniform smooth surface. The traditional laboratory methods measure only a few samples from the entire tambour and there are other obvious limitations to this approach. Online measurements may be of significant value to improve the surface quality throughout the production. Roughness is one of the topography components and the majority of techniques measure paper by means of a single predictor of average roughness, R a which is inadequate in providing a comprehensive characterization of the surface. Measurements, in a wide range ofwavelengths, can characterize topography components such as roughness, waviness, cockling, etc. Online measurements were taken for various grades of 8 paper reels, containing the wireside and topsides for newspaper, and uncoated and coated sides of paperboards. Their surfacecharacterization, in the spatial wavelength spectrum, from 0.1 to 10 mm was obtained. This article presents the online characterizationresults which have efficiently distinguished the surfaces of same family materials including the edge and the middle position reels of fine coatedpaperboard. Online measurements were taken, at Iggesund Paperboard Pilot Coater in Sweden, by using a recently developed OnlineTopography (OnTop) device which is based on the principle of light triangulation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Alam, Mohammad Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Real time surface measurement technique in a wide range of wavelengths spectrum2014In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real time surface topography measurement in the paper and paperboard industries is a challenging research field. The existing online techniques measure only a small area of paper surface and estimate topographical irregularities in a narrow scale as a single predictor. Considering the limitations and complications in measuring the surface at high speed, a laser line triangulation technique is explored to measure surface topography in a wide scale. The developed technique is new for the paper and paperboard application that scans a line onto the paper-web surface up to 210 mm in length in the cross machine direction. The combination of a narrow laser linewidth imaging, a subpixel resolution, and the selection of a unique measurement location has made it possible to measure roughness and simultaneously characterize paper surface topography from 0.1 to 30 mm spatial wavelength. This spatial range covers wide scale surface properties such as roughness, cockling, and waviness. The technique clearly distinguishes and characterizes the surface of newspaper, and lightweight coated, coated, and uncoated paperboard in real time during the paper manufacturing process. The system temporal noise for the average roughness is estimated as 37 dB. The signal to noise ratio found is from 5.4 to 8.1 in the short spatial wavelength up to 1 mm, whereas it is more than 75 in the long spatial wavelength from 5 to 10 mm.

  • 5.
    Alam, Mohammad Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Westerlind, Christina
    Performance and Prototyping Laboratory, SCA AB, Research and Development Centre, Sundsvall 852 37, Sweden .
    Limitation of a line-of-light online paper surface measurement system2014In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 2715-2724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new prototype device has been developed based on a laser triangulation principle to measure online surface topography in the paper and paperboard industries. It characterizes the surface in a wide spatial scale of topography from 0.09-10 mm. The prototype's technique projects a narrow line-of-light perpendicularly onto the moving paper-Web surface and scattered reflected light is collected at a low angle, low specular, and reduced coherent length onto the CCD sensors synchronized with the laser sources. The scattering phenomenon determines surface deviations in the z-direction. The full-width, at half-maximum of a laser line in cross section is sensitive in computation of the surface topography. The signal processing aspect of the image processing, for example, threshold and filtering algorithms are also sensitive in estimating the accurate surface features. Moreover, improper light illumination, intensity, reflection, occlusion, surface motion, and noise in the imaging sensor, and so forth, all contribute to deteriorate the measurements. Optical techniques measure the surface indirectly and, in general, an evaluation of the performance and the limitations of the technique are both essential and challenging. The paper describes the accuracy, uncertainty, and limitations of the developed technique in the raw profiles and in terms of the rms roughness. The achieved image subpixel resolution is 0.01 times a pixel. Statistically estimated uncertainty (2σ) in the laboratory environment was found 0.05 μm for a smooth sample, which provides a 95% confidence level in the rms roughness results. The depth of field of the prototype is ~2.4 mm.

  • 6.
    Alam, Mohammad Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Westerlind, Christina
    SCA R&D Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Investigation of the surface topographical differences between the Cross Direction and the Machine Direction for newspaper and paperboard2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 468-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper and paperboard surface quality is constantly being improved by the industry. This improvement work deals with the essential fact that the surface topography must be measured, both in relation to offline and online measurements for the manufactured products. Most measurements relating to surface topography (especially online) are performed either in the machine direction (MD) or in the cross direction (CD). It has been the opinion of SCA Ortviken AB and Iggesund Paperboard AB that the surface topography amplitudes are almost always higher in the CD than in the MD, for their products which consist of newspaper and paperboard. This article aims to investigate the rela-tionship between the CD and the MD surface topography amplitudes for a wide range of spatial wavelength for both newspaper and paperboard. The tests and investiga-tions have been conducted using an FRT Microprof profilometer within the range 20 μm up to 8 mm, and the results confirm that the surface topography amplitudes are higher in the CD for most of the shorter spatial wavelength within this range. The results also show significant differences between measurements for different paper qualities, suggesting a requirement to investigate the relationship between the CD and the MD topography for all paper and paperboard qualities of interest for a paper or paperboard mill, before a decision is made in relation to a measurement method.

  • 7.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Behavioral Level Simulation Methods for Early Noise Coupling Quantification in Mixed-Signal Systems2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, noise coupling simulation is introduced into the behavioral level. Methods and models for simulating on-chip noise coupling at a behavioral level in a design flow are presented and verified for accuracy and validity. Today, designs of electronic systems are becoming denser and more and more mixed-signal systems such as System-on-Chip (SoC) are being devised. This raises problems when the electronics components start to interfere with each other. Often, digital components disturb analog components, introducing noise into the system causing degradation of the performance or even introducing errors into the functionality of the system. Today, these effects can only be simulated at a very late stage in the design process, causing large design iterations and increased costs if the designers are required to return and make alterations, which may have occurred at a very early stage in the process. This is why the focus of this work is centered on extracting noise coupling simulation models that can be used at a very early design stage such as the behavioral level and then follow the design through the various design stages. To realize this, SystemC is selected as a platform and implementation example for the behavioral level models. SystemC supports design refinement, which means that when designs are being refined and are crossing the design levels, the noise coupling models can also be refined to suit the current design. This new way of thinking in primarily mixed-signal designs is called Behavioral level Noise Coupling (BeNoC) simulation and shows great promise in enabling a reduction in the costs of design iterations due to component cross-talk and simplifies the work for mixed-signal system designers.

  • 8.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simulating Behavioral Level On-Chip Noise Coupling2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, noise coupling simulation is introduced into the behavioral level. Methods andmodels for simulating on-chip noise coupling at the behavioral level in a design flow are presentedand verified for accuracy and validity. Today, designs of electronic systems are becoming denserand more and more mixed-signal systems such as System-on-Chip (SoC) are being devised. Thisraises problems when the electronics components start to interfere with each other. Often, digitalcomponents disturb analog components, introducing noise into the system causing degradation ofthe performance or even introducing errors into the functionality of the system.Today, these effects can only be simulated at a very late stage in the design process, causinglarge design iterations and increased costs if the designers are required to return and makealterations, which may have occurred at a very early stage in the process.This is why the focus of this work is centered on extracting noise coupling simulation modelsthat can be used at a very early design stage, such as at the behavioral level and then follow thedesign through the various design stages. To achieve this, SystemC is selected as a platform andimplementation example for the behavioral level models. SystemC supports design refinement,which means that when designs are being refined and are crossing the design levels, the noisecoupling models can also be refined to suit the current design.This new method of thinking in primarily mixed-signal designs is called Behavioral levelNoise Coupling (BeNoC) simulation and shows great promise in enabling a reduction in the costsof design iterations due to component cross-talk and simplifies the work for mixed-signal systemdesigners.

  • 9.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdalla, Suliman
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of Mixed-Signal Noise Effects in Photon Counting X-Ray Image Sensor Readout Circuits2006In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 563, no 1, p. 88-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In readout electronics for photon counting pixel detectors, the tight integration between analog and digital blocks causes the readout electronics to be sensitive to on-chip noise coupling. This noise coupling can result in faulty luminance values in grayscale X-ray images, or as color distortions in a color X-ray imaging system. An exploration of simulating noise coupling in readout circuits is presented which enables the discovery of sensitive blocks at as early a stage as possible, in order to avoid costly design iterations. The photon counting readout system has been simulated for noise coupling in order to highlight the existing problems of noise coupling in X-ray imaging systems. The simulation results suggest that on-chip noise coupling should be considered and simulated in future readout electronics systems for X-ray detectors.

  • 10.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdalla, Suliman
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Power Distribution and Substrate Noise Coupling Investigations on the Behavioral Level for Photon Counting Imaging Readout Circuits2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 576, no 1, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern mixed-signal system design, there are increasing problems associated with noise coupling caused by switching digital parts to sensitive analog parts. As a consequence, there is a growing necessity to understand these problems. In order to avoid costly design iterations, noise coupling simulations should be initiated as early as possible in the design chain. The problems associated with on-chip noise coupling have been discovered in photon counting pixel detector readout systems, where the level of integration of analog and digital circuits is very high on a very small area, and it would appear that these problems will continue to increase for future system designs in this field. This paper deals with the functionality of utilizing behavioral level models for simulating noise coupling in these readout systems. The methods and models are described and simulation results are shown for a photon counting pixel detector readout system.

  • 11.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ytterdal, T.
    Eriksson, P.
    Abdalla, Munir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A power-line noise coupling estimation methodology for architectural exploration of mixed-signal systems2003In: Proceedings of the Southwest Symposium on Mixed-Signa Design, IEEE Press, 2003, p. 133-137, article id 1190412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents methods for early estimation of digital to analog noise coupling over the power distribution network in mixed-signal systems. The methods allow both behavioral verification of mixed-signal architectures and their sensitivity to noise coupling of the power distribution network. The behavioral level noise coupling simulation models are implemented as extensions to the SystemC system design language. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, we have estimated the power distribution network noise for a photon-counting X-ray pixel array and compared this with SPICE simulations.

  • 12.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ytterdal, Trond
    Eriksson, Patrik
    Abdalla, Munir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O´Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Behavioral Simulation of Power Line Noise Coupling in Mixed-Signal Systems using SystemC2003In: ISVLSI 2003: IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI, PROCEEDINGS - NEW TRENDS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR VLSI SYSTEMS DESIGN, IEEE , 2003, p. 275-277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents methods for early quantification of digital to analog noise coupling at behavioral level. The methods enable designers to both verify the behavior of their mixed-signal architecture and its sensitivity to noise coupling. The high-level noise coupling simulation models are implemented as extensions to SystemC.

  • 13.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simulating behavioral level on-chip noise coupling using systemCManuscript (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdalla, Suliman
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    An Area Efficient Readout Architecture for Photon Counting Color Imaging2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 576, no 1, p. 132-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of several energy levels, namely color imaging, in photon counting X-ray image sensors is a trade-off between circuit complexity and spatial resolution. In this paper we propose a pixel architecture that has full resolution for the intensity and uses sub-sampling for the energy spectrum. The results show that this sub-sampling pixel architecture produces images with an image quality which is, on average, 2.4 dB (PSNR) higher than those for a single energy range architecture and with half the circuit complexity of that for a full sampling architecture.

  • 15.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ytterdal, T.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simplified Gate Level Noise Injection Models for Behavioral Noise Coupling Simulation2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design: 28 Aug.-2 Sept. 2005, Cork, Ireland, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, Vol. 3, p. 345-348, article id 1523131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In CMOS digital logic, there are two major noise sources requiring consideration. These are a circuit´s power supply current and its noise current injected into the substrate of the circuit. This paper proposes a method for modeling and estimating the noise current injected into the substrate by capacitive coupling in digital circuits. The simplicity of the model and the reduction of details in the technology libraries facilitates behavioral level noise coupling simulation. The model is exemplified and evaluated for a simple NOT gate test case, for which the accuracy and simplicity of the models show great promise for simulation at the behavioral level.

  • 16.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ytterdal, Trond
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Noise injection models for behavioral level noise coupling simulationManuscript (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ytterdal, Trond
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Taking Mixed-Signal Substrate Noise Coupling Simulation to the Behavoral Level using SystemC2004In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on System-on-Chip for Real-Time Applications (IWSOC 2004)), 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents methods and models to simulate substrate noise coupling at the behavioral level. The models are implemented as a part of the SystemC based Behavioral level Noise Coupling (BeNoC) simulation application. The application is designed as a wrapper to SystemC component modules, enabling designers to simulate substrate noise coupling in their modules during the entire circuit refinement process. This is enabled through the two main contributions presented in this paper: (1) methods to connect the behavioral level with low level circuit simulations and (2) generation of a fast and accurate circuit model for substrate coupling simulations. The accuracy of the generated substrate noise coupling model is verified against device simulations. The same verification test case is used to demonstrate the connection between behavioral simulations and circuit simulations.

  • 18.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ytterdal, Trond
    Vonbum, Kristian
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Substrate Noise Coupling models for Behavioral Mixed-Signal Simulation in SystemC2004In: Proceedings. 4th IEEE International Workshop on System-on-Chip for Real-Time Applications, (IWSOC'04), 2004, 2004, p. 201-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present methods and models to simulate substrate noise coupling at the behavioral level. The models are implemented as a part of the SystemC based Behavioral level Noise Coupling (BeNoC) simulation application. The application is designed as a wrapper to SystemC component modules, enabling designers to simulate substrate noise coupling in their modules during the entire circuit refinement process. This is enabled through the two main contributions presented in this paper: (1) methods to connect the behavioral level with low level circuit simulations and (2) generation of a fast and accurate circuit model for substrate coupling simulations. The accuracy of the generated substrate noise coupling model is verified against device simulations. The same verification test case is used to demonstrate the connection between behavioral simulations and circuit simulations.

  • 19.
    O´Nils, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A SystemC Extension for Behavioral Level Quantification of Noise-Coupling in Mixed-Signal Systems2003In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL III - GENERAL & NONLINEAR CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Vol 3, IEEE , 2003, , p. 898-901p. 898-901Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method, based on SystemC, for quantification of noise coupling in mixed-signal systems, called BeNoC. Presented method facilitates seamless quantification of both power-line and substrate noise coupling at behavioral level. The main contribution of this approach is the integration of noise coupling simulation with behavioral functional simulation. Starting from a behavioral model of the system, captured in SystemC, we add wrappers to each block in the behavioral model. These wrappers add an estimated power consumption model for each block, which is triggered by events in the behavioral simulation. The noise coupling simulation is then done by connecting the different blocks according to a virtual layout and technology parameters. The resulting noisy substrate or noisy power-line can then be fed back into the behavioral model. Thus, effects on the system behavior can be analyzed. In this paper we focus on noise coupling over the power-supply network and demonstrating the usability of noise coupling simulation technique. The simulation results are compared with SPICE simulations.

  • 20.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Threshold Modulation for Continuous Energy Resolution with Two Channels per Pixel in a Photon Counting X-ray Image Detector2009In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 607, no 1, p. 236-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of energy resolution in X-ray image detectors will lead to tradeoffs between circuit complexity and spatial/energy resolution in the pixel design. The proposed method provides continuous energy resolution with only two energy channels per pixel, which is a comparable complexity to that of a window discriminator pixel like Medipix2. The paper illustrates the method and validates the method through analytical analysis and through simulation of real and synthetic data.

  • 21.
    Reza, Salim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Non-Destructive Method to Resolve the Core and the Coating on Paperboard by Spectroscopic X-ray Imaging2013In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 439-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality control is an important issue in the paperboard industry. A typical sheet of paperboard contains a core of cellulose fibers [C6H10O5], coated on one or both sides with layers of calcium carbonate [CaCO3] or Kaolin [Al2Si2O5(OH)4]. One of the major properties of a good quality paperboard is the consistency of the expected ratio between the thickness of the core and the coating layers. A measurement system to obtain this ratio could assist the paperboard industry to monitor the quality of their products in an automatic manner. In this work, the thicknesses of the core and the coating layers on a paperboard with coating layer on only one side were measured using an X-ray imaging technique. However, the limited spectral and spatial resolution offered by the measurement system being used led to the measured thicknesses of the layers being lower than their actual thicknesses in the paperboard sample. Suggestions have been made in relation to overcoming these limitations and to enhance the performance of the method. A Monte Carlo N-particle code simulation has been used in order to verify the suggested method.

  • 22.
    Reza, Salim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Pelzer, Georg
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Weber, Thomas
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bayer, Florian
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Anton, Gisela
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Rieger, Jens
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Michel, Thilo
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Investigation on the directional dark-field signals from paperboards using a grating interferometer2014In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, p. Art. no. C04032-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in the grating interferometer based Phase Contrast X-ray Imag- ing (PCXI) technique enables high quality dark-field images to be obtained using conventional X-ray tubes. The dark-field images map the scattering inhomogeneities inside objects. Since, the dark-field image is constructed by considering only those photons which are scattered while pass- ing through the objects, it can reveal useful information about the object inner structures, such as, the fibre structures inside paperboards.

    The end-use performance of paperboards, such as the printing quality and the stiffness de-pends on the uniformity in the thickness and the structures of the coating layer of the paperboards. The uniformity in the coating layer is determined by the coating techniques, the coating materials and the topography of the base sheet. In this article, the dark-field signals from four paperboard samples with different quality indices are analysed. The isotropic and the anisotropic scattering coefficients for all of the samples have been calculated. Based on the correlation between the isotropic coefficients and the quality indices of the paperboards, a new method for paperboard quality measurement has been suggested.

  • 23.
    Reza, Salim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wong, Winnie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungstörm, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Smart dosimetry by pattern recognition using a single photon counting detector system in time over threshold mode2012In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, no 1, p. Art. no. C01027-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The function of a dosimeter is to determine the absorbed dose of radiation, for those cases in which, generally, the particular type of radiation is already known. Lately, a number of applications have emerged in which all kinds of radiation are absorbed and are sorted by pattern recognition, such as the Medipix2 application in [1]. This form of smart dosimetry enables measurements where not only the total dosage is measured, but also the contributions of different types of radiation impacting upon the detector surface. Furthermore, the use of a photon counting system, where the energy deposition can be measured in each individual pixel, ensures measurements with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the pattern recognition. In this article a Timepix [2] detector system has been used in the creation of a smart dosimeter for Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation. When a radioactive particle hits the detector surface it generates charge clusters and those impacting upon the detector surface are read out and image processing algorithms are then used to classify each charge cluster. The individual clusters are calculated and as a result, the dosage for each type of radiation is given. In some cases, several particles can impact in roughly the same place, forming overlapping clusters. In order to handle this problem, a cluster separation method has been added to the pattern recognition algorithm. When the clusters have been separated, they are classified by shape and sorted into the correct type of radiation. The algorithms and methods used in this dosimeter have been developed so as to be simple and computationally effective, in order to enable implementation on a portable device. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

  • 24.
    Thim, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O´Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, J
    Lidén, J
    The Impact of Surface Movement in Online Paper Topgraphy Cahracerization Using Light Triangulation2009In: Proceedings fo the Papermaker´s Research Symposium, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Thim, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    CMOS for Color X-Rays - Where do we go from here?: Invited paper at Emerging CMOS Technologies, Vancouver, Canada, August 20082008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Thim, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Noise Coupling in Digital X-Ray Imaging2009In: Medical Imaging: Principles, Detectors, and Electronics, Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Thim, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdalla, Suliman
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Realizing increased sub-pixel spatial resolution in X-ray imaging using displaced multiple images2011In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 633, no Suppl 1, p. S247-S249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method, generally called oversampling, to reach sub-pixel resolution by taking slightly displaced images of an object is investigated for X-ray applications. By mounting the sensor on a high precision step motor table it is possible to increase the spatial resolution from 55 ÎŒm×55 ÎŒm to at least 20 ÎŒm×20 ÎŒm, which is required for quality assurance measurements in several industry processes. The performance compared to physically smaller pixels is shown, and the effects of charge sharing on the method are investigated. The suggested method is relatively cost effective compared to using X-ray microscopy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Thim, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdalla, Suliman
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Realizing increased sub-pixel spatial resolution in X-ray imaging using displaced multiple images2009In: 11th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In X-Ray imaging with pixel detector systems, the resolution of the image taken is dependant on the pixel size in the detector readout electronics. Depending on the functionality of the readout electronics, the surface space on the readout chip for each pixel has a minimum size, which sets the spatial resolution of the taken images. For applications where it is required to image extremely small structures in a material, the spatial resolution of the X-Ray detector system sets the limit, and readout systems with high functionality cannot be considered. One way to reach sub-pixel resolution is to use a nanofocus source to achieve an X-ray microscopy setup [1]. However, this type of X-ray source is still too expensive to be an alternative for quality assurance systems used in the industry. In this paper we focus on a much simpler way of increasing spatial resolution that has proven effective in images for visible light. By mounting either the objects for imaging or the image sensor system on a step motor table and take multiple images slightly dislocated from one another, an increase in sub-pixel spatial resolution can be achieved.

    Consider the case that an image sensor system with a pixel size of 55x55 µm is available for an imaging application that requires a resolution of 20x20 µm. The application is material characterization and allows for multiple images to be taken for one sample. In this case, increasing the sub-pixel resolution by nine times (3x3) will result in a pixel size of about 18x18 µm, which would meet the requirements. This can be realized by taking nine images dislocated 1/3 of the pixel width from each other. If the upper left pixel of the centre image has coordinates (0,0) the upper left pixel of all the nine images will have coordinates (-1/3,1/3), (0,1/3), (1/3,1/3), (-1/3,0), (0,0), (1/3,0), (-1/3,-1/3), (0,-1/3) and (1/3,-1/3). The result of a direct combination of these images is illustrated in Figure 1, where one of nine images is shown at the left. Combining the images without images processing with an algorithm will yield the image in the centre, which can be compared to how the image would look in full 9x resolution (right image). As can be seen, some details are lost and the image is blurred compared to a full resolution image. However, with an image processing algorithm in the combination phase this effect can be reduced and the image quality increased.

    This paper shows simulated and measured results from using dislocation imaging in X-Ray imaging systems, where the test case system will be the MEDIPIX2 system [2]. An investigation of different image processing algorithms suitable for this type of imaging is conducted. An investigation is also done to show whether detectors with large size pixels compared to the standard size in a MEDIPIX system can be combined with the described sub-pixel scaling technique. The result of this combination is used to investigate the charge sharing effects on the MEDIPIX system.

    [1] Norlin B., Fröjdh C., Nuclear Instruments and Methods, sect. A (2009), doi:10.1016/j.nima.2009.03.155[2] Llopart X., Campbell M., Dinapoli R., san Segundo D., Pernigotti E., IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 49, Issue 5, Part 1, pp. 2279-2283, October 2002.

    Figure 1. Image (left) with 50x50 pixels, with the resulting combination of nine images forming an image with a sub-pixel resolution of 150x150 pixel (centre), compared to a full resolution reference image (right).

  • 29.
    Thim, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simulating the Impact of Topographical Microstructures on Triangulation Measurement Setups using Matlab2008In: Proceedings of Nordic MATLAB User Conference, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper manufacturing industry is currently exploring the possibility of measuring micro structural topography online in a paper manufacturing machine, which is intended to lead to a more precise measure of the paper quality reel to reel and a more efficient use of raw material. This paper presents a Matlab simulation model that can be used to configure such measurement readout systems, and includes a demonstration of the model in use. The model will also be used for research purposes in order to assist in gaining a better understanding of both the limitations and possibilities of such measurement systems. In this regard the angular shading of microstructures and Centre of Gravity (CoG) functions are included in the attributes that require further exploration.

     

  • 30.
    Thim, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nawaz, Khalid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O´Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Suitable Post Processing Algorithms for X-Ray Imaging using Oversampled Displaced Multiple Images2011In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, no 2, p. Art. no. C02001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray imaging systems such as photon counting pixel detectors have a limited spatial resolution of the pixels, based on the complexity and processing technology of the readout electronics. For X-ray imaging situations where the features of interest are smaller than the imaging system pixel size, and the pixel size cannot be made smaller in the hardware, alternative means of resolution enhancement require to be considered. Oversampling with the usage of multiple displaced images, where the pixels of all images are mapped to a final resolution enhanced image, has proven a viable method of reaching a sub-pixel resolution exceeding the original resolution. The effectiveness of the oversampling method declines with the number of images taken, the sub-pixel resolution increases, but relative to a real reduction of imaging pixel sizes yielding a full resolution image, the perceived resolution from the sub-pixel oversampled image is lower. This is because the oversampling method introduces blurring noise into the mapped final images, and the blurring relative to full resolution images increases with the oversampling factor. One way of increasing the performance of the oversampling method is by sharpening the images in post processing. This paper focus on characterizing the performance increase of the oversampling method after the use of some suitable post processing filters, for digital X-ray images specifically. The results show that spatial domain filters and frequency domain filters of the same type yield indistinguishable results, which is to be expected. The results also show that the effectiveness of applying sharpening filters to oversampled multiple images increase with the number of images used (oversampling factor), leaving 60-80% of the original blurring noise after filtering a 6 x 6 mapped image (36 images taken), where the percentage is depending on the type of filter. This means that the effectiveness of the oversampling itself increase by using sharpening filters, and more images taken can be considered worth the effort.

  • 31.
    Thim, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    X-ray imaging of high velocity moving objects by scanning summation using a single photon processing system2015In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, article id C04023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray imaging has been used extensively in the manufacturing industry. In the paper and paperboard industry X-ray imaging has been used for measuring parameters such as coat weight, using mean values of X-ray absorption inline in the manufacturing machines. Recently, an interest has surfaced to image paperboard coating with pixel resolved images showing material distribution in the coating on the paperboard, and to do this inline in the paper machine. Naturally, imaging with pixel resolution in an application where the paperboard web travels with velocities in the order on 10 m/s sets harsh demands on the X-ray source and the detector system to be used. This paper presents a scanning imaging method for single photon imaging systems that lower the demands on the source flux by hundreds of times, enabling a system to be developed for high velocity industrial measurement applications. The paper presents the imaging method, a discussion of system limitations, simulations and real measurements in a laboratory environment with a moving test object of low velocity, all to verify the potential and limits of the proposed method.

1 - 31 of 31
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