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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pellegrini, B
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sandbakk, Ø
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    COMPARISONS BETWEEN HERRINGBONE AND DIAGONAL STRIDE TECHNIQUES IN CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING2012In: / [ed] Meeusen, R., Duchateau, J., Roelands, B., Klass, M., De Geus, B., Baudry, S., Tsolakidis, E., 2012, p. 77-77Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    CeRiSM, Research Center for Sport, Mountain and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    Sandbakk, Öyvind
    Centre for Elite Sports Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway .
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing2014In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 267-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5 degrees) on snow at moderate (3.5 +/- 0.3m/s), high (4.5 +/- 0.4m/s), and maximal (5.6 +/- 0.6m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100Hz), pole force (1,500Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    MECHANICS OF VELOCITY ADAPTATION IN DIAGONAL SKIING2012In: / [ed] Anni Hakkarainen, Stefan Lindinger and Vesa Linnamo, 2012, p. 62-62Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    CeRiSM Research Center for Sport, Mountain and Health University of Verona Rovereto Italy.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    Department of Human Movement Science Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim Norway.
    Ettema, Gertjan
    Department of Human Movement Science Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Biomechanical analysis of the herringbone technique as employed by elite cross-country skiers2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 542-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation was designed to analyse the kinematics and kinetics of cross-country skiing at different velocities with the herringbone technique on a steep incline. Eleven elite male cross-country skiers performed this technique at maximal, high, and moderate velocities on a snow-covered 15° incline. They positioned their skis laterally (25 to 30°) with a slight inside tilt and planted their poles laterally (8 to 12°) with most leg thrust force exerted on the inside forefoot. Although 77% of the total propulsive force was generated by the legs, the ratio between propulsive and total force was approximately fourfold higher for the poles. The cycle rate increased with velocity (1.20 to 1.60 Hz), whereas the cycle length increased from moderate up to high velocity, but then remained the same at maximal velocity (2.0 to 2.3 m). In conclusion, with the herringbone technique, the skis were angled laterally without gliding, with the forces distributed mainly on the inside forefoot to enable grip for propulsion. The skiers utilized high cycle rates with major propulsion by the legs, highlighting the importance of high peak and rapid generation of leg forces.

  • 5.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Sports Confederation.
    Born, Dennis
    Würzburg University, Germany.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Salzburg University, Austria.
    Swarén, Mikael
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Performance analysis of trail running in undulating terrain2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    The effects of prior high intensity double poling on subsequent diagonal stride skiing characteristics2015In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of prior high intensity double poling (DP) on physiological and biomechanical responses during subsequent diagonal stride (DIA). Methods: Eight well-trained male cross-country skiers (age 22 ± 3 yr; VO2max 69 ± 3 ml · kg−1 · min−1) roller-skied on a treadmill sequentially for 3 min at 90% DIA VO2max (DIA1), 3 min at 90% DP VO2peak and 3 min at 90% DIA VO2max (DIA2). Cardio-respiratory responses were monitored continuously and gases and metabolites in blood from the a. femoralis, v. femoralis and v. subclavia determined. Pole and plantar forces and EMG from 6 lower- and upper-body muscles were measured. Results: VO2 decreased from DIA1 to DP and increased again to DIA2 (both P < 0.05), with no difference between the DIA sessions. Blood lactate rose from DIA1 to DP to DIA2. O2 extraction was attenuated during DP (P < 0.05), but was the same during DIA1 and DIA2. EMGRMS for arm muscles during poling phase, as well as peak pole force and cycle rate were higher, while leg muscle activity was lower during DP than both sessions of DIA (all P < 0.05). The ratio of upper-/whole-body EMGRMS correlated negatively with O2 extraction in the arms during both sessions of DIA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In well-trained skiers skiing at high-intensity DP prior to DIA did not influence VO2, muscle activation or forces in the latter. At race intensity DP does not influence the distribution of work between upper- and lower-body during a subsequent bout of DIA. O2 extraction is coupled to technical skills during skiing.

  • 7.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    NO EXCESS VO2 DURING WHOLE-BODY HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE IN WELL-TRAINED CROSS-COUNTRY SKIERS2012In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science / [ed] Meeusen, R., Duchateau, J., Roelands, B., Klass, M., De Geus, B., Baudry, S., Tsolakidis, E., 2012, p. 54-54Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. The Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Swarén, Mikael
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Born, Dennis-Peter
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Biomechanical Adaptations and Performance Indicators in Short Trail Running2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aims were to measure anthropometric and oxygen uptake (V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 20px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(62, 61, 64); font-family: Georgia, "Times New Roman", Times, serif; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2) variables in the laboratory, to measure kinetic and stride characteristics during a trail running time trial, and then analyse the data for correlations with trail running performance. Runners (13 men, 4 women: mean age: 29 ± 5 years; stature: 179.5 ± 0.8 cm; body mass: 69.1 ± 7.4 kg) performed laboratory tests to determine V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 20px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(62, 61, 64); font-family: Georgia, "Times New Roman", Times, serif; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2 max, running economy (RE), and anthropometric characteristics. On a separate day they performed an outdoor trail running time trial (two 3.5 km laps, total climb: 486 m) while we collected kinetic and time data. Comparing lap 2 with lap 1 (19:40 ± 1:57 min vs. 21:08 ± 2:09 min, P < 0.001), runners lost most time on the uphill sections and least on technical downhills (-2.5 ± 9.1 s). Inter-individual performance varied most for the downhills (CV > 25%) and least on flat terrain (CV < 10%). Overall stride cycle and ground contact time (GCT) were shorter in downhill than uphill sections (0.64 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.09 s; 0.26 ± 0.03 vs. 0.46 ± 0.90 s, both P < 0.001). Force impulse was greatest on uphill (248 ± 46 vs. 175 ± 24 Ns, P < 0.001) and related to GCT (r = 0.904, P< 0.001). Peak force was greater during downhill than during uphill running (1106 ± 135 vs. 959 ± 104 N, P< 0.01). Performance was related to absolute and relative V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 20px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(62, 61, 64); font-family: Georgia, "Times New Roman", Times, serif; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2 max (P < 0.01), vertical uphill treadmill speed (P < 0.001) and fat percent (P < 0.01). Running uphill involved the greatest impulse per step due to longer GCT while downhill running generated the highest peak forces. V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 20px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(62, 61, 64); font-family: Georgia, "Times New Roman", Times, serif; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2 max, vertical running speed and fat percent are important predictors for trail running performance. Performance between runners varied the most on downhills throughout the course, while pacing resembled a reversed J pattern. Future studies should focus on longer competition distances to verify these findings and with application of measures of 3D kinematics.

  • 9.
    Born, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Würzburg.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Swarén, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: More Accurate Than Heart Rate for Monitoring Intensity in Running in Hilly Terrain2017In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 440-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    To 1) investigate the cardiorespiratory and metabolic response of trail running and 2) evaluate whether heart rate (HR) adequately reflects the exercise intensity or whether the tissue saturation index (TSI) could provide a more accurate measure when running in hilly terrain.

    Methods:

    Seventeen competitive runners (female: n=4, V’O2max: 55±6 mL·kg−1·min−1; male: n=13, V’O2max: 68±6 mL·kg−1·min−1) performed a time trial on an off-road trail course. The course was made up of two laps covering a total distance of 7 km and included six steep up- and downhill sections with an elevation gain of 486 m. All runners were equipped with a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer, HR belt, global positioning system receiver and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device to measure the TSI.

    Results:

    During the trail run, the exercise intensity within the uphill and downhill sections was 94±2% and 91±3% of HRmax, 84±8% and 68±7% of V’O2max, respectively. The oxygen uptake (V’O2) increased within the uphill and decreased within the downhill sections (P< .01). While HR was unaffected by the altering slope conditions, the TSI was inversely correlated to the changes in V’O2 (r = - .70, P< .05).

    Conclusions:

    The HR was unaffected by the continuously changing exercise intensity, however, the TSI reflected the alternations in V’O2. Recently used exclusively for scientific purpose, this NIRS based variable may offer a more accurate alternative to HR to monitor running intensity in the future, especially for training and competition in hilly terrain.

  • 10.
    Göpfert, Caroline
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory of Biomechanics in Skiing, Salzburg, Austria .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Müller, Erich
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory of Biomechanics in Skiing, Salzburg, Austria .
    Lindinger, Stefan Josef
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory of Biomechanics in Skiing, Salzburg, Austria .
    Biomechanical characteristics and speed adaptation during kick double poling on roller skis in elite cross-country skiers2013In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 154-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in cross-country ski racing should promote the use of kick double poling. This technique, however, has not been the focus in athletes' training and has barely been investigated. The aims of the present study were to develop a function-based phase definition and to analyse speed adaptation mechanisms for kick double poling in elite cross-country skiers. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded in 10 athletes while performing kick double poling at three submaximal roller skiing speeds. A speed increase was associated with increases in cycle length and rate, while absolute poling and leg push-off durations shortened. Despite maintained impulses of force, the peak and average pole/leg forces increased. During double poling and leg push-off, ranges of motion of elbow flexion and extension increased (p < 0.05) and were maintained for hip/knee flexion and extension. Cycle length increase was correlated to increases in average poling force (r = 0.71) and arm swing time (r = 0.88; both p < 0.05). The main speed adaptation was achieved by changes in double poling technique; however, leg push-off showed high variability among elite skiers, thus illustrating important aspects for technique training.

  • 11.
    Hebert-Losier, Kim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sports Science, National Sports Institute of Malaysia, National Sports Complex, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Zinner, Christoph
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians-University Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Platt, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Factors that Influence the Performance of Elite Sprint Cross-Country Skiers2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 319-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8–1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15–60 min). Objective: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. Methods: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field. Only original research articles addressing physiology, biomechanics, anthropometry, or neuromuscular characteristics and elite sprint cross-country skiers and performance outcomes were included. All articles meeting inclusion criteria were quality assessed. Data were extracted from each article using a standardized form and subsequently summarized. Results: Thirty-one articles met the criteria for inclusion, were reviewed, and scored an average of 66 ± 7 % (range 56–78 %) upon quality assessment. All articles except for two were quasi-experimental, and only one had a fully-experimental research design. In total, articles comprised 567 subjects (74 % male), with only nine articles explicitly reporting their skiers’ sprint International Skiing Federation points (weighted mean 116 ± 78). A similar number of articles addressed skating and classical techniques, with more than half of the investigations involving roller-skiing assessments under laboratory conditions. A range of physiological, biomechanical, anthropometric, and neuromuscular characteristics was reported to relate to sprint skiing performance. Both aerobic and anaerobic capacities are important qualities, with the anaerobic system suggested to contribute more to the performance during the first of repeated heats; and the aerobic system during subsequent heats. A capacity for high speed in all the following instances is important for the performance of sprint cross-country skiers: at the start of the race, at any given point when required (e.g., when being challenged by a competitor), and in the final section of each heat. Although high skiing speed is suggested to rely primarily on high cycle rates, longer cycle lengths are commonly observed in faster skiers. In addition, faster skiers rely on different technical strategies when approaching peak speeds, employ more effective techniques, and use better coordinated movements to optimize generation of propulsive force from the resultant ski and pole forces. Strong uphill technique is critical to race performance since uphill segments are the most influential on race outcomes. A certain strength level is required, although more does not necessarily translate to superior sprint skiing performance, and sufficient strength-endurance capacities are also of importance to minimize the impact and accumulation of fatigue during repeated heats. Lastly, higher lean mass does appear to benefit sprint skiers’ performance, with no clear advantage conferred via body height and mass. Limitations: Generalization of findings from one study to the next is challenging considering the array of experimental tasks, variables defining performance, fundamental differences between skiing techniques, and evolution of sprint skiing competitions. Although laboratory-based measures can effectively assess on-snow skiing performance, conclusions drawn from roller-skiing investigations might not fully apply to on-snow skiing performance. A low number of subjects were females (only 17 %), warranting further studies to better understand this population. Lastly, more training studies involving high-level elite sprint skiers and investigations pertaining to the ability of skiers to maintain high-sprint speeds at the end of races are recommended to assist in understanding and improving high-level sprint skiing performance, and resilience to fatigue. Conclusions: Successful sprint cross-country skiing involves well-developed aerobic and anaerobic capacities, high speed abilities, effective biomechanical techniques, and the ability to develop high forces rapidly. A certain level of strength is required, particularly ski-specific strength, as well as the ability to withstand fatigue across the repeated heats of sprint races. Cross-country sprint skiing is demonstrably a demanding and complex sport, where high-performance skiers need to simultaneously address physiological, biomechanical, anthropometric, and neuromuscular aspects to ensure success.

  • 12.
    Hébert-Losier, Kim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    BIOMECHANICAL DIFFERENCES IN TOP LEVEL CROSS-COUNTRY SKIERS AT MAXIMAL VELOCITY2012In: / [ed] Anni Hakkarainen, Stefan Lindinger and Vesa Linnamo, 2012, p. 63-63Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Jonsson, Malin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Welde, Boye
    The Arctic university of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Biomechanical differences in double poling between sexes and level of performance during a classical cross-country skiing competition2019In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 37, no 14, p. 1582-1590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomechanical differences in double poling (DP) between sex and performance level were investigated in female and male cross-country skiers during a classical race (10/15 km). Skiers were divided into faster and slower on basis of race performance: females faster (n=20), females slower (n=20), males faster (n=20), and males slower (n=20). Based on video analysis while DP in a flat section of the track, joint and pole angles at pole plant (PP) and pole-off, cycle characteristics and the use and coordination pattern of heel-raise (raise of heels from the ground to have a higher body position at PP) were analysed. Faster females and males had 4.3% and 7.8% higher DP velocity than their slower counterparts (both P<0.001). Faster males had 6.5% longer cycles than slower males (P<0.001). Faster skiers stopped heel-raise later than slower skiers (females: 2.0±3.4% vs. −1.0±3.5%, P<0.05; males: 3.9±2.4% vs. 0.8±3.2% of cycle time in relation to PP, P<0.001). At PP, faster skiers and male skiers had a smaller pole angle and greater ankle to hip and ankle to shoulder angle with respect to vertical, resulting in a more distinct forward body lean. However, the majority of the differences are likely due to higher DP velocity.

  • 14.
    Mueller, E. E.
    et al.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Schoenfelder, M.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Schwarzl, C.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Feuchter, S.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Mayr, B.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Ledl-Kurkowski, E.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Kvita, K.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Droese, S.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Stoeggl, J.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Niebauer, J.
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, Univ Inst Sports Med Prevent & Rehabil, Salzburg, Austria.
    Effects of winter sports and indoor training on arterial stiffness2015In: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, ISSN 0043-5325, E-ISSN 1613-7671, Vol. 127, p. S65-S65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Poetzelsberger, B.
    et al.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Lindinger, S. J.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Buchecker, M.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Mueller, E.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): effects on gait asymmetries2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a 12-week recreational skiing intervention on functional gait performance in people with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-three older adults (71 +/- 5 years) were assigned to the intervention (IG) or control group (CG). Test time and ground reaction forces (GRF) were recorded at pre- and post-intervention and in the retention phase during functional gait tests. Ground contact was recorded bilaterally and divided into the weight acceptance and push-off phases. In IG, a faster stair descent time (16%) was observed at post-test with no further change at the retention test. The asymmetry indices for all analyzed variables were decreased in stair descent and during weight acceptance in stair ascent and level walking without further changes between post- and retention test. The reduced asymmetries occurred mainly because of increased loading of the operated leg. Most variables were unchanged in CG. Similar to the force data, the asymmetry index for temporal stride characteristics was reduced in all stair descent variables. These results demonstrate that alpine skiing as a leisure-time activity has a beneficial effect on gait performance and leads to a more balanced load distribution between the legs during daily activities.

  • 16.
    Poetzelsberger, B.
    et al.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Lindinger, S. J.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Dirnberger, J.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Stadlmann, M.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Buchecker, M.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Hofstaedter, T.
    Paracelsus Med Univ Salzburg, Orthopaed Clin, Salzburg, Austria.
    Gordon, K.
    Paracelsus Med Univ Salzburg, Orthopaed Clin, Salzburg, Austria.
    Mueller, E.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): effects on strength and cardiorespiratory fitness2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-week recreational skiing intervention on lower limb muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in participants with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-seven older adults (70 +/- 5 years) were assigned to the intervention (n=13) or control group (n=14) after surgery (2.5 +/- 1 years). Leg muscle strength was measured using an IsoMed 2000 dynamometer and cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by cycle ergometry before and after the intervention as well as after an 8-week retention period. The skiing intervention led to increased muscle strength in the operated leg during unilateral single joint isometric extension (maximal force: 11%; P<0.05; rate of torque development: 24%; P<0.05) and during the unilateral multi-joint isokinetic single leg strength test (8%; P<0.05). This resulted in a decreased asymmetry index in the isokinetic test (13% to 5%; P<0.05). These adaptations remained unchanged toward the retention test. No effect was observed for cardiorespiratory fitness. The results demonstrate that muscle contraction forces required during recreational skiing in individuals with TKA seem adequate and effective to increase quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength in the initially weaker operated leg and to reduce an augmented post-operative asymmetry index.

  • 17.
    Poetzelsberger, B.
    et al.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Scheiber, P.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Lindinger, S. J.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Seifert, J.
    Montana State Univ, Movement Sci Lab, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA.
    Fink, C.
    Sportsclin Austria, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Mueller, E.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5400 Salzburg, Austria.
    Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): symmetric loading during skiing2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no S1, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine the pressure distribution, symmetry of load between operated (OP) and non-operated (NOP) leg, and pain level during alpine skiing in participants with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The responses of the dependent variables were analyzed following a 10-week guided skiing intervention of 2-3 days of skiing per week. Ground reaction force (GRF) was recorded bilaterally and was determined for 13 participants with TKA (65 +/- 4 years) at pre- and post-test. Additionally, pain perception was determined using a numeric rating scale in the OP leg at both test sessions and after each skiing day. No statistical differences were observed between OP and NOP legs for peak and average GRF as well as the asymmetry indices at pre-test. Pain perception was low and was not increased as a consequence of the skiing intervention. In conclusion, alpine skiing did not lead to increased or decreased loading of the OP leg compared with the NOP leg. Therefore, alpine skiing may be allowed for patients with skiing experience and a good clinical outcome.

  • 18.
    Soehnlein, Quirin
    et al.
    Department of Sport Sciences and Kinesiology, Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Mueller, Erich
    Department of Sport Sciences and Kinesiology, Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Stöggl, Thomas L.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Sciences and Kinesiology, Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    THE EFFECT OF 16-WEEK PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON EXPLOSIVE ACTIONS IN EARLY TO MID-PUBERTY ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS2014In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 2105-2114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plyometric training (PT) programs are widely used to improve explosive actions in soccer players of various ages, although there is debate about optimal training duration and time course of improvement. Twenty-two early to mid-puberty elite soccer players were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 10, regular soccer training) or a plyometric training group (PTG, n = 12, regular soccer training substituted with 2 PT sessions each week). Both groups trained for 16 weeks during the in-season period. Control group performed only tests at baseline and after intervention, whereas PTG performed additional tests after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. During each test, subjects' performances in speed (10 and 30 m; 5 and 20 m), agility, shuttle run, multiple 5 bounds (MB5), and standing long jump (LJ) were recorded. The PTG showed improved performance in 20-m sprint time (-3.2%), agility time (-6.1%), MB5 distance (+11.8%), and LJ distance (+7.3%) (all, p <= 0.05) after 16 weeks. All these improvements were higher compared with CG (all, p <= 0.05). The time course of improvement in the PT group showed that 20-m sprint time improved after 16 weeks (p = 0.012); agility after 4 (p = 0.047) and 8 weeks (p = 0.004) but stopped after 12 weeks (p = 0.007); MB5 after 8 (p = 0.039), 12 (p = 0.028), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001); and LJ improved after 4 (p = 0.045), 12 (p = 0.008), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001). Plyometric training seems to be an appropriate training tool to enhance some but not all explosive actions. The results indicate that the duration of a PT program is highly dependent on what type of explosive actions should be improved, or whether several explosive actions should be improved at the same time.

  • 19.
    Stöggl, R.
    et al.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Mueller, E.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no 1, p. E70-E81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 +/- 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 +/- 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys.

  • 20.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bishop, Phil
    University of Alabama, AL, USA.
    Höök, Martina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Physiological and biomechanical response to rifle carriage in elite biathletes2013In: Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl, 2013, p. 81-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Bishop, Phillip
    Department of Exercise Science and Kinesiology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States .
    Höök, Martina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Effect of carrying a rifle on physiology and biomechanical responses in biathletes2015In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 617-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the effect of carrying a rifle on the physiological and biomechanical responses of well-trained biathletes. Methods: Ten elite biathletes (five men and five women) performed ski skating with (R) or without a rifle (NR) on a treadmill using the V2 (5- incline) and V1 techniques (8-) at 8 and 6 kmIhj1, respectively, as well as at racing intensity (approximately 95% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), 10.7 T 0.8 and 7.7 T 0.9 kmIhj1, respectively). VO2, ventilation (VE), HR, blood lactate concentration (BLa), and cycle characteristics as well as pole and leg kinetics were evaluated during these trials. Results: Metabolic data were all higher for R than for NR, as follows:VO2, +2.5%;VE, +8.1%; RER, +4.2%; all P G 0.001; HR, +1.7%; and BLa, +15.1%; both P G 0.05. Biomechanically, carrying a rifle reduced cycle time and length, poling and arm swing times, and leg ground contact time and increased cycle rate, the peak and impulse of leg force, average cycle force, and impulse of forefoot force (all P G 0.05). With the exception of elevated pole forces when V2 skating at racing velocity, there were no differences between the peak and impulse of pole force. The difference inVE between R and NR was greater for the women than that for men (P G 0.05), and the difference in BLa also tended to be larger for the women (P G 0.1). Conclusions: Carrying a rifle elevated physiological responses, accelerated cycle rate, and involved greater leg work, with no differences between the V1 and V2 techniques.

  • 22.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. The Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    High intensity interval training leads to greater improvements in acute heart rate recovery and anaerobic power as high volume low intensity training2017In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 8, article id 562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.

    Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.

    Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001) and peak lactate (P = 0.001) during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1) was changed (P > 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.

    Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  • 23.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Three-dimensional Force and Kinematic Interactions in V1 Skating at High Speeds2015In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1232-1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe the detailed kinetics and kinematics associated with use of the V1 skating technique at high skiing speeds and to identify factors that predict performance. Methods: Fifteen elite male cross-country skiers performed an incremental roller-skiing speed test (V-peak) on a treadmill using the V1 skating technique. Pole and plantar forces and whole-body kinematics were monitored at four submaximal speeds. Results: The propulsive force of the "strong side'' pole was greater than that of the "weak side'' (P < 0.01), but no difference was observed for the legs. The poles generated approximately 44% of the total propulsion, being more effective than the legs in this respect (similar to 59% vs 11%, P < 0.001). Faster skiers exhibited more well-synchronized poling, exhibited more symmetric edging by and forces from the legs, and were more effective in transformation of resultant forces into propulsion. Cycle length was not correlated with either V-peak or the impulse of total propulsive forces. Conclusions: The present findings provide novel insights into the coordination, kinetics, and kinematics of the arm and leg motion by elite athletes while V1 skating at high speeds. The faster skiers exhibit more symmetric leg motion on the "strong'' and "weak'' sides, as well as more synchronized poling. With respect to methods, the pressure insoles and three-dimensional kinematics in combination with the leg push-off model described here can easily be applied to all skating techniques, aiding in the evaluation of skiing techniques and comparison of effectiveness.

  • 24.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of SalzburgHallein/Rif, Austria .
    Holst, Anders
    School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jonasson, Arndt
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Wunsch, Thomas
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of SalzburgHallein/Rif, Austria .
    Norström, Christer
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Automatic classification of the sub-techniques (gears) used in cross-country ski skating employing a mobile phone2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 20589-20601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate an automatic algorithm for classification of cross-country (XC) ski-skating gears (G) using Smartphone accelerometer data. Eleven XC skiers (seven men, four women) with regional-to-international levels of performance carried out roller skiing trials on a treadmill using fixed gears (G2left, G2right, G3, G4left, G4right) and a 950-m trial using different speeds and inclines, applying gears and sides as they normally would. Gear classification by the Smartphone (on the chest) and based on video recordings were compared. Formachine-learning, a collective database was compared to individual data. The Smartphone application identified the trials with fixed gears correctly in all cases. In the 950-m trial, participants executed 140 ± 22 cycles as assessed by video analysis, with the automatic Smartphone application giving a similar value. Based on collective data, gears were identified correctly 86.0% ± 8.9% of the time, a value that rose to 90.3% ± 4.1% (P < 0.01) with machine learning from individual data. Classification was most often incorrect during transition between gears, especially to or from G3. Identification was most often correct for skiers who made relatively few transitions between gears. The accuracy of the automatic procedure for identifying G2left, G2right, G3, G4left and G4right was 96%, 90%, 81%, 88% and 94%, respectively. The algorithm identified gears correctly 100% of the time when a single gear was used and 90% of the time when different gears were employed during a variable protocol. This algorithm could be improved with respect to identification of transitions between gears or the side employed within a given gear.

  • 25.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Schlossallee 49, 5400 Hallein/Rif, Salzburg, Austria.
    Hébert-Losier, Kim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Do Anthropometrics, Biomechanics, and Laterality Explain V1 Side Preference in Skiers?2013In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 1569-1576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: In cross-country (XC) skiing, the V1 and V2 alternate skate techniques are asymmetric, and skiers can choose either the right or left side for pole support. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate V1 side preference in elite XC skiers, notably by documenting V1 skate side preference, dominant and nondominant V1peak speeds, left- to right-side differences (ΔL-R) in laboratory-based measurements, and relationships between side preference data. METHODS: Sixteen male elite XC skiers completed one incremental speed test using V1 on their dominant side and another incremental speed test using V1 on their nondominant side while roller-skiing on a treadmill. During these tests, V1peak speed, pole forces, and plantar forces were measured. A whole-body dual-energy x-ray absortiometry (DXA) scan measured anthropometric parameters and questionnaires established side preference for V2 alternate, overall laterality in XC skiing, handedness, footedness, and injury prevalence. RESULTS: Left-to-right V1 side preference was equally distributed among skiers. V1peak speed was approximately 4.5% greater on the dominant versus nondominant sides. V1peak Δ L-R were positively related to Δ L-R in V1-dominant peak pole forces only. Questionnaire data indicated that more skiers preferred V2 alternate right, with moderate correlations between preferred V1 and V2 alternate sides. The expression of a dominant side in V1 and V2 alternate increased as skiing speed increased from moderate to 15-km endurance-race to sprint-race speeds. However, no relationships were established between V1 or V2 side preference and handedness, footedness, or number of one-sided injuries. CONCLUSIONS: ΔL-R in measurements provide limited explanations for V1 side preferences in elite XC skiers. In fact, no systematic relations exist between V1 side preferences and anthropometric, biomechanical, or questionnaire data. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

  • 26.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Karlöf, Lars
    Research and Development, Swix Sport AS, Lillehammer, Norway .
    Mechanical behaviour of cross-country ski racing poles during double poling2013In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 365-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of cross-country ski poles during double poling on a treadmill using three-dimensional kinematics. The results were compared with standard laboratory tests of the pole manufacturers. A total of 18 skiers were analysed at two speeds (85% and 95% of the maximal speed) at grades of 1.5% and 7%. Variables describing cycle characteristics, bending stiffness, bending behaviour, and trajectories of the pole markers were analysed. Triangular-shaped poles demonstrated the greatest stiffness and lowest variability in maximal bending. Softer poles demonstrated greater variability in bending behaviour and lost ground contact at high skiing speeds, which for some skiers resulted in failure to complete high-speed tests. Considerable variations in pole behaviour for similar poles between skiers were observed, which might be attributed to differences in technique, indicating that mechanical properties of the poles did not exclusively determine pole behaviour in the dynamic situation. The greatest magnitude of pole bending was in the middle part of the pole, which differed from the standard static pole analysis of the manufacturer. Increases in grade demonstrated the greatest effect on pole bending. Distinct differences from the pole manufacturers' laboratory measures were apparent, suggesting that basic pole testing might be adapted.

  • 27.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Müller, E
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Magnitude and variation in muscle activity and kinematics during walking before and after a 10-week adaptation period using unstable (MBT) shoes2012In: Footwear Science, ISSN 1942-4280, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 131-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude and variability of electromyographic (EMG) and kinematic variables during treadmill walking using unstable (Masai Barefoot Technology, MBT) shoes and conventional shoes, before and after a 10-week training period.Methods: Twelve Sport Science students were analysed while walking on a treadmill with both conventional and unstable shoes, before and after a 10-week training intervention consisting of more than 4 h of use of unstable shoes during daily activity. Cycle characteristics, plantar pressure distribution, whole-body three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and EMG signals of selected leg muscles during the entire gait cycle and its subphases were recorded. The coefficient of variation of 20 consecutive cycles in each variable analysed was taken as the measure of variability.Results: A trend towards higher variability but equal magnitude was observed with MBT shoes compared with conventional shoes at the pre-intervention test (pre-test) regarding kinematic and EMG variables. The training period led to interaction effects (p < 0.05 to 0.01) demonstrating a global attenuation in the variability of kinematic and EMG variables in both shoe conditions, with greater reduction in the MBT situation, or an increase in variability with conventional shoes to higher post-test variability compared with MBT. Both situations revealed equal cycle times ( 1.05 s) but a shortened duration of loading response (136 vs. 146 ms) and terminal stance (211 vs. 223 ms) and an increased duration of midstance (293 vs. 282 ms) and swing time (408 vs. 386 ms) when comparing MBT with conventional shoes (all p<0.05 to 0.001). Training led to a global reduction in cycle time (p<0.05) and ground contact time (p<0.01) in both shoe conditions.Conclusions: The results support the idea that the unstable shoe serves as a motor constraint applicable during everyday activity, inducing changes in the gait pattern with both MBT and conventional shoes. In selected EMG and kinematic variables, an interaction effect towards a greater decrease in movement variability in MBT compared with conventional shoes or an increase in variability with conventional shoes towards a higher post-test variability compared with MBT was observed. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 28.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Sperlich, B.
    Institute of Sport Science, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany .
    Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity, or high volume training2014In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 5, p. Art. no. 33-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT), "threshold-training" (THR), high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL). The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes, and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 62.6 ± 7.1 mL·min-1·kg-1) were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over 9 weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml·min·kg-1 or 11.7%, P &lt; 0.001), time to exhaustion during the ramp protocol (+17.4%, P &lt; 0.001) and peak velocity/power (+5.1%, P &lt; 0.01). Velocity/power at 4 mmol·L-1 increased after POL (+8.1%, P &lt; 0.01) and HIIT (+5.6%, P &lt; 0.05). No differences in pre- to post-changes of work economy were found between the groups. Body mass was reduced by 3.7% (P &lt; 0.001) following HIIT, with no changes in the other groups. With the exception of slight improvements in work economy in THR, both HVT and THR had no further effects on measured variables of endurance performance (P &gt; 0.05). Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables. © 2014 Stöggl and Sperlich.

  • 29.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Schlossallee 49, Hallein/Rif, Austria .
    Torres-Peralta, R.
    Department of Physical Education, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, C/Juan de Quesada, No. 30, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain .
    Cetin, E.
    School of Physical Education and Sports, Gazi University Teknikokullar, Ankara, Turkey .
    Nagasaki, M.
    Department of Health Science, Faculty of Psychological and Physical Science, Aichi Gakuin University, 12 Araike, Iwasaki-cho Nisshin, Aichi, Japan .
    Repeated high intensity bouts with long recovery: Are bicarbonate or carbohydrate supplements an option?2014In: Scientific World Journal, ISSN 2356-6140, p. Art. no. 145747-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25 min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC); carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO); placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE); placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE). Blood lactate (BLa), blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138 ± 9, 124 ± 6, and 121 ± 6 s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HC O 3 -). Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HC O 3 - values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HC O 3 - was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC.

  • 30.
    Swarén, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. KTH.
    Born, Dennis
    Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Salzburg University, Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Biomechanical 3D field measurements of trail runners2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Swarén, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. KTH.
    Soehnlein, Quirin
    Holmberg, Martin
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Salzburg University, Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Using 3D motion capture to analyze ice-hockey shooting technique on ice2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Swarén, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kalmendal, Christian
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How do custom made insoles affect the pressure distribution under the feet in alpine skiing?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Elite alpine skiers frequently adjust insoles, boots and skis to optimize skiing performance. There are numerous different constructions of custom made insoles. However, nobody has, to the authors’ knowledge, investigated the mechanisms behind a plausible performance increase. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the potential difference in pressure distribution under the feet when skiing with regular insoles compared to custom made insoles. Method A pre-study investigated differently constructed insoles and their possible effects on the pressure distribution under the feet. One test subject performed different squat and fly-wheel exercises with six differently constructed insoles. Kinetics and 3D-kinematics were collected to identify possible differences. One insole construction, with a flat bottom and a semi-soft upper layer, was thereafter chosen to be used for field tests. Nine professional skiers, including both race skiers and full time ski instructors, were recruited for the field tests. Each skier performed in a randomized order, three runs with a standard insole and three runs with a custom made insole. Plantar pressure under the feet was measured with the Pedar Mobile System at 100 Hz, for eight consecutive carving turns. The skiers were instructed to have the smallest possible time difference between all runs. The three runs for each situation were synchronized and the mean total, forefoot and midfoot pressure distributions were calculated. Results The pre-study results show that the pressure distribution between foot and insole and between insole and ski-boot depends on the insole construction. The mean time for all 54 runs was 26.62 ± 2.41 s and the mean individual time difference between the fastest and the slowest runs was 0.62 ± 0.33 s. All skiers showed large individual differences in percentage of “used” area under the feet, between the two types of insoles (5-80%). When skiing with the custom made insole, the total mean difference in percentage usage of the forefoot was -17 ± 19% and 8 ± 12% for the midfoot. Discussion The results show that the pressure distribution under the feet depends on the type of insole. However, the effect of a custom made insole is very individual. Hence, when performing studies of skiing kinetics and/or equipment, it is of vast importance that all subjects use similarly constructed custom made insoles. It can also be hypothesized that e.g., different canting angles of the ski-boot, affect the skier differently depending on the type of insole. Our suggestion is therefore to perform measurements to optimize the insoles before investigating and optimizing canting angles. The results also show that custom made insoles can assist the skier to utilize different areas of the foot. However, future studies are needed to investigate whether the decreased usage of the forefoot affects the overall aggressiveness of the setup and whether custom made insoles have a positive effect on skiing performance.

  • 33.
    Swarén, Mikael
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan; Swedish Olympic Academy; Dalarna University.
    Söhnlein, Quirin
    University of Salzburg, Austria.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    University of Salzburg, Austria.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm.
    Using 3D Motion Capture to Analyse Ice Hockey Shooting Technique on Ice2019In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support - Volume 1: icSPORTS, SciTePress, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 204-208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the feasibility to use a passive marker motion capture system on ice to collect 3D kinematics of slap shots and one timers. Kinematic data were collected within a volume of 40x15x2 m by 20 motion capture cameras at 300 Hz, a resolution of 12 megapixels and a mean residual for all cameras of 3.4±2.5 mm, at a distance of 11.6 m. Puck velocity, blade velocity, ice contact time and distance to the puck were analysed for ten consecutive shots for each technique, for two professional ice hockey players. The total mean puck velocity was 38.0 ± 2.7 m/s vs. 36.4 ± 1.0 m/s. (p=0.053), for one timers and slap shots respectively. One player had higher puck velocity with one timers compared to slap shots 40.5 ± 1.0 m/s vs. 36.9 ± 1.0 m/s (p=0.001). Puck contact time was longer for slap shots than for one timers, 0.020 ± 0.002 s vs. 0.015 ± 0.002 s, (p<0.001). The motion capture system allowed continuous kinematic analyses of the puck and blade velocities, ice contact times and detailed stance information. The results demonstrate the possibilities to use motion capture systems to collect and analyse shooting kinematics on ice, in detail.

  • 34.
    Welde, Boye
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Stöggl, Thomas L.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Mathisen, Gunnar E.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Supej, Matej
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Zoppirolli, Chiara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Winther, Andreas K.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    The pacing strategy and technique of male cross-country skiers with different levels of performance during a 15-km classical race2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e0187111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the pacing strategy, cycle characteristics and choice of technique of elite male cross-country (XC) skiers during a three-lap, 15-km classical race with interval start were measured. During the Norwegian Championships in 2016, fast (n = 18, age: 26±4 yr; height: 182±4 cm; body mass: 78±3 kg (means±SD)) and slow skiers (n = 18, age: 22±2 yr; height: 183±5 cm; body mass: 78±6 kg) were video recorded on flat (0), intermediate (3.5) and uphill sections (7.1) of the first and final laps. All skiers adopted a positive pacing strategy, skiing more slowly (11.8%) with shorter cycles (11.7%) on the final than first lap (both p&lt;0.001; pη2 = 0.93 and 0.87, respectively). The fast skiers were 7.0% faster overall (p&lt;0.001, d = 4.20), and 6.1% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.32) and 7.0% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.68) faster on the first and final laps, respectively, compared to slower skiers. On all sections of both laps, the fast skiers exhibited 9.5% more rapid (pη2 = 0.74) and 8.9% (pη2 = 0.48) longer cycles (both p&lt;0.001). On intermediate terrain, the fast skiers employed primarily double poling (DP, 38.9% on the first lap) and double poling with a kick (DPKICK, 50% on the final lap). In contrast, the slow skiers utilized for the most part DP alone (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) or in combination with other techniques (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) and decreased their usage of DPKICK from 27.8% on the first to 16.7% on the final lap. Skiing velocity on flat and intermediate terrain proved to be the best predictor of race performance (p&lt;0.001). In conclusion, during a 15-km classical XC skiing race, velocity and cycle length decreased from the first to the final lap, most extensively on flat terrain and least uphill. Moreover, on the intermediate sections the fast and slow skiers chose to use different techniques.

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