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  • 1. Bacon, J
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont.
    Lawson, S
    Manning, R
    Valliere, W
    Research to support carrying capacity analysis at Isle au Haut, Acadia National Park2004Report (Other academic)
  • 2. Bacon, J
    et al.
    Manning, R
    Lawson, S
    Valliere, W
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont.
    Indicators and standards of quality for the Schoodic Penninsula2009In: Parks and People: Managing Outdoor Recreation at Acadia National Park / [ed] Manning, Robert E., Hanover: University Press of New England, 2009, p. 30-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Badruk, M
    et al.
    Valliere, W
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Stanfield, R
    Manning, R
    Indicators and Standards of Quality for the Built Environment: Visitor Centers, Roads, Walkways, Litter and Graffiti2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4. Barrett, B
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Mason, R
    Van West, C
    Valuing Heritage: Reexamining Our Foundation2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Budruk, Megha
    et al.
    University of Vermont.
    Valliere, William
    University of Vermont.
    Manning, Robert
    University of Vermont.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont.
    Hof, Marilyn
    National Park Service.
    Crossing Programmatic Boundaries: Integrative Approaches to Managing the Quality of the Visitor Experience2001In: The George Wright Forum, ISSN 0732-4715, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 124-131Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Copping, S
    et al.
    Huffman, P
    Laven, Daniel
    National Park Service Conservation Study Institute, USA.
    Mitchell, N
    Tuxill, J
    Connecting Stories, Landscapes, and People: Exploring the Delaware & Lehigh National Heritage Corridor. Sustainability Study Report: A Technical Assistance Project for the Delaware & Lehigh National Heritage Corridor Commission and the Delaware & Lehigh National Heritage Corridor, Inc.2006Report (Other academic)
  • 7. Copping, S
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Evaluating National Heritage Areas2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Copping, S
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Measuring Success in National Heritage Areas: Evaluation as an Organizational Learning and Sustainable Development Strategy2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    De Jong, Anna
    et al.
    University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
    Palladino, Monica
    Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Puig, Romà Garrido
    University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Romeo, Giuseppa
    Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fava, Nadia
    University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Cafiero, Carlo
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
    Skoglund, Wilhelm
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Varley, Peter
    Western Norway Research Institute, Sogndal, Norway.
    Marcianò, Claudio
    Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Sjölander-Lindqvist, Annelie
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gastronomy Tourism: An Interdisciplinary Literature Review of Research Areas, Disciplines, and Dynamics2018In: Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy, ISSN 2169-2971, E-ISSN 2169-298X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 131-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residing with the exponential growth of gastronomy tourism research, a number of review articles have examined the relationship of gastronomy and tourism from distinct thematic and disciplinary perspectives. What remains absent is a comprehensive overview that encapsulates the interdisciplinary dimensions of this area of research. In response, this study comprehensively investigates gastronomy tourism literature utilizing a network and content analysis, with an aim to map the main subject areas concerned with gastronomy tourism and relations between varying subject areas. In doing so, themes determining gastronomy tourism and focus for future exploration are identified. The review findings suggest that the trajectory of gastronomy tourism research is characterized by the dominance of "tourism, leisure, and hospitality management" and "geography, planning, and development." Three recommendations are proposed to assist development of gastronomy tourism research: increased dialogue across subject areas, development of critical and theoretical approaches, and greater engagement with sustainability debates.

  • 10. Diamant, R
    et al.
    Huffman, P
    Marts, C
    Bell, N
    Allen, W
    Laven, Daniel
    National Park Service Conservation Study Institute, USA.
    Machin, B
    Where our four towns meet…2007Report (Other academic)
  • 11. Diamant, R
    et al.
    Roberts, J
    Tuxill, J
    Mitchell, N
    Laven, Daniel
    National Park Service Conservation Study Institute, USA.
    Stewardship begins with people: an atlas of places, people, and handmade products2007Report (Other academic)
  • 12. Duffin, M
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    National Park Service Conservation Study Institute, USA.
    Pranis, E
    Mitchell, N
    Camp, M
    Engaging young adults in a sustainable future: Strategies for national parks and other special places - A front end evaluation report2009Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Managing Tourism in Protected Areas from a Landscape Perspective: An Exploratory Study from Sweden2013In: Protected Areas and Place Making Conference PROCEEDINGS 2013 / [ed] Magro, T.C., Rodrigues, L.M., Silva Filho, D.F., Polizel, J.L., Leahy, J., 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Stenseke, MarieGöteborgs universitet.Mossing, AndersMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.Liljendahl, HannaMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.Laven, DanielMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Outdoor Recreation in Change – Current Knowledge and Future Challenges: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15. Gelbman, A
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Alternative Social Tourism Development: A Case Study of a Small-scale Venture in Nazareth2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16. Gelbman, A
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Community Based Tourism, Heritage, and Peace: A Case Study of a Hostel in the Old City of Nazareth2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17. Gelbman, A
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Reconciliation and Development: A Case Study of a Small-scale Tourism Venture in Nazareth2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gelbman, Alon
    et al.
    Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee, M.P. Emek, Hayarden, Israel .
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Re-envisioning community-based heritage tourism in the old city of Nazareth2016In: Journal of Heritage Tourism, ISSN 1743-873X, E-ISSN 1747-6631, Vol. 11, p. 105-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study specifically examines the potential for heritage tourism development topromote cross-cultural dialog in the historic old city of Nazareth (Israel). The paperfocuses on a case study of a small-scale heritage tourism venture that seeksto influence tourism development in Nazareth’s old city. This is an exploratorycase study that uses qualitative research methods including extensive participantobservation and in-depth interviews with the venture’s senior management group andselected employees. Study findings indicate a model of the relationship betweencommunity-based tourism development, heritage, and peace-building in a city thathas experienced a wide range of cross-cultural conflicts. This model represents analternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences anddissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this studysuggest that heritage in the form of tourism can help create shared interests betweendifferent communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict.

  • 19.
    Hammami, Feras
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Rethinking heritage from peace: reflections from the Palestinian-Israeli context2017In: Heritage and peacebuilding / [ed] Diana Walters, Daniel Laven and Peter Davis, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2017, p. 137-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Case-studies of whether and how heritage can be used to bring about reconciliation. This volume explores one of the most critical issues of our time: whether heritage can contribute to a more peaceful society and future. It reflects a core belief that heritage can provide solutions to reconciling peoples and demonstrates the amount of significant work being carried out internationally. Based round the core themes of new and emerging ideas around heritage and peace, heritage and peace-building in practice, and heritage, peace-building and sites, the twenty contributions seek to raise perceptions and understanding of heritage-based peace-building practices. Responding to the emphasis placed on conflict, war and memorialization, they reflect exploratory yet significant steps towards reclaiming the history, theory, and practice of peacebuilding as serious issues for heritage in contemporary society. The geographical scope of the book includes contributions from Europe, notably the Balkans and Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and Kenya. Diana Walters is an International Heritage Consultant and Honorary Senior Research Fellow at the University of Exeter; Daniel Laven is Associate Professor of Human Geography, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography/European Tourism Research Institute (ETOUR), Mid Sweden University; Peter Davis is Emeritus Professor of Museology, Newcastle University. Contributors: Tatjana Cvjeticanin, Peter Davis, Jonathan Eaton, David Fleming, Seth Frankel, Timothy Gachanga, Alon Gelbman, Felicity Gibling, Will Glendinning, Elaine Heumann Gurian, Lejla Hadzic, Feras Hammami, Lotte Hughes, Bosse Lagerqvist, Daniel Laven, Bernadette Lynch, Elena Monicelli, Yongtanit Pimonsathean, Saleem H. Ali, Sultan Somjee, Peter Stone, Michèle Taylor, Peter van den Dungen, Alda Vezic, Jasper Visser, Diana Walters.

  • 20. Jacobi, C
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Manning, R
    Valliere, W
    Marion, J
    Lawson, S
    Ecology and Sociology of Parks: An Integrated Study at Acadia National Park2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21. Jewiss, J
    et al.
    Farley, V
    Mitchell, N
    Laven, Daniel
    National Park Service Conservation Study Institute, USA.
    Lessons learned: a mid-course assessment by participating managers and supervisors on the implementation of the New York Harbor Parks facility management program: a technical assistance report2007Report (Other academic)
  • 22. Jewiss, J
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    National Park Service Conservation Study Institute.
    Mitchell, J
    Huffman, P
    Development of a National Heritage Area evaluation strategy: report on phase I: a technical assistance report for the NPS National Heritage Areas Office2008Report (Other academic)
  • 23. Jewiss, J
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    National Park Service Conservation Study Institute and Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, Woodstock, USA.
    Mitchell, N
    National Heritage Areas: Building a Cyclic Program Theory Model from Qualitative Data and Practitioner Knowledge2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    National Heritage Areas (NHAs) represent a recent model for protected areas in the U.S. NHAs operate through partnerships with local communities, government agencies, and other organizations. Since 1984, 37 NHAs have been established by Congress, making this one of the fastest growing programs affiliated with the National Park Service and raising important national policy questions. Qualitative research conducted at three NHAs identified several common themes despite wide variations in their geographic, social, economic, and political contexts. This paper reflects on a project that engaged practitioners and other stakeholders in building a collective understanding of NHAs. The group developed a common program theory model, which represents the cyclic and long-term nature of heritage stewardship and is designed to serve as the foundation for an evaluation strategy applicable to all NHAs. The presentation will consider the approaches used, the challenges encountered, and the high stakes policy and management issues entailed.

  • 24. Jewiss, J
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    National Park Service Conservation Study Institute and Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, USA.
    Mitchell, N
    Diamant, R
    Marts, C
    A National Park and Associated “Think Tank” Critically Reflect on Their First Decade: Client and Evaluator Perspectives on Lessons Learned2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weiss defines the unit of analysis as 'the entity about which data are collected, analyzed, and conclusions drawn.' In contrast to most evaluations that are conducted at the program level, this study examined the work of two affiliated organizations within the U.S. National Park Service (NPS): Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park and the Conservation Study Institute co-located in Woodstock, Vermont. The evaluation elicited critical reflections from stakeholders on the successes and challenges of the Park's and Institute's major undertakings. Interviewees also considered strategic directions for the organizations' next decade given the NPS context and broader trends in conservation. The most valuable findings included insights about the evolving context in which these two entities operate and stakeholders' articulation of the role that future Park and Institute programming might play in advancing collaborative conservation. The session will feature client and evaluator perspectives on the organizational learning prompted by a study of this scope.

  • 25.
    Jewiss, Jennifer
    et al.
    University of Vermont.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Stanfield McCown, Rebecca
    National Park Service.
    A Participants Eye View of Program Development: How an Evolving Program Theory Model Came to Life through Annual Interviews With Participants in a Developmental Evaluation2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the use of qualitative inquiry to provide a participants-eye-view of an evolving program theory model. The presentation discusses the approaches used to gather, analyze, and present qualitative data that illustrate the program's working model as part of a developmental evaluation. Initially, interview excerpts were used to illustrate how the program theory was "coming to life" as the first two cohorts of participants progressed through this multiyear program. This approach to data analysis and reporting offered a program-wide lens and set up a "call and response" interchange between the program theory, as envisioned by a broad group of stakeholders, and the perspectives of individual participants. Subsequently, brief case studies of several participants were compiled to provide an individualized view of the program theory in action. This paper also explores the benefits and drawbacks of this highly personalized approach to illustrating the working model of this small pilot program.

  • 26. Kuentzal, Walter
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historic Park.
    Manning, Robert
    Valliere, William
    When Do Normative Standards Matter Most? Understanding the Role of Norm Strength at Multiple National Park Settings2008In: Leisure Sciences, ISSN 0149-0400, E-ISSN 1521-0588, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 127-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has demonstrated variation in the prevalence, importance, and stability of normative standards across different settings and activities. None of these studies, however, has directly used the concept of norm strength to help explain this variation. This study used norm strength to explore variation in normative standards at 52 locations in 13 U.S. national parks. The analysis measured and supported five dimensions of norm strength: intensity, consensus, certainty, preference consistency, and management consistency. No significant correlations were found between the five indicators indicating conceptually distinct dimensions of the norm strength concept. The findings support the notion that normative standards matter more at some places and the norm strength concept can help managers better understand these differences.

  • 27. Kuentzel, W
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Manning, R
    Valliere, W
    Comparing Norm Strength at Backcountry, Frontcountry, and Urban-proximate National Parks2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28. Laven, Daniel
    Building a NHA Logic Model2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Cultural heritage as a catalyst for building community and enhancing regional development: lessons learned from US national heritage areas2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Eat or be eaten?: Local regional food systems and sustainable tourism development.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont.
    Emerging trends in park and protected area management: A Critical Analysis of the Eastern James Bay Region of Quebec, Canada2005In: Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-326 / [ed] Bricker, Kelly, Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station , 2005, p. 263-270Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Emerging Trends in Park and Protected Area Management: A Critical Analysis of the Eastern James Region of Quebec, Canada2004In: Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium / [ed] Bricker, Kelly, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Engaging Diverse Communities through National Heritage Areas2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont.
    Evaluating National Heritage Areas: Program Analysis and Policy Implications at the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heritage and Peacebuilding: Implications for Tourism2016In: Tourism as a peace promoter among people and countries: Vision or reality? / [ed] Alon Gelbman, Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation explores the intersection of two theoretical arenas that are increasingly important in today’s unstable world: (i) ‘the tourism and peace agenda’, and (ii) ‘from heritage tourism to heritage development’. After introducing and integrating these theoretical perspectives, the presentation discusses implications for the contemporary tourism sector.

     

    Tourism has been described as a social force that can make important contributions to international understanding, cooperation, and global good will in establishing and keeping world peace. As a result, the potential connection between tourism and peace has been investigated in settings around the world. While a number of these studies suggest that tourism can help promote peace, other studies claim that tourism has a negligible or non-existent contribution to peacebuilding. Despite these varied findings, tourism continues to receive attention as a peacebuilding resource from a wide range of national and international policy actors.

     

    Parallel to this interest in ‘tourism as a resource for peace’ has been the growing application of ‘heritage’ in conflict and post-conflict settings. In this context, the use of heritage as a peacebuilding tool has emerged from heritage-oriented theories that address empowerment of the disenfranchised, post-conflict renewal, and resistance to authorized heritage discourses. In practice, the conceptualization of heritage in these terms has led to critical discourse in the museum sector (and the field of museum studies more generally) about institutional responsibility for creating “safe spaces” to explore difficult and contested histories. Interestingly, several exploratory studies suggest that visitors find the ability to engage in contested topics to result in more ‘authentic’ and ‘responsible’ tourism experiences.

     

    This suggests that tourism providers in the heritage sector may be able to offer new and more authentic experiences through development of “safe spaces” that probe contested and difficult histories from multiple perspectives. Such spaces may ultimately help position tourism as a more active agent in peacebuilding efforts.   

  • 36.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heritage as a Catalyst for Sustainable Development2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Heritage as a catalyst for sustainable development2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Heritage as a catalyst for sustainable development: a global perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Heritage as s catalyst for re envisioning sustainable development2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heritage development and community resilience: Insights for the era of climate change2015In: The Future of Heritage as Climates Change: Loss, Adaptation and Creativity / [ed] David C Harvey and Jim Perry, New York, NY: Routledge, 2015, 1st, p. 167-179Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heritage oriented gastronomy and local regional food system development in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Partnerships and Networks: New Insights into National Heritage Area Management2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Scaling down and scaling up: implications for local regional food system development in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Laven, Daniel
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Stewardship Begins with People: An Atlas of Places, People, and Handmade Products2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Utilizing Research and Evaluation to Advance the UNESCO Creative Cities Network2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of research and evaluation in the UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) is being driven by – and needs to be sensitive to – three key trends. First, as is obvious to everybody here at the Second UNESCO Creative Cities Beijing Summit, there is tremendous interest worldwide in the use of “culture” and “creativity” as resources for revitalizing economies in post-industrial contexts. While much attention has focused on urban settings, peripheral and rural environments are also adopting such strategies (e.g., Region Jämtland-Härjedalen/City of Östersund, Sweden).  Evidence of this trend includes the rapid expansion of the UCCN (just last year, the network went from 69 to 116 designated cities), along with the emergence of a host of related efforts and designations such as the European Capital of Culture, U.K. City of Culture, etc. In other words, “culture” and “creative” strategies have become an increasingly accepted part of the policy and development discourse, which can be seen through the impact of thought leaders such as Charles Landry, Richard Florida, and many others.

     

    The second trend worth noting involves the growing discourse (and I might even say obsession) by institutions and organizations with issues of performance, effectiveness, and as a result, evaluation. The United Nations, and by extension UNESCO, are no exception. For example, the UN endorsed 2015 as the international year of evaluation in order to improve program design, delivery, and effectiveness across the organization. While such instincts to employ evaluation are often motivated by a sincere interest in learning and improvement (instead of being used solely as a cost-cutting tactic), there are now many different kinds of evaluation, and each approach is designed for very different purposes. Some examples include front-end evaluation, formative evaluation, summative evaluation, process evaluation, and others. Unfortunately, these differences are typically overlooked and/or misunderstood, which often results in a mismatch between the kind of evaluation (or information) that is desired or needed and the kind of evaluation (or information) that actually is delivered. Such mismatches are capable of causing great harm, especially in new and dynamic arenas that are complex. Michael Quinn Patton, one of the world’s true luminaries in the field of evaluation, addresses these issues directly through the introduction of what I believe to be one of most promising new approaches in evaluation; namely developmental evaluation. In describing this approach, Patton takes on the central issue that also characterizes the discussion around the role of research and evaluation in the UCCN. That is, how do we evaluate things like culture and creativity across something as complex as the UCCN? The context is so different between the member cities, and relationships between causes and effects are constantly evolving. This makes it nearly impossible to apply standard measures or rely solely on best practices because both of these concepts assume stable or consistent implementation environments – which, of course, is not what things look like across the diversity of UCCN members.

     

    The third trend that affects this discussion about the role of research and evaluation in the UCCN is the ever-urgent need to become more fundamentally sustainable in our relationship to the planet. Indeed, we have already received strong messages during this summit about how the battle for the planet’s sustainability will be won or lost in cities, and that this underscores the importance of marshalling all of our creative resources to realize a shared and sustainable future.    

     

    Implications

     

    Taken together, and in terms of utilizing research and evaluation to advance the UCCN, I believe these trends imply the following:

     

    • It is counter-productive to think about (or build) a UCCN research agenda that is separate from the network’s evaluation needs. Research and evaluation should be mutually re-enforcing and integrated activities that are ultimately aimed at improving practice, implementation, design, etc. One way to approach this might be through “Research, Development, and Evaluation” (RDE) platforms or clusters. RDE clusters could be used as a mechanism to integrate research and evaluation while also directly linking member cities that are interested in collaborating on specific initiatives. This approach resembles the logic of communities of practice.

     

    • These RDE platforms (and research/evaluation activities more generally) should be directly driven by the learning and knowledge needs of the network and its member cities. This is a subtle but important point. In my observations of the UCCN thus far, I wonder how likely it is that member cities are interested in learning the same things from research and evaluation activities. Being here in Beijing drives this point home: Could Beijing and Östersund identify a shared set of learning needs? What about the other 114 member cities? Are the contexts and scales too different to allow for a meaningful set of shared learning needs across the cities in the network?

     

    • Who intends to utilize the information generated by research and evaluation activities, and how do they intend to use it? These issues have long been recognized in evaluation circles (Patton has led much of this – see Utilization-focus Evaluation, for example), and the network would be wise to learn from these experiences. Not all research and/or evaluation is created equal in terms of its usability, and we need to be thoughtful about how we approach this given the complexity of the UCCN.

     

    • Finally, as we have seen many times before, it is tempting to rely on, or default to, the use of indicators and best practices when envisioning a research and evaluation agenda for the UCCN. For the reasons described above, I am skeptical that indicators and best practices alone will get us to where we want to go. For example, how many of the decision-makers here today have used the recently released “culture for development” indicators in their decision-making? Similarly, how transferable are the best practices developed Cheng Du to a city like Parma? Returning again to Patton, perhaps we should consider indicators and best practices as “sensitizing concepts” to help orient our research and evaluation activities rather than as fixed constructs that lock us into specific modes of inquiry.

     

    In conclusion, I am enthusiastic about the prospects of a research and evaluation strategy for the UCCN – and even more so if we can give thoughtful attention to the issues above.

  • 46.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Visitor Monitoring in a Landscape Context2012In: The 6th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreation and Protected Areas: Outdoor recreation in change - current knowledge and future challenges / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Hanna Liljendahl, Anders Mossing, Daniel Laven, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Cinque, S
    Jewiss, Jennifer
    University of Vermont).
    Salzman, K
    Opportunitites for heritage to enhance public involvement in landscape management2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wall Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    New challenges for managing sustainable tourism in protected areas: an exploratory study from a landscape perspective in Sweden2012In: Revista Turismo & Desenvolvimento, ISSN 1645-9261, Vol. 17, no 18, p. 135-137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    New Challenges for Managing Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: An Exploratory Study from a Landscape Perspective in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Gelbman, Alon
    Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee.
    Community-based Tourism and Sustainability: The Case Study of a Hostel in the Old City of Nazareth2013Conference paper (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 98
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