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  • 1.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Att iscensätta apokalypsen: Zombiemetaforer i den samtida katastrofberedskapen2015In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 155-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the turn of the millennium, enactment of possible emergencies and catastrophes has become

    a most common way of producing knowledge about events yet to occur. Preparedness exercises

    are frequently performed by public authorities at local and regional levels. Collaborative

    approaches among relevant actors are enhanced and evaluated through simulated accidents and

    acts of terror as well as school shootings and epidemic outbreaks. Due to the incalculability of

    many modern threats, enactment is employed as a method for rendering potential future events

    available as empirical phenomena. However, sometimes these potential futures are represented

    in ways that correspond only to imagined and fictional worlds. The aim of this article is to explore

    the enactment of unreal possibilities in contemporary preparedness exercises. The empirical

    material employed for this purpose consists of crisis plans and exercise guides used in public

    and official institutions in the United States as well as qualitative interviews with municipal

    safety coordinators in Sweden.

  • 2.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Citizens response in crisis: Individual and collective efforts to enhance community resilience2014In: Human Technology, ISSN 1795-6889, E-ISSN 1795-6889, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 68-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the process and findings of an extensive research project with the aim of investigating present initiatives and approaches within the area of community resilience and citizen involvement. The paper specifically addresses which emerging sociotechnical approaches can be discerned within these initiatives. The discussion is structured within three categories of potential voluntary engagement; organized volunteers, semiorganized individuals, and “nonorganized” individuals. The empirical material assembled in the research project is contrasted with contemporary international research literature regarding sociotechnical means for enhancing community resilience. Swedish approaches, as is noted in the Conclusion of the paper, are primarily focused on consuming information in the pre-event phase, rather than on producing information and engaging in collaboration in the response phase.

  • 3.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Community approaches involving the public in crisis and emergency management2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is a review of literature dealing with community resilience and public participation in the management of emergencies and disasters. The aim of the study is to perform an inventory of community approaches involving citizens in the management of local and regional emergencies and disasters. Furthermore, the purpose of the study is to indicate trends and opportunities for further research. Empowering the public to be better prepared for crises is a logical way to strengthen crisis management, although in the past, resources have been focused mainly on the activities of response organizations. Nowadays, authorities realize that the behaviour of citizens can be vital to crisis preparedness, response and recovery. The reviewed literature is selected primarily from the field of disaster research. Yet, the surveyed models and approaches are applicable to small as well as large scale events, both natural and man-made. Preliminary results suggest that contemporary public participation in crisis and emergency management in a European context requires further scientific attention. Pros and cons of community-based programs are scrutinized, and some bottom-up, small-scale initiatives are mentioned. In addition, the study discusses alterations and contemporary meanings of concepts like “community”, “resilience”, and “empowerment”.

  • 4.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Community approaches involving the public in crisis management: A literature review2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of the research project Public Empowerment Policies for Crisis Management1 a literature review was conducted with the aim of summarizing research on community approaches involving the public in crisis management, and the co-production of response organizations and citizens in enhancing community resilience. Some of the main findings are presented below.

    Several authors in the reviewed literature emphasized that focus should be on people and what people can do, instead of what risks and hazards they might face. A major part of the literature stresses the importance of using pre-existing or established networks (i.e. families, workplaces, associations, organizations, congregations, etc.) when reaching out to people. People prefer to participate in collective efforts through the groups and institutions in which they normally participate, rather than through forms of collaboration created specifically for emergency and disaster management. Thus, collaboration between different actors should occur prior to an actual event, and the matter of collaboration does not have to focus on emergency or disaster per se. Many of the existing organizations, groups and networks grounded in collective needs and interests could be accentuated as potential actors in emergency and disaster preparedness and response. People and networks within specific interest groups or professions with no previous connection to emergency management might be in possession of skills or material resources well needed in emergency and disaster preparedness and response.

    As is stated in the reviewed literature, ethnicity, gender and social and economic circumstances are but just a few of the causes of discrimination in many crisis and disaster management efforts. By capacity building and inclusive voluntary community work, processes of empowerment can be triggered. The result is an enhanced sense of community and more opportunities for co-production. Important partnerships can be formed among groups that interact within a given population on a daily basis: scout troops, sports clubs, home-school organizations and faith-based and disability communities are examples of networks where relationships can be built. Thus, all members of the community should be part of the emergency management team, including social and community service groups and institutions, faith-based and disability groups, academia, professional associations, and the private and nonprofit sectors. Identifying the critical points of contact for all constituencies in the community makes communication and outreach most effective.

  • 5.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Cultures of preparedness: imagining and enacting disasters to come. A brief ethnography.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about, and preparedness for, possible future disasters are created through various techniques. Via simulation of imagined events, not yet substantialised disasters can be rendered physically and cognitively accessible as objects of knowledge. Simulations can be theoretical and immaterial, created by way of computer programs, or they can be enacted as material full scale exercises, complete with a backdrop of the complex and disordered reality, and all the sensorial experiences associated with it. In either case, simulation is employed as a technique for reducing uncertainty about possible future harm. Simulation thus allows for imagining potential futures in order to manage their consequences (Lentzos and Rose 2009:236). The aim of this paper is to critically investigate the “doing” of preparedness, by way of practically engaging with the physical world, in two geographically and culturally very different contexts. In Tokyo, Japan, citizens awaiting “the big one” are requested to practice earthquake preparedness in government sponsored earthquake prevention centres, whereas in Tafjord, Norway, visitors of the local rockslide centre can “design their own rockslide” as a playful way of practicing their disaster imagination. The question posed in this paper concerns how possible future disasters are imagined, represented, and socially enacted in order to enhance individual and collective preparedness supposed to last for decades. A common feature to the two empirical sites is the fact that, sooner or later, they will be destroyed. Consequently, the challenge is to produce a culture of preparedness durable for an unspecified range of time and conveyed over generations.

  • 6.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Mid Sweden University.
    Enhancing preparedness through the haptic sense2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to contribute to discussions on enactment as the premier contemporary response to uncertain futures. Realistically simulated disasters is an emerging feature in contemporary public preparedness exercise programs. The purpose of such simulations is to foster public vigilance and initiative by way of immersive experiences of future disaster. This new mode of experiential learning calls for new analytical concepts that take into account the dynamic relationship between the materiality of experience and the experiencing subject. Therefore, in this paper I propose an analytical vocabulary derived from recent interjections in art theory, film studies, and human geography. More specifically, I make use of, and extend, the notions of “haptic space” and “haptic sense” as elaborated by Bruno (2014), Fisher (2003) and Marks (2015). I apply these concepts to make sense of my empirical encounter with public simulation centres in Japan and Turkey. Finally, I discuss some implications of the haptic perspective.

  • 7.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Governing (through) anticipation, architecture, affect2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived increase in and transformation of societal insecurities necessitates novel approaches for governing societal responses tofuture disruption (e.g. O’Malley, 2008). One such novel approach is the establishing of public disaster simulation centres to ensure avigilant and prepared population. Societal insecurities do not necessarily mean trans-boundary or de-localized modern risks (in Beck’s,2009, sense), but may just as well imply threats to geographically delimited communities, societies, and regions, for example natureinduced(yet social) disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis, and insecurities originating from extreme weather conditions due to climatechange (e.g. hurricanes, heatwaves, landslides, flooding). This paper presents a case of public simulation centres understood as amanifestation of the Foucauldian notion of self-technology, emphasizing, as it does, the modification of individual conduct: Not only skillsbut also attitudes must be aligned towards the overarching goal of preparedness (Foucault, 1988:18). Based on a diverse assemblage ofempirical sources (e.g. individual’s accounts of their simulation experiences, notes from sensuous ethnographic field work, andgovernmental rationalizing of the need for public simulation centres), the paper puts forward an analysis of the mechanisms andtechnologies by which individuals become “resilient”. One overall tentative conclusion is that the sensuous-affective experiences conveyedby the simulation (like excitement, thrill, discomfort, stress) are intended to have an empowering effect on the participants.

  • 8.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Governing (through) anticipation, vigilance, affect2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived increase in and transformation of societal insecurities necessitates novelapproaches for governing societal responses to future disruption (e.g. O’Malley, 2008). Onesuch novel approach is the establishing of public disaster simulation centres to ensure avigilant and prepared population. Societal insecurities do not necessarily mean transboundaryor de-localized modern risks (in Beck’s, 2009, sense), but may just as well implythreats to geographically delimited communities, societies, and regions, for example natureinduced(yet social) disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis, and insecurities originating fromextreme weather conditions due to climate change (e.g. hurricanes, heatwaves, landslides,flooding). This paper presents a case of public simulation centres understood as amanifestation of the Foucauldian notion of self-technology, emphasizing, as it does, themodification of individual conduct: not only skills but also attitudes must be aligned towardsthe overarching goal of preparedness (Foucault, 1988:18). In other words, is the proliferationof public simulation centres to be understood as a concrete sign of ongoing processes ofresponsibilization? Alternatively, is it an expression of political and economic prestige: thefact that governments choose to spend huge resources on public preparedness? Based on adiverse assemblage of empirical sources (including individual’s accounts of their simulationexperiences, notes from sensuous ethnographic field work, governmental rationalizing of theneed for public simulation centres, and sketches of a giant simulation centre that was nevermaterialized), the paper puts forward an analysis of the mechanisms and technologies bywhich individuals and communities become “resilient”. One overall tentative conclusion isthat the sensuous-affective experiences conveyed by the simulation (like excitement, thrill,discomfort, stress) are intended to have an empowering effect on the participants.

  • 9.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Managing Social Unrest through Risk: Reintroducing the Debate2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has in no way been spared from riots similar to those that took place in Parisian suburbs in 2005 and in the UK during 2011. Two events well known to the Swedish public were the manifestations of civil unrest in Malmö during the winter 2008 and Stockholm 2013. Recently municipalities in Sweden have begun to include the notion of social unrest in their local risk- and vulnerability analyses. Hence, social unrest is placed at the same ontological level as for example natural and manmade disasters, pandemics and climate change. Put differently, social unrest is managed by being represented as a risk phenomenon which consequently legitimizes specific measures to reduce the potential threat of societal disorder. Within the horizon of Foucauldian theorizing risk is employed here as a technology allowing “calculations about probable futures in the present followed by interventions into the present in order to control that potential future” (Rose 2001:7). In documents pertaining to local risk- and vulnerability analyses social unrest is thus considered a phenomenon with an existence in itself, while at the same time specific groups are defined as being both at risk and being a risk to societal order. With this background there seems to be reason for returning to an old sociological debate on the status of social unrest. During the 1970s, Herbert Blumer (1971; 1978) engaged deeply in the nature and role of social unrest, arguing that social problems are fundamentally products of a process of collective definition rather than phenomena existing independently as objective social arrangements. In this paper I return to Blumer´s writings aiming to find out what he has to offer in a discussion on the present development. In addition I describe through a Foucauldian lens the process through which social unrest is made manageable using the technology of risk.

  • 10.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Managing social unrest through risk: the securitization of temporary events2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to maintain systematic preparedness and planning in case of extraordinary events, municipalities in Sweden are required by law to carry out risk and vulnerability analyses within their jurisdiction. Lately an increasing number of municipalities have begun to include the notion of social unrest in their local analyses. Hence, social unrest is placed at the same ontological level as for example natural and manmade disasters, pandemics and climate change. Representing an essentially interactional constructed phenomenon like social unrest as an objective social arrangement with an independent existence will inevitably affect the way social unrest is understood and thereby handled. Put differently, social unrest is thereby managed as a risk phenomenon which consequently legitimizes specific measures to reduce the potential threat of societal disorder. This managemental maneuver influence what is perceived as social unrest, hence interactional phenomena far from social unrest is managed as social unrest. Temporary groups and events like sport events, festivals, political conventions and block parties are negatively seen as arenas of imminent violence. People are advised to avoid large groups of people like demonstrations and similar kinds of collective manifestations, the long term risk being societal fear replacing social cohesion.

  • 11.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    On the role of anticipation in risk theory2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the role of anticipation in risk theory

    Mikael Linnell, RCR

    In this paper I discuss anticipation as a key concept in regard to the more established

    notions of risk and uncertainty. I argue that anticipation, although closely associated

    with the notion of risk, has for a long time remained undertheorized (e.g. Gasparini,

    2004:340; Poli, 2014:23, 2017:3). The overall purpose of the paper is thus to illustrate

    the fact that anticipation may function as a mediating phenomenon between our

    understanding of risk and our concrete practices for coping with uncertain futures. As

    have been argued by Adams et al. (2009:246), “one defining quality of our current

    moment is its characteristic state of anticipation, of thinking and living toward the

    future”. Moreover, Granjou et al. (2017:1), point to a number of recent scholarly

    themes, “ranging from an enduring assessment of the ‘not yet’ to the contested

    prefiguring of the ‘what if’”, which seems indicative of what might be a reinvigorated

    ‘futures turn’. This view is shared by Levitas (2013), Nowotny (2016) and Poli (2014),

    among others, who note that anticipation is at the heart of urgent risk-related debates,

    from climate change to economic crisis. Accordingly, there is obviously reason for

    some trans-disciplinary attention to and development of risk theory. In particular, we

    need to understand better how to engage with the complexity of anticipation and

    explore the knowledge practices associated with future-oriented approaches (e.g.

    Adam, 2011; Brown et al., 2000; Mallard and Lakoff, 2011). According to Szerszynski

    (2015), what is lacking is a systematic approach to ‘anticipatory regimes’ that enables

    us to study how anticipation is understood and practiced in different social formations.

    This paper is an attempt in this direction. Although a plethora of recent studies on risk

    and risk management focus on the ways in which various actors imagine future

    problems and seek to render them governable, the typical “governmental” study of

    risk appears to have more or less moved on (O’Malley, 2016:110). Perhaps the

    governmentality perspective, as we have come to know it, has now become

    normalized and appears as “the ghost in the machinery of a good deal of

    contemporary risk analysis – still present, but increasingly invisible” (O’Malley,

    2016:110).

  • 12.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Representations of disaster in emergency preparedness scenarios2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    2012 was a good year for the disaster fiction genre in Sweden. Two of the most talked about novels are Fallvatten by Mikael Niemi and Det som inte växer är döende by Jesper Weithz. The former depicts a dam break and subsequent tsunami in the north of Sweden, while the latter tells a story about a family experiencing the threats and dangers encountered in the wake of a fragile, almost disintegrated, societal and individual safety net. A reviewer in a major newspaper appointed Weithz’s novel the best literary interpreter of Ulrich Beck’s risk society thesis so far. The events occurring in these fictional accounts (dam break, tsunami, snowstorm, aircraft hijack, etc.) are also found in scenarios used in emergency preparedness exercises. The same story is told but the purpose differs.

    When rational calculation is no longer enough to capture the unthinkable or the unexpected, imagined scenarios are employed to construct knowledge about how to act on that uncertain future. Literary representations and narratives of emergency and disaster become intertwined with emergency and disaster management. The aim of the present paper is to explore and analyse representations of disaster in emergency preparedness scenarios. The questions guiding this work are focused on how such scenarios are constructed, what kind of knowledge is acquired, and what are the possible effects on peoples’ understandings and expectations of disaster? In other words, what are the implications for disaster culture when concepts like “fact” and “fiction” dissolve?

  • 13.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Resilience in Sweden: Governance, Networks, and Learning2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Resilient mottagande av flyktingar – ett europeiskt perspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Constitution and Reconstitution of Risk in Crisis Preparedness and Response Training2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, education and exercise in societal crisis preparedness and response activities have increasingly proliferated. Thus, we tend to spend an increasing amount of time and resources being prepared for impending but uncertain negative events. Local community representatives, public institutions and organisations within critical infrastructure are expected to hold regular exercises in order to prepare for future potential crises. Likewise, civil sector organisations are utilized to assemble engaged citizens. Voluntary organisations dealing with societal crisis preparedness and response seek new ways to capture and educate the public. At the same time, the contemporary regime in managing societal crises is as cross-sectional and interorganisational collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the risk of uncertain future events is being constituted and reconstituted in the context of two voluntary organisations dealing with societal crisis preparedness and response. What kinds of risk-categories are members being taught to prepare for, what do these categories actually comprise, and how do members prepare for them? These issues will be explored in an object-oriented approach which draws on Harold Garfinkel´s notion of oriented objects (2003), Stephen Hilgartner´s notion of risk objects (1992), and Susan Leigh Star & James Griesemer´s notion of boundary objects (1989). These different notions of objects share the basic assumption that social objects, like risks, must be mutually oriented, which means that they must be rendered in a mutually intelligible form in order to exist as social objects (Rawls 2008).

     

  • 16.
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    The Haptic Space of Disaster2019In: Space and Culture, ISSN 1206-3312, E-ISSN 1552-8308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this article is to contribute to discussions on the spatialization of future eventsand, in particular, on enactment as the primary contemporary response to uncertain futures.Realistically simulated disasters is an emerging feature in contemporary public preparednessexercises. The purpose of such simulations is to foster public vigilance and initiative by way ofimmersive experiences of future disasters. This new mode of experiential learning calls for newanalytical concepts that take into account the dynamic relationship between the materialityof experience and the experiencing subject. Therefore, in this article, I propose an analyticalvocabulary derived from recent interjections in visual and cultural studies, human geography,and sociology. More specifically I make use of, and extend, the notions of “haptic space” and“haptic sense” as elaborated by Bruno (2014), Fisher (2012), and Marks (2015). I apply theseconcepts to make sense of my empirical encounter with public simulation centers in Japan andTurkey. Finally, I discuss some implications of the haptic perspective in this context.

  • 17.
    Linnell, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Catrin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    A literature review on community approaches that involve the public in crisis management: Fostering community resilience through  coproduction by response organisations and citizens2014Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Linnell, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Catrin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wall, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Susanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Enhancing public resilience: A community approach2015In: Planet@Risk, ISSN 2296-8172, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the paper is to explore two key areas in crisis management: (a) the role of local communities in crisis preparedness and response, and (b) how to involve the citizens in this task.Specifically we ask: What areas are important to develop in order for public resilience to be enhanced? The study has a broad scope and utilizes a novel design since it takes four stakeholder perspectives into consideration: the perspectives of municipal safety coordinators, members of voluntary organizations, semiorganized individuals, and nonorganized individuals. In total 33 in-depth interviews were undertaken in three different Swedish municiplaities.Seven major themes related to enhanced public resilience were developed in the analytic process: a) Collaboration: formal and informal practices, b) Specific competences and general abilities, c) Collective efforts and individual self help, d) Education and empowerment, e) Traditional communication versus digital media, f) Individual motivation and involvement, and g) Generation and age. From these themes four policy-level recommendations aimed for civil servants and similar public authority representatives. The recommendations consist of four key words, or ‘The four In:s; Inclusive, Interested, Insistent, and Inventive’. The study is part of an extensive research project, Public Empowerment Policies for Crisis Management, funded as part of the European Community's Seventh Framework Program.

  • 19.
    Linnell, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Catrin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wall, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Susanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Enhancing public resilience: A community approach2014In: Proceedings of the International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC Davos 2014: Extended abstracts, Davos: Global Risk Forum , 2014, p. 541-544Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to explore the interface between local authorities and voluntary initiatives, to identify key enablers for enhancing public resilience. In other words, the present study is about mapping the state of collaboration between local authorities and the organized voluntary and not organized public, and attends to good examples of coproducing safety. The analyses are based on a literature study together with 33 interviews with representatives of four social actors at the community level: 1) professionals working at municipalities, 2) volunteers engaged in NGOs, 3) semi-organized individuals, and 4) non-organized individuals, in three geographical areas in Sweden representing different kinds of physical and social environments. The main results show that there are some particular areas that are important for enhancing public resilience. These areas are; Collaboration, Formal and informal practices, General ability and specific competence, Dynamics between collective efforts and individual self-help, Aspects of education and empowerment, Traditional communication versus digital media, Individual involvement, and Age and generations. The paper identifies a number of challenges and opportunities in each area. A general observation is also that the scope and depth of collaboration between public and municipal emergency actors and voluntary organizations differ a lot depending on population density, size of local community and geographical characteristics. These factors seem to have most impact on how formal the collaboration is between the professional and voluntary organizations and issues related to resources of different kinds. 

  • 20.
    Linnell, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Catrin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wall, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Susanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Experiences and requirements for a community approach involving social groups in crisis preparedness and response2014Report (Other academic)
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