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  • 1.
    Boltemo Edholm, Jenny
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ecosystem service assessments in climate adaptation2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services is Nature’s contribution to human well-beingby providing provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services. A direct driver affecting availability of ecosystem services is climate change. This is a challenge that needs to be addressed. A possible strategy to cope with these challenges is the use of Ecosystem-based adaptation, defined by Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversityas “the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services as a part of an overall adaptation strategy to help people to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change”.

    In this paper a literature review was conducted to highlight the current use of ecosystem services in relation to coping with climate adaptation. Investigated parameters was I) geographical area and sector; II) aim of article; III) methodological approach; and IV) lessons learned by the authors of the reviewed articles regarding method used and lessons learned by the authors of the reviewed articles regarding implementing EbA. The diversity among methods of ecosystem service assessment used in the reviewed articles indicate that there are many possibilities of assessing ecosystem services and communicating impacts from climate change. A combination of methods was also seen as beneficial to assist decision-makers and planners in climate adaptation decisions. This paper put forward useful knowledge for future ecosystem service assessments, both in preparation and performance of assessments.

  • 2.
    Boltemo Edholm, Jenny
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ecosystem Services in Climate Adaptation in Northern Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystems provide humans with ecosystem services - benefits fundamental to human well-being. The Swedish government has set a milestone target to be reached by 2018, that the importance of biodiversity and values of ecosystem services should be commonly known and adopted in political and economic decisions. The use of ecosystem service assessments can be beneficial in local and regional planning and increase understanding of ecosystem services among decision-makers. Being of such importance it is of interest if, and how ecosystem services are integrated in planning and decision-making in the Norrbotten County. This study aims togive an overview of how far municipalities in Sweden has reached with the integration of ecosystem services. This was done by investigating explicit implementation, contribution to the milestone target and, if/how ecosystem services are used in local governance and especially regarding climate adaptation.

    The results show that only four of the 14 municipalities have integrated ecosystem services, further that there is an absence of explicit use of ecosystem services in climate adaptation. Thisindicates that the level of knowledge about the ES concept is low and that implementation has not been successful in the county. Positively though, the county has a forerunner in the Arjeplog municipality, which can serve as role model for the rest of the county to achieve an implementation of ES in local governance.

  • 3.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making with focus on legal operationalisation2015In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm – business as usual – and the new one, aiming at operationalise sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development, ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics, and conditions set by ecosystems can therefore not been ignored, when (a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and to fully understand the consequences of such solutions, and (b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    Over the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making, such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Ecological Footprints, and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Ecological modelling contributes or complements such methods. Emergy analysis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing both ecology and economy. Less known is environmental legal modelling.

    This paper puts ecological models in the context of societal steering systems for sustainable development, and focuses on a legal model for implementing environmental policy goals.

  • 4.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Where did requirements for alternatives in EIA go?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s the growing interests for environmental questions became prominent and were worldwide recognized. The safeguard of natural resources, the recognition of the environment´s carrying capacity, and the need for planning to minimize conflicts between environment and development were issues pointed out. In 1969 the US enacted the National Environmental Policy Act, NEPA, with its “action forcing” provisions in section 102(2). The provisions included a procedure and a document and was directed towards activities, with likely significant impact on the environment. What gave this section teeth was the requirement for “alternatives to the proposed action”. This tool, internationally known as EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) was later picked up by other countries and international organisations, where it was considered as a vital component for decision making processes aiming at environmental awareness. EIA was outlined as guidelines and principles by UNEP 1972, reflected in the Espoo convention in 1991 and 1992 declared as principle 17 in the Rio Declaration. This clearly reflects a special degree of acceptance in modern environmental law. However, the postulate to investigate alternatives has been circumvented in practice. Today it can be left out without even being challenged. Many lawyers obviously have difficulties to really understand EIA and the idea behind it. From a sustainability perspective this is indeed fatal. This article puts the request for alternative investigations in perspective of a) effective decision making and sustainable use of natural resources, b) environmental quality standards and environmental planning and c) sustainable assessment tools.

  • 5.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm - business as usual - and the new one, aiming at operationalize sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics and conditions set by ecosystems, can therefore not been ignored, when a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and fully understand the consequences of such solution and b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    During the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making. Related to ecosystems we have e.g. the carrying capacity and resilience models, to resource use there are Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecological Footprints, to economy there are eco-economy and green economy, to law there are Environmental Law Methodology (ELM) and Sustainable law. Emergy synthesis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing everything from thermodynamics to economy.

    There still is no “standard method” for this kind of decisions, which makes it important to contrast different methods. Some methods might enforce each other, whereas others might drive in different directions. It is therefore important to understand the methods in relation to each other.

  • 6.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Tellström, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Edholm, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Van den Brink, Paul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Appearances of Ecosystem Services in Environmental Impact Assessment - learnings from two Swedish case studies2016In: Proceedings of Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016: The 10th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutionsin the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World., 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem Services is an increasingly used concept to understand and describe the dependencies of socio-technical systems on the ecosystems in which they exist. We have studied to what extent ecosystem services are appearing in Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) in two Swedish cases, the improvement of ecological status in a river used for small scale hydropower and the mining operations of the MM mine. In neither of the two cases ecosystem services have been intentionally included in the work with the EIAs. The goal of the studies has been to examine to what extent ecosystem services are appearing anyway in the EIAs, to what extent data in the EIAs are sufficient to perform more structured ecosystem service assessments, and if the use of a more structured ecosystem services review during the EIA process could have contributed positively to the EIA work. 

    Both EIAs in this study holds some information on impacts on ecosystem services, and more information on affected ecosystem functions that could be translated into ecosystems services and probably to full ecosystem service reviews with additional data gathering. Cases of ecosystem functions and services impacting other ecosystem functions and services, sometimes in several stages, were found, indicating that such functions or services could be of special importance to protect and / or support.

  • 7.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, AnnaMid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Samhällets styrsystem – en vänbok till Inga Carlman2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Infrastructure public procurement in Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve sustainable development that meets the needs of todays and future generations a number of governance instruments are needed in order to bring about this change. Sustainability goals can be achieved by using the purchasing power of the public sector. The Swedish Transport Administration procures goods, services and works for about 4 billion Euro each year to develop and manage transport for road and rail traffic.

    This study explores the procurement process of the Swedish transport administration based on interviews with officials and their policy documents.The focus of the study is how the contracting authority identify needs, involve key stakeholders, assess alternatives and environmental impact, take decisions on criteria in the procurement procedure, carry out contract management and methods applied for following up contracts.

  • 9.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    SIA and public procurement in Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve sustainable development that meets the needs of todays and future generations a number of governance instruments are needed in order to bring about this change. Local, regional, national and international sustainability goals can be achieved by using the purchasing power of the public sector.

    Purchasing authorities accounts for around one fifth of Sweden´s GDP. Setting sustainability criteria in public procurement processes can increase market demand of sustainable products, stimulate innovation, and decrease government expenditures. 

    Socially responsible public procurement (SRPP) takes into account fair employment opportunities, compliance with social and labour rights, social inclusion, and equal opportunities and accessibility.

    This study covers the current practise of social sustainable public procurement in Sweden, based on interviews with officials at contracting authorities and their policy documents.

    The focus of the study is current policies and implementation of SRPP, how the contracting authorities identify needs and plan the procurement process, raise awareness of SRPP and involve key stakeholders, take decisions on criteria in the procurement procedure, carry out contract management and methods applied for following up contracts.

    The findings of the study are compared to current SIA framework, aiming at identifying how practices can be further improved. 

  • 10.
    Longueville, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    How to misuse the EIA-tool – a Swedish example2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has its origin in the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), of 1969. The EIA-tool has been widely recognised and was implemented in EC-law in 1985. Sweden was late to introduce EIA and it was not fully implemented in the law until 1998, when the Environmental Code came into effect.

    If we look at how the EIA-instrument has been used in practice, there are deficiencies from several aspects. One is the requirement to present alternatives to the proposed action, which is considered to be the backbone of EIA. This requirement is often poorly met or even lacking. In this paper, the alternative criterion within EIA is given special attention and is analysed from a Swedish perspective. The emphasis is on how the legal requirements, in relation to the EIA, are met and how the reasoning of the courts goes, in reaching their decision.

  • 11.
    Longueville, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ecosystem Services Supporting Decision Making in Environmental Impact Assessments2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a systematic method to analyse and anticipate direct and indirect effects of activities. EIA considerably distinguishes itself from other assessment tools in that it is regulated by law. When the EIA method was introduced, it changed the prerequisites for getting consent for environmental hazardous activities.

    Within the EIA method, assessing alternatives is a powerful systems analysis to assess efficient resource use. However, in practice, few alternatives to a proposed project are assessed. Mitigation measures within the proponent’s mindset often dominate. If the EIA instrument shall fulfil the need as a base for decisions to steer towards sustainable development, alternatives proposed by others, outside the proponent’s sphere, must be allowed within be the scope of assessment. Ecosystem services is a concept increasingly discussed in international policy making, aiming to describe the values of ecosystems to human well being. Including ecosystem services as part of EIA alternative analysis could improve the EIA process, thus better supporting sustainable decision-making. At first glance, we see two immediate uses of ecosystem services within the EIA method. The first potential is when assessing the impact of a proposed project, by including decreased delivery of ecosystem services and not only environmental disturbances. The second potential for ecosystem services is as support to open up for innovative alternatives, i.e. other ways to fulfil the needs of the proposed activity.

    An increased understanding of ecosystem services could, within the EIA method, support a more comprehensive understanding of impacts from human activities, and help identify possible sustainable and advanced solutions to a proposed project.

  • 12.
    Longueville, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Whitten, Patience
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Can We Get “Alternatives Analysis Redux” Please?2015In: IAIA15 Conference Proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Svedlund, Joel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Peak Innovation.
    Nilsson, Kajsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Sustainability in a Regional and Global Sports/Outdoor Industry2016In: VEC - Valuing and Evaluating Creativity for Sustainable Regional Development, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional identity through a business eye 

    In the Jämtland Härjedalen region, outdoor sports activities and the many companies that provide high-end equipment for outdoor life are an integral part of the regional identity, culture and business life. While rooted locally, the outdoor and sports business is tightly linked to complex supply chains branching out to the textile and chemical industry. This often includes suppliers and customers in other parts of the world, providing a broad range of sustainability challenges. 

    A new and creative approach 

    The project ‘Sustainability in Sports/Outdoor’ was initiated by Peak Innovation, supported by Mid Sweden University and run in cooperation with Elevenate, Hilleberg, Icebug, Lundhags and Skhoop; five small and medium sized (SME) companies from the sport/outdoor industry in the region. This project has taken a new and creative approach to sustainability challenges by developing and introducing a method for SME’s to embed the sustainability concept into their core business, rather than focusing on single issues of mitigation and risk management. 

    The main project goal was to establish and test a method for value-driven sustainable development. The method is targeted at the challenges of smaller organisations handling complex value chains. Another emphasis has been on making the company strategies and efforts towards sustainability resilient, forward-thinking and measurable. 

    Preliminary Results 

    Results include increased awareness and engagement both within the companies and in their value chains, as well as direct inputs to product and process development. The companies have in collaboration created knowledge, engagement, and concrete actions, such as clearly communicating new sustainability ambitions to their suppliers, distributors and customers. Thus accelerating change towards more sustainable business operations.

    The broader perspective 

    This paper is part of a research where the overarching question is how to link creativity and innovation tighter to sustainable development. Creators of new solutions, relations and experiences are well suited to drive sustainable development, but need supportive conditions to succeed. By exploring the connections between creativity, sustainability and organisational management we aim to find a set of conditions that strengthen the work within sustainable innovation, in both business and society.

  • 14.
    Wessels, Jan-Albert
    et al.
    Geography and Environmental Management, North West University.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Conceptualising an EIA-EMS-LCA-IR nexus for supporting integrated corporate reporting and thinking2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally accepted that the management and implementation of sustainability commitments made during the planning phase of projects are problematic throughout the implementation, operational and decommissioning phases of projects.  This is particularly true in developing countries such as South Africa where the transition from the different phases of a project is viewed as a key contributing factor to this phenomenon.  Environmental planning and management calls for the integration of a number of environmental instruments to aid in this challenge and enhance efficiency gains of projects.  The most obvious integration is between Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental Management Systems (EMS), but there are also other instruments such as green procurement, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Integrated Reporting (IR) that may be added to the EIA-EMS relationship.  An extended EIA-EMS-LCA relationship may be particularly valuable as the new ISO14001: 2015 standard specifically focus on using a life cycle perspective (procurement to disposal) to prevent environmental impacts from being unintentionally shifted elsewhere within a service or product’s cycle.  This paper conceptualise an integrated EIA-EMS-LCA nexus that may deliver on integrated corporate reporting and thinking by drawing from various sources of secondary and empirical data as well as phenomenological learning from the authors of a developed (Sweden) and developing country (South Africa).

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