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  • 1.
    Anderson, Karen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mature Public e-Services Without Mature Recordkeeping – An Impossibility?2010In: iRMA Information and Records Management Annual, ISSN 1836-3202, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Government has established the eGovernment Delegation agency to identify and support excellence in e-government implementation strategies. This agency has commenced working with the National Archives, to ensure that archival requirements are addressed when developing new e-services. However, the prevailing view of archives is a traditional curatorial approach, which focuses on capturing the end product once actions have been completed. In the digital environment, the prevailing archival practice frameworks are not adequate to the task of capturing the full digital context and process that is essential for a complete record. Previously, when paper records were aggregated on a physical file, the full record of processes was more likely to be captured and managed for the long term.

    Results from two empirical case studies will be used to present and illustrate the risks and problems generated by an approach where the records are not identified and captured until late in the business process. In this paper the term post hoc approach to records capture is used to describe the method whereby an attempt is made to capture records, including the necessary metadata, after they are created, without prior planning or system design. One of the Swedish eGovernment Delegation’s aims is to motivate public agencies to reach level four on Layne and Lee’s e-government maturity model, that is, full integration of interaction between agencies and citizens. However, the model does not incorporate any recordkeeping requirements in its maturity benchmarks. It is clear these kinds of e-services are so complex that late intervention by archivists will not be adequate for needed recordkeeping support and long-term preservation. So it is essential that guidance on archival preservation of integrated e-services is made available as soon as possible, particularly as current trends in government indicate that e-services will be outsourced to private providers.

    Strategies are proposed for including recordkeeping re- quirements in e-service models. Advantageously, this can be done using existing benchmarking tools such as GARP, ISO 15489, ISO 30301 and the ICA Principles and Functional Requirements for Records In Electronic Office Environments. 

  • 2.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    E-tjänstens framtida historia: Informationsbevarande, ett bortglömt ansvarsområde?2010In: Förvaltning och medborgarskap i förändring / [ed] Lindblad-Gidlund, K; Ekelin, A; Eriksén, S; Ranerup, A., Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 1:1, p. 167-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Innehåll: Inledning, Svensk offentlighetslagstriftning, Den komplexa och integrerade e-tjänsten - bakgrund och definition, Problemområden, Ansvarsfrågan, Informationens kvalitet över tid, Andvändaren / medborgaren, rekommendationer, Proaktivitet, Avslutning.

  • 3.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ekker, Knut
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag.
    Holand, Svare Ivar
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag.
    Holmberg, Stig C
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Nygård, Ståle Andre
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag.
    Skevik, Trond Olav
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag.
    Sund, Torgrim
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag.
    Rapport från GSS: Gränsöverskridande samarbete för säkerhet2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The GSS project (Gaining SecuritySymbiosis) aimed at contributing towards increased security and quality of life for inhabitants and visitors of the border region of the middle part of Sweden and Norway. Within this goal the project also aimed at increasing the likelihood of saving livesand reducing threats to the environment and material assets. GSS focuses on providing the information and knowledge required in emergency and crisis situations. GSS emphasizes preparatory activities. The cross-border value added by the project has several dimensions: •It increases understanding, trust and cooperation between emergency personnel on both sides of the border.•Authorities with responsibility for security establish long-term institutional partnership with respect to security and crisis management.•The attractiveness of the border region increases due to enhanced securityand improved crisis management.•The mutual knowledge and understanding regarding the situation across the national border increases among project participantsThe project has implemented three yearly cycles of training consisting of building a scenario, training in handling a crisis situation and evaluation. The results from the evaluation have provided the foundation for the next year cycle. The project also developed a training system across these three cycles. The training system includes a scenario bank, training exercises and support, play-back function and an evaluation module including statistical functions. The evaluations from these training sessions are included in a separate appendix. The first training session was conducted as a table-top exercise at the Border Rescue Council meeting in 2011. The other two training sessions were designed in order to allow the participants to sit at their respective workplaces and communicating with the other participants partly through traditional communications channels and through the training system. The training sessions were then discussed in the subsequent Border Rescue Council meetings. By accessing the scenarios and exercises in the training system the participants from the various rescue teams took part in the training sessions.The project results show that there is a great need for this kind of training. The participating organizations express that the training sessions havebeen very instructive and that participants have gained new contacts or developed the contacts that were already established. The results also show that participants have directly benefited from the project during real emergency events. The project costshave amounted to approximately 3,2 SEK and just under 2,5 NOK. Expenses have primarily consisted of the working hours of partners and to some extent travel expenses. The travel expenses have been reduced by the frequent use of distance communication technologies instead of physical meetings.

  • 4.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Training exercises for crisis management training in intra-organizational settings2013In: ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings - 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller, KIT Publishers, 2013, p. 105-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the focus is how to train collaboration and communication between emergency authorities in two countries (Norway and Sweden) by using a web-based tool supporting tabletop like exercises. The exercises are accomplished in three steps: Scenario design; exercise design and realization; and evaluation to examine the results of the exercises and for feedback to new scenario designs. The software ties all three steps together. The process is iterative, and involves users from each emergency authority. The preliminary results after two years show that the approach is promising. To be able to better foresee what will happen during an exercise the need for a simulator has appeared as one desirable and possible direction for further research.

  • 5.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ring, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Accessibility in Crisis Management2011In: European Sociological Association Research Network 22 Sociology of Risk and Uncertainty RISK, UNCERTAINTY AND POLICY Midterm Conference 2011: Abstract book, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A first step towards general quality requirements for e-records.2006In: Advances in information systems development: bridging the gap between academia & industry.: Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Information Systems Development: Methods and Tools, Theory and Practice, London: Springer , 2006, , p. 1052p. 745-756Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical journals, police reports, and company registrations are all example of records, recorded information. Many organizations make a change from paper based records to electronic records. One key characteristic of records is that they are going to be preserved for long time, some forever. Both the Swedish Agency for Public Management and the Swedish Emergency Management Agency have identified preservation of electronic records as a problem, needed a quick solution. A record should be able to serve as evidence over actions and transactions, and should support accountability. For this must records be reliable and authentic, i.e. be trustworthy. Questions of immediate interest are how should information systems be designed and developed to maintain trustworthiness in electronic records? And what quality requirements are needed for both electronic records, and for information systems? Non functional requirements are about quality issues for future systems and software. In this research are the interest quality requirements, a type of non functional requirements, for electronic records. The aim of this research was to study a development project of an electronic record management system/electronic archive system, in order to identify quality requirements needed for maintaining trustworthiness in electronic records over time. A seven month case study has been performed, following a development project at Swedish Companies Registration Office, a development project of an electronic archive system solution. The collected empirical material resulted in a set of six different quality requirements for maintaining trustworthiness in electronic records. The identified quality requirements are a first step towards identifying general quality requirements for electronic records. Some of the quality requirements are valid both for the electronic record it self, and for the electronic archive system.

  • 7.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A predictive model for attaining quality in recordkeeping2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Records are a subset of information and recordkeeping requirements demand that a record is managed with maintained authenticity and reliability, i.e. with high quality. Records are evidence of transactions and are used and managed in daily work processes. Records may be preserved for anything from milliseconds to eternity. With computer based information systems the electronic record was born: a record that is born digital. With electronic records problems regarding maintenance of authenticity and reliability have been identified. Electronic records are no longer physical entities as traditional records were. An electronic record is a logical entity that can be spread over different locations in a computer based information system. In this research the aim is to improve the possibility of reaching high quality in recordkeeping systems, i.e. to maintain reliability and authenticity of electronic records, which is necessary if electronic records are to be usable as evidence of transactions. Based on case studies and literature studies, a recordkeeping quality model is presented: a predictive model for attaining quality in recordkeeping. The recordkeeping quality model consists of four major concepts which are interrelated with each other: Electronic records, Records use, Electronic record quality, and Multidimensional perspective. The model is proposed for use when designing and developing computer based information systems which are required to be recordkeeping, systems which manage electronic records. In this research two results beside the recordkeeping quality model are emphasized. The first is that quality in recordkeeping must be seen in a multidimensional perspective, and the second is that recordkeeping systems are information systems with a partially unknown purpose.

  • 8.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    David Bearman's senaste alster om "Preserving Digital Heritage"2007In: Arkiv, samhälle och forskning, ISSN 0349-0505, no 2, p. 123-125Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Electronic record quality, necessary inter alia for trustworthy e-government services.2005In: Information Management in Modern Enterprise: Issues and Solutions - Proceedings of the 4th International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2005, 2005, Vol. 1, p. 334-341Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-government services exchange information electronically, which implicit increase the amount of electronic records, recorded electronic information. One characteristic of records is preservation. Preservation and management of electronic records have been identified as a problem, needed a quick solution, a problem that must be solved to be able to develop working egovernment services. A record should serve as evidence over actions and transactions. For this must records be reliable and authentic, i.e. be trustworthy. Question of immediate interest is what quality is needed for electronic records to maintain its trustworthiness? In this paper a set of sixteen electronic record quality dimensions are presented, a result from a longer qualitative case study. This paper presents both unique electronic record quality dimensions but also information quality dimensions not applicable for electronic records. The identified quality dimensions are a first step towards general electronic record quality needed inter alia for trustworthy e-government services.

  • 10.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Electronic Records use Changes Through Temporal Rhythms2008In: Archival & Social Studies, ISSN 1988-0626, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 103 -134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic records management is a part of the information management domain. Knowledge about how electronic records are used is important to design e.g. electronic records management systems (ERMS), when records at creation must meet stated and implied needs both present and future. Knowledge about the use of electronic records can result in design implications for information systems managing records. The use of electronic records has been studied, and variations in that use, by applying a temporal lens. The research aims to study how temporal structures in a knowledge intensive and time-critical organization affect the use of electronic records. The Swedish police have been studied, guided by the following research question: “How do different temporal structures in operational police work affect the use of electronic records?” The study uses qualitative research. The research shows that the use of electronic records shifts depending on different temporal structures, and moves from traditional user, mediated user, “bricoleur”, and producer. The shifts and variations in the use of electronic records are important considerations in design, when all these different users’ needs must be fulfilled.

  • 11.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    En introduktion till EDM och ECM ur ett arkivvetenskapligt perspektiv2007In: Arkiv, samhälle och forskning, ISSN 0349-0505, no 1, p. 44-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I arbetet med att hantera elektroniskt skapad information har ett antal begrepp fått fotfäste både inom forskning men framförallt i praktiken. Exempel på två sådana begrepp som påverkar arkivvetenskap och arkivpraktik är Electronic Dokument Management (EDM) och Enterprise Content Management (ECM). Av flera kommersiella aktörer presenteras dessa som lösningen på det problem som vi inom arkivvetenskapen brottats med de senaste 10 åren, dvs långtidsbevarande av elektroniska record. Flera organisationer i Sverige har infört EDM-system för att hantera allmänna handlingar. Det är därför befogat att studera huruvida EDM och ECM svarar upp emot de krav som arkivvetenskapen ställer. Denna artikel syftar till att teoretiskt beskriva dessa två begrepp och ur ett arkivvetenskapligt perspektiv analysera huruvida de uppfyller generella arkivvetenskapliga krav. Artikeln är baserad på vetenskaplig litteratur inom ämnet. I artikeln tydliggörs att det inom både EDM och ECM finns stora brister för att kunna uppfylla vad som vi inom arkivvetenskapen ser som absoluta krav, bl.a. autenticitet, reliabilitet, bevisvärde, och kontextuell koppling. Lösningen på problemet med bevarande och hantering av elektroniska record står inte att finna med enskilda system utan kan nås genom att använda kunskap inom vår egen disciplin och med metoder, och standarder som vi redan utvecklat.

  • 12.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fulfilling electronic record requirements : Good practice from two Swedish organizations.2006In: Archiving 2006: final program and proceedings., IS & T , 2006, p. 127-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic recordkeeping is not trivial. Reliability and authenticity are requirements if a record is to be used as evidence. In this paper a set of good practice of how to reach reliable and authentic records in recordkeeping systems i.e. reach satisfied users and by that implicit high quality is presented. The research is based on two qualitative case studies in two Swedish public organizations, which have developed recordkeeping systems that should manage electronic records. Good practice has been categorized at three levels: strategic level, computer-based information system level, and entity level. Use of metadata, added security techniques, approved file formats, standards, and standard products are all good practice from the two organizations in this paper.

  • 13.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hur man designar för det okända2007In: Dokumentation / Sundsvall 42: 13-18 oktober 2007, Sundsvall: Norra kretsen, Dataföreningen i Sverige , 2007Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Information Management in Operative Police Practice: Using SSM as an Analysis Tool2004In: IRIS 27: Falkenberg 14-17Aug 2004, Falkenberg, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    IOP-Informationshantering i operativt polisarbete2004In: MSIS'03: proceedings of Mid Sweden Informatics students conference on AIH - applied informatics for improvement of human life, Campus Bispgården, 15th and 16th of January, 2004, 2004Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 16.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kan poliser gissa rätt?: En studie om begreppet underrättelser i en operativ poliskontext2004Other (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Operational use of electronic records in police work2005In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 236-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. This research is about how police officers use electronic records in their operational work, reacting to calls from the dispatch centre.Method. Three different qualitative studies, involving interviews and observations, were used to collect data. The studies were performed at a police county in the north of Sweden during 2003.Analysis. The empirical data were analysed using a hermeneutical analysis technique without computer-based support. Iterative analysis was performed, where empirical data related to the use of electronic records were identified and grouped together into larger categories, which were named descriptively.Results. There is a widespread use of information retrieved from electronic records. This has changed the possibilities for police officers to get reliable and authentic information for both tactical and legal decisions, which increases the officers' ability to make correct decisions within operational work. Information technology and information systems now handle many administrative tasks, and allow access to and searching of electronic information independently of the physical location of the officer. This opens up a possibility for mobile access to trustworthy information that supports police work.Conclusion. Operational police work has changed in a positive direction by the use of electronic records, and it is possible to develop this change even further. Record management systems designed to support access independent of physical location of the police officer could open up new possibilities for working police officers.

  • 18.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Virtuell polisutbildning: En utvärdering av PIER som metod vid grundutbildning av poliser2003Other (Other scientific)
  • 19.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    The Role of Artefacts in Creating a Common Operational Picture During Large Crises2017In: ISCRAM 2017 Conference Proceedings: 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Tina Comes, Frédérick Bénaben, Chihab Hanachi, Matthieu Lauras, Aurélie Montarnal, 2017, p. 191-203Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    What about trust in the cloud?: Archivists’ views on trust2015In: Canadian journal of information and library science, ISSN 1195-096X, E-ISSN 1920-7239, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 114-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more information is “going to the cloud,” including records and archives. This article focuses on understanding trust-in-cloud solutions from an archivist’s perspective, exploring whether cloud computing has changed the archivist’s role and how archivists respond to cloud-related problems and challenges. Twelve archivists in Sweden were interviewed in Swedish. They describe changes in their role due to cloud computing and services in the domain of archival science. Their role has changed from being reactive to becoming proactive, guarding not only the organization’s needs and assets but also its archival records. Working proactively implies guaranteeing that requirements are updated and that contracts and agreements between the organization and cloud service provider are correct. The research shows that trust consists of several dimensions and cannot be easily achieved with technical solutions. Organizations’ risk-tolerance levels have also changed to take advantage of the benefits and savings that cloud services provide for organizations.

  • 21.
    Borglund, Erik A M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    L.O.S.T Records: The Consequence of Inadequate Recordkeeping Strategies2011In: DATABASES AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS VI: SELECTED PAPERS FROM THE NINTH INTERNATIONAL BALTIC CONFERENCE (DB&IS 2010), Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2011, p. 271-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recordkeeping is about “making and maintaining complete, accurate and reliable evidence of business transactions in the form of recorded information.” Yet the research on electronic record management has focused on either electronic records management systems or long-term preservation. Little has been done that takes an holistic view of the entire continuum and the connection between current records management and preservation for future accessibility. In this paper we aim to further elaborate the challenges and effects that are the results when an holistic view of the entire continuum and the connection between current records management and preservation for future accessibility is not taken. The research has been carried out as a qualitative case study in a large railway infrastructure construction project, Å dalsbanan, where many records are operational for more than 100 years. We present results from this case study where the long-term recordkeeping strategy only succeeded to preserve records in form of documents, after that the project phase has ended. The records born in databases and in other business information systems were lost, for future use, when the Ådalsbanan moved from being a project to being a operational railway, that needs to be managed for at least 100 years.

  • 22.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Authenticity in open data: contributions from archival science2016In: Pre-ICIS Workshop on E-Government, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Open data?: Data, information, document or record?2014In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 163-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of the article is to investigate what characterizes the information constructs that the archival discourse and the open data discourse communicate in text, and what their similarities and differences are. This article proposes that it is possible to see the open data initiative and modern archival practice as two discourses that have used different terminology to express and communicate their messages in the literature. In this article, we have applied a hypothesis-like assumption that the information constructs used in open data are actually nothing other than records, as they are in the archival discourse. Design/methodology/approach – This article is based on a mixed method approach.Aquantitative text analysis (word count) was carried out in a large set of documents representing the open data discourse and in the archival discourse. This was followed by a qualitative text analysis. Findings – It was found that both discourses did focus on records. However, the opendata discourse very seldom used the term record, but used information and data much more frequently. The archival discourse used the term information almost as often as record. A possible adaption of communication strategies can be identified, targeting a much wider audience through a user-centered approach. This could be an indication of a change in the archival discourse, which seems to be moving from a discourse that is very much regulated by law toward a discourse that is more focused on benefit and usability. Originality/value – This research indicates that it is possible to interpret both the open data and the archival discourse as one united discourse, an effect derived from working with e-government. There is an ongoing harmonization of the words used, and in the studied archival discourse, a more user- and business-oriented focus can be seen.

  • 24.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nuldén, Urban
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Personas in Uniform: Police Officers as Users of Information Technology2012In: AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1944-3900, E-ISSN 1944-3900, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 92-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses information technology in the contemporary policing context and presents a research approach that aims to capture and describe a multifaceted account of police work. There is a need to further analyze the constitution of the uniformed user and the use environment in this domain. Data from extensive ethnographic fieldwork are analyzed. Personas and scenarios are used in this paper to illustrate the properties and conditions of police work. Evidence from the study suggests that personas and scenarios can make the daily work visible and support the emergent design of information systems in the dialogue between designers and users. The paper concludes that personas and their scenarios provide a richer description of the specifics of a context and a design space. A scenario is used to show characteristic properties and the emergence of work practice in relation to the design of information systems. 

  • 25.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Nuldén, Urban
    Gothenburg University.
    The Soap Opera Rationale: A Complementary Information Management Construct in Police Work Practice2013In: The Evolution of Policing: Worldwide Innovations and Insights / [ed] Melchor C. de Guzman, Aiedeo Mintie Das, Dilip K. Das, CRC Press, 2013, 1, p. 61-76Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Borglund, Erik A M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    On the becoming of a researcher – challenges and obstacles for PhD students in Informatics with a double belonging2009In: Proceedings of the 32nd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 32: Inclusive Design, Molde University College, Molde, Norway, August 9-12, 2009, 2009, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Success Factors For Police Investigations In A Hybrid Environment: The Jämtland Police Authority Case2012In: International Journal of Police Science and Management, ISSN 1461-3557, E-ISSN 1478-1603, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since information technology (IT) has been adopted in modern police work, it has become an important tool for increasing efficiency in police work. IT has also resulted in the phenomena of IT-related crimes and crimes that take place in both physical and digital worlds, ie, in what is defined as a hybrid environment. The hybrid environment forces police officers to collect information in both digital and physical worlds. This paper aims to gain new knowledge of police work practice in a hybrid work context. A case study approach is applied as the research method, and a large police investigation is used as the study object. In the police investigation, digital footprints played an important role in aggregating evidence. This research used the Synergy-4 model as an analytical lens to explain the multi- dimensions of IT use in a hybrid environment, and to increase knowledge on how police work is carried out in this environment. This research found that IT played an important role in the success of the investigation and in the manage- ment of digital footprints, but competence and management were as important. 

  • 28.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Creation of an exercise scenario: A collaborative design effort2014In: ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings - 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 2014, p. 488-492Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the preparedness Crisis response and management authorities carry out various forms of exercises. This article is based upon a three year long project named Gaining security symbiosis (GSS). The project was aiming to increase the collaboration between crisis actors in the Swedish-Norway border region through exercises. We argue that creation of scenarios is a design challenge. In the GSS project, the exercises are built upon designed scenarios, which should make the exercise realistic and make the trainee train the expected. We propose a scenario design method that is built upon an iterative approach and that includes collaboration with the actors that are involved in the exercise. The method also includes a set of characteristics that could be used to evaluate the events of the scenario. The method have been developed and refined during the project and show some promising result. There is however a need for future research when it comes to further development and evaluation of the proposed design method.

  • 29.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Traceability Challenges in Crisis Management2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During large-scale crisis many responders organize themselves into temporal organizations to be best able to manage the crisis. In Sweden “staff” is one such kind of temporal organization; it is the temporal organization used in the police and in the fire departments. One challenge in temporal organizations is documentation, and how to document the on-going activities. To be able to trace what has happened during crisis, documentation is important. In research, temporal organizations and the documentation that these organizations carry out is a rather unexplored area. This article aims to elaborate this domain further, and identify problem areas related to traceability and documentation of information in the work carried out in temporal organizations during crisis. The article rests upon synthesizing of results from two ongoing research projects. Four different data sets have been collected, primarily within the police. The tentative results indicate that the current documentation strategy and practice within the Swedish police and the staff that they set up during a crisis does not provide a high level of information traceability. One of the reasons for the low level of traceability is that the documentation takes place on non-technical artifacts without embedded recording functions. 

  • 30.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hybrids acting at the hybrid arena – Investigating crimes committed by digital natives2012In: Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia 2011 / [ed] Judith Molka-Danielsen, Kai. Kimppa, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2012, p. 69-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology (IT) has for a long time been viewed as a success factor for police investigations. But also criminals are becoming extensive users of IT. Hence, many modern crimes are of a nature where footprints needed for police investigations are both analogue and digital. We argue that modern criminals act as hybrids, i.e. they are using IT as natural components in their criminal activities. In this paper we depart from the idea that the modern criminal acts as a hybrid and analyze the effect this perspective has on modern police work. The result is that the crime arena should be seen as a hybrid arena, where the criminals and the police both should take the role as hybrids. Today however, there is a division among the police officers that hinders this development on the part of the police. Some police officers are collecting digital footprints while others are collecting analogue footprints. This division of the arena forces the police officers to extensive communication and gives the criminals a bit of an advantage as they move more freely. 

  • 31.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Öberg, Lena-Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Using Scenario Planning and Personas as an Aid to Reducing Uncertainty About Future Users2017In: Emerging Trends in Archival Science / [ed] Karen F. Gracy, London: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2017, 1, p. 111-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Applying Synergy-4 in Informatics research - Some Reflections2011In: Challenges for the future in an ICT context. / [ed] Viveca Asproth, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2011, p. 151-165Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Borglund, Erik A.M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Design for Recordkeeping: Areas of Improvement2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about problems related to design of information systems in which records are born and managed. The proactive approach has been derived from new archival theories suited for electronic recordkeeping, and implies that electronic records must, at the time of creation fulfil their current and future requirements. Information systems where records are born and managed should, based upon a proactive approach, meet recordkeeping requirements. This thesis is based upon a four-year research effort and consists of seven research articles that present the results of the research. The objective is to contribute to knowledge of design recommendations for information systems, in which records are born and managed. The main result of this thesis is identification of five areas that can affect and improve the design of information systems in which records are born and managed. First: A set of empirically and theoretical grounded characteristics of records are presented. Those characteristics have to be complemented with organization-defined characteristics. Second: this research has contributed a conceptualization of use of records and users of records. The notion of known use/user, and unknown use/user has been introduced. Design becomes difficult because requirements of unknown users are difficult to conceptualize. Third: The Recordkeeping Quality Assessment model (RQAM) is presented. The model implies a holistic quality approach to recordkeeping, and intends to be used as a basis for quality assessment, and as a reference model in design situations to achieve high recordkeeping quality. Fourth: Two dominant different views on records are presented. Private organizations appraise records principally upon business values, and public organisations base their appraisal criteria upon accountability and legislative values. The two views on records should be brought into one view and form a risk management-like appraisal. Fifth: Proactivity is a way of thinking and should be applied on several levels in the recordkeeping environment: to the electronic record, to the information system where the electronic record is born and managed, to the organization, and to the user.

  • 34.
    Borglund, Erik A.M
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    EDM business values in a SME environment in terms of knowledge management2007In: Proceedings of the European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) 2007, Valencia, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic document management (EDM) emerged in the mid 1990's and is today a concept of how to manage electronic documents. Much research focus has been on technical issues within EDM, and less on organizational issues. One of the stated benefits of EDM is managing and utilizing an organizations collective memory, which can be described as organizational knowledge. In the information system research community EDM in SMEs has given extremely little interest. SMEs are an important factor in economic growth and especially in peripheral regions. This research has an organizational perspective on EDM and has been guided by the research question: How can EDM support stated and implied needs for management and utilizing of the collective memory in an organization of SME type? The research is based on a case study in a SME in Mid Sweden. The study was following an interpretative approach. The findings indicate that the SME has a large need to manage both explicit and tacit knowledge for their business needs. EDM has the possibility to manage explicit knowledge, but more difficult to manage tacit knowledge. The context where documents are born together with an integrated perspective on business process were identified as possible solutions.

  • 35.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Elektronisk dokumenthantering i små och medelstora företag2009In: e-arkivera rätt: Sju perspektiv på hantering av digital information med hjälp av OAIS / [ed] Näringslivets arkivråd, Stockholm: Näringslivets arkivråde , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Recordkeeping in Temporary Command Settings2011In: iPRES 2011 8th International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects / [ed] José Borbinha, Adam Jatowt, Schubert Foo, Shigeo Sugimoto, Christopher Khoo, Raju Buddharaju, 2011, p. 205-209Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is about the recordkeeping that takes place during large police operations in different command post settings, and presents the tentative results from a three-year study. The aim is to increase knowledge of the problems related to recordkeeping in this kind of environment. Two police operations have been used as data sources, one large EU ministerial meeting in Sweden, and one regional disaster training exercise. An interpretative case study approach has been applied where observation and interviews were the primary data collection techniques. One problem is that too much important information is recorded in less permanent ways, on whiteboards and on flip charts. Capture, storage, and dissemination of those temporal and analogue records are difficult, and reduce the possibility to use records from large operations as knowledge reservoirs. 

  • 37.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Records Role in Creating a Common Operational Picture2011In: Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia Nr. 1 (2010):: IRIS 33 Engaged Scandinavian Research / [ed] Judith Molka-Danielsen, H. W. Nicolajsen & J. S. Persson, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2011, p. 89-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Records are used in operational police work as a basis for tactical decisions, they are also as important and high quality information sources. A trend in the area of crisis management is common operational picture (COP). COP aims to provide actors in a crisis with an accurate overview of the proceedings. Yet there is limited knowledge about how evidential records are used in creating a COP. This paper focuses on what role records play in the creation of a COP during operational police work. It is based upon a case study of the police operation in Åre during the informal meeting of the EU energy and environment ministers held in Åre on 23-25 July 2009. This paper argues that records play an important role in creating the common operational picture when the situation is calm. When a calm situation transforms to a more chaotic situation, the records play a less important role in creating a COP. The COP is then created by the actors involved, and is best understood by them. During these more chaotic situations the information is rich, but the reach of the information is low, which minimizes the reach of the COP. 

  • 38.
    Borglund, Erik A.M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    RQAM: A recordkeeping quality assessment model proposal2007In: International Journal of Information Quality (IJIQ), ISSN 1751-0457, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 326-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of preservation makes electronic recordkeeping problematic. Quality assessment measures are one way to validate whether a recordkeeping system has reached certain recordkeeping requirements. Recordkeeping quality is a rather new research area. This paper presents a proposal of how recordkeeping quality assessment can be understood. The proposal is based on results from four interpretative case studies together with information quality theory, and data quality theory. The proposed model aims to support assessment and measurement of quality in recordkeeping systems, i.e., to success is a measure of the systems' capacity to maintain authenticity and reliability of electronic records.

  • 39.
    Borglund, Erik A.M
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Use of Records as Means to Provide a Common Operational Picture2010In: Proceedings of the 33rd IRIS Seminar. 2010. / [ed] Hanne Westh Nicolajsen, John Persson, Lise Heeager, Gitte Tjørnehøj, Karlheinz Kautz, Peter Axel Nielsen, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Records are used in operational police work as a basis for tactical decisions, but also as important and high quality information sources. One trend in the area of crisis management is common operational picture (COP). COP aims to provide actors in a crisis with a correct overview of what is going on. Yet there is limited knowledge about how evidential records are used in creating a COP. This paper focuses on what role records play in the creation of a COP during operational police work. It is based upon a case study of the police operation in Åre during the informal meeting for the EU energy and environment ministers held in Åre on 23-25 July 2009. This paper argues that records play an important role in creating the common operational picture when the situation is calm. When a calm situations transforms to a more chaotic situation, the records play a less important role in creating a COP. The COP is then created by the actors involved, and is best understood by them. During these more chaotic situations the information is very rich, but the reach of the information is low, which minimizes the reach of the COP.

  • 40.
    Borglund, Erik A.M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Checklists for Evaluating the Quality of Recordkeeping2010In: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation / [ed] Miguel deCastro Neto, Reading: Academic Conferences Limited, 2010, p. 15-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Records are evidence of business transactions and actions. They provide the basis for accountability and traceability. Therefore they are essential to evaluation and audit processes. Records and documents are sources of knowledge that support a learning organization and can be defined as “institutional memory”. However there are few examples in the literature of how records have been used to evaluate and critically assess the outcomes of business activities.

    The purpose of this paper is to identify potential criteria for creating a checklist that provides enough information about the records and the business that created them to ensure that records could be used as tools in evaluation programs. In this research paper we have used the ISO standards ISO 15489 and ISO 23081 as tools to achieve our purpose. This was a qualitative research project, situated in a large railway infrastructure project where the budget is 6.6 billion Swedish kronor (approx 650 million €). The project is ten years long, and to date more than 250 000 records have been produced. Many sub-contractors and 16 other public agencies are involved in the project.

    The internal regulation of records management regulated within the project is very detailed, and at first glimpse the directives seem to be well grounded. Requirements for records creation, capture and metadata-tagging are presented in the regulations.  Yet even after minor analysis it is obvious that the railway project focuses only on managing records that are documents, i.e. in formats that can be treated as a single unit. Common examples of document types are spreadsheets, Word documents, PDF files and blueprints. Thus the project is failing to capture crucial records created in non-document and more complex formats, such as databases and technical drawings produced in applications like CAD. More importantly, the research found that the project’s metadata design and capture is inadequate for capturing the context of the records that are kept and preserved. This makes it difficult to use the records for evaluating the project for accountability purposes both during and after the project. The experience and knowledge gained from the project is also difficult to transfer to similar future projects.

    Records without the contextual binding and applicable contextual metadata cannot provide a quality basis for evaluation of the business. If records are to be used as tools for evaluation, we need to preserve records following the quality criteria that are presented in the ISO 15489 and ISO 23081 standards.

    If records are to be used as evaluation tools they need to be usable for that purpose and be of sufficient quality. In this paper we propose that the assessment of the quality of a record should be based upon the metadata elements found in the ISO 23081.

  • 41.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Long-term Strategies for Electronic Recordkeeping in a Large Infrastructure Project2010In: Databases and Information systems: Proceedings of the Ninth International Baltic Conference Baltic DB&IS 2010 Riga, Latvia, July 5-7, 2010 / [ed] Janis Barzdins & Marite Kirikova, Riga: University of Latvia Press , 2010, p. 441-454Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recordkeeping is about “making and maintaining complete, accurate and reliable evidence of business transactions in the form of recorded information.” Yet the research on electronic record management systems (ERMS) has not focused on the problem of long-term preservation of electronic records. The aim of this paper has been to further elaborate the challenges long-term preservation impose on recordkeeping strategies and when the record quality criteria of evidentiality, integrity, authenticity of records is to be fulfilled. The research has been carried out as a qualitative case study in a large railway infrastructure construction project, where many records are operational for more than 100 years. In this research we can conclude that the long-term preservation issue is difficult to take into consideration if proactive strategies are not adopted. It is also important not to separate the current recordkeeping strategy from long-term recordkeeping strategy.

     

  • 42.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    How requirements of record managers change after implementing new electronic records management systems2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation, UK: Academic Conferences Limited, 2009, p. 59-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish strategies and legislation that govern the management of records and archives in organizations have their roots in an analogue and paper-based environment. Today, very few records are created on paper: the majority of records are born digital, but they may be transformed to analogue form to fit organizational business needs and workflow. In a records management system of the highest quality electronic records should be maintained in their digital format to preserve context, digital links and dynamic relationships among information held in databases and multimedia documents. These relationships are frequently lost in any attempt to transfer to analogue form, thus compromising best practice records management standards.

    To meet the new need for managing born-digital records, many organizations have implemented electronic record management systems, and the effect of those implementations has gained interest from researchers, but it is not solely a software system that is needed to give a capacity of electronic record management. The ISO 15489 Standard for Records Management argues that the organizational structure and work processes affect how well the organization is able to manage their electronic records.

    This paper is based upon a research in a Swedish municipality, which carried out a comprehensive change management process to increase their capacity to manage electronic records, both for supporting business needs and long-term preservation needs. There is very little archival literature that focuses on how the roles of both archivists and record managers change, for example as a consequence of implementing electronic document management systems, and the organization becomes a process-oriented organization. The purpose of this paper aims to increase knowledge of the way the records managers need to change their work in order to meet the requirements generated by increased capacity in electronic records management.

    The research is based upon a qualitative approach where questionnaires, individual interviews, and group interviews have been used as data collection techniques. The research is in progress and has not yet fully been analyzed. However, the preliminary results indicate that the records managers need to act more proactively to meet the new system’s requirements of them. The importance of the records managers’ role in the municipality has become clearer and their competence is acknowledged as being more important as a result of this change management process in the municipality. The records managers are important in the sense that they know what information and what records are created, received and needed in different parts of the municipality. Records managers’ “record keeping” responsibilities have been better defined after this change process and their role in relation to areas that were traditionally the responsibility of archivists has also been more clearly delineated.

     

  • 43.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sirkemaa, Seppo
    Turku School of Economics, Pori.
    Wahlberg, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Business values of electronic records management in SMEs2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation, UK: Academic Conferences Limited, 2009, p. 51-58Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic records management in Small and Medium Enterprises is a relatively new research area. It is difficult to find much on the SME and electronic record management in academic databases. In public organizations and in large enterprises the management of electronic records is now acknowledged as important for business support. Efficient records management is e.g. necessary for fulfilling requirements found in various legislation such as e.g. the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX). The requirements for documentation in the ISO 9000, and the ISO 14000 series can be fulfilled if standards for records management are used.

    This paper aims to contribute further knowledge on the quality of records management in SMEs. The following research question has guided this research: How well do SMEs meet minimum ISO 15489 requirements for records management?

    The research has been carried out within a EU funded research program, where 4 SMEs from both Sweden and Finland have been studied using a qualitative research approach. The data have been collected from four SMEs through interviews. The analytical lens used in this research has been the international standard for Information and Documentation - Record Management: ISO 15489.

    The results show that electronic records are managed in a rather ad-hoc manner and that management is very dependent upon individuals, many of whom have little, if any, expertise or training in this area and no access to expert advice. One of the identified business values of well-managed electronic records is that the SME gains the opportunity to manage and benefit from their explicit knowledge and experience.

    This research shows that there are major obstacles to overcome before SMEs are able to fully adopt best practice in electronic records management. Many of these hindrances have their roots in a lack of appropriate strategies for records appraisal and that the SMEs have not followed the steps recommended in the ISO 15489 standard.

     

  • 44.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Landgren, Jonas
    IT-University in Gothenburg.
    Magoulas, Thanos
    IT-University in Gothenburg.
    Nuldén, Urban
    IT-University in Gothenburg.
    Roos, Mikael
    IT-University in Gothenburg.
    Studie av gemensam  lägesinformation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är en kritik av rådande begreppsanvändning avseende lägesinformation, lägesbild, lägesförståelse, gemensam lägesbild samt gemensam lägesförståelse. Rapporten menar att en bristfällig distinktion mellan dessa leder till en oprecis begreppsanvändning som i sin tur leder till inkonsistens. För detta behövs en systemvetenskaplig syn och ett arkitekturellt överordnat angreppsätt.

  • 45.
    Borglund, Erik A.M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nuldén, Urban
    Making sense in proactive police work2008In: IRIS31 - The 31st Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish police has changed from a mainly reactive approach to a more proactive. Information technology has been developed to aid police in strategic decision making. However, IT have not yet been applied in an operational police practice to increase the ability of the police officers possibility to make sense of situations they are confronted with. The purpose of this paper is first to investigate how sensemaking theory can conceptualise and describe the characteristics of police practice, secondly to contribute with knowledge of how police officers make sense in proactive police work. The paper is based on a four-year period of studying operational police practice. Four candidate categories of police officers sensemaking have been identified: 1. Action, without action no sensemaking occurs. 2. information, police officers search and retrieve information to gain knowledge. 3. Experience, the police officers experience together with their retrieved information help the officers to make sense of situations. 4. Collaboration, in collaboration with colleaguesʼ, police officers together try to make sense of different situations. Sensemaking theory have based upon collected empirical data indicated to be an applicable theory to describe the variations and complexity in police practice.

  • 46.
    Borglund, Erik A.M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sundqvist, Anneli
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The role of EDM in information management within SME’s2007In: The Second International Conference on Digital Information Management (ICDIM'07), 2007, p. 31-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic document management (EDM) is a new form of information management. EDM are described to have certain business values in organizations, but no researches have been found about EDM and Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME). In this paper we present an ongoing investigation in two SMEs guided by the following research questions: How are electronic documents used in the SMEs? and What are the business needs of the SMEs, and how do they correspond with stated EDM business values?. The study was carried out as two qualitative case studies in two SMEs in the north of Sweden. The results show that the business need for an SME corresponds with the business values of EDM. Yet is management of electronic document too dependent on individuals competence, very complex when many systems are involved, and the context where the document is created is not preserved. There is also an emergent need for an organizationally specific classification schema to enable information sharing between systems.

  • 47.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    C4I2 for Interreg Security2010In: EURO 2010: 24th European Conference on Operational Research, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Borglund, Erik A.M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    How are records used in organizations?2008In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 13, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. This paper reports an investigation of whether the use made of records affects the design of record keeping systems.Method. The empirical data used in this paper are from four interpretative case studies. A total of fifty interviews and 100 hours of participative observations have been used in data collection. Analysis. The analyses of the collected data have followed a qualitative approach where the data have been categorized and re-categorized. An analysis model was developed based on archival theory and temporal structures, which were the primary purpose and secondary purposes of the use of records. Results. In the temporal structure, the use characteristics were the relationship to a predetermined work process, which required use of records. Within the other temporal structure, the secondary purpose of records use, the use was more difficult to predetermine or identify in advance. The characteristics of the users and their use resulted in unknown users and use of records. Conclusions. It is difficult to predict future use of records, which requires new methods and techniques for design and developing of record keeping systems that can take both the unknown and known user needs into consideration.

  • 49.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson-Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hybrids acting at the hybrid arena2011In: Proceedings of IRIS 2011 / [ed] Timo Leino, Åbo: University of Turku & ̊bo Akademi University , 2011, p. 56-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT has for a long time been viewed as a success factor for police investigation, but now IT has also become an obstacle. Many modern crimes are of a nature where the evidence needed for police investigations is found in both the analogue world and the digital world. We argue that modern criminals act as hybrids, i.e. they are using IT as natural components in their criminal activities. In this paper we analyze the modern criminal as a hybrid and analyze the effect this perspective has on modern police work. The result is that the crime arena should be seen as a hybrid arena, where the criminals and the police both should take the roles as hybrids. Today, there is a division among the police officers, some are acting in the digital world; others in the analogue world. This gives the criminal a bit of an advantage. 

  • 50.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson-Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    MAKING SENSE OF DIGITAL FOOTPRINTS IN POLICE PRACTICEManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Digital footprints are yet another weapon in law enforcement but have so far gained limited attention in research on police practice. Here we conduct an analyse of how a small police task force has managed to make sense of a large set of digital footprints. The aim is to increase the knowledge about the role digital footprints play and how these footprints are captured and managed during a 21st century criminal investigation.

    Methodology A case study approach have been applied and the theory of sensemaking as foremost an analytical lens helping the data analysis with a goal to better understand how the police officers worked in the chosen case study.

    Findings The use of large sets of digital footprints in the police investigations is a sensemaking process, and the use of digital footprints exists in two temporal structures. In the pre-arrest(1) the use of digital footprints is characterized by sensemaking, i.e. the police officers use the footprints as triggers to traditional police work to understand what is going on. In the post-arrest(2) the use of digital footprints is characterized as evidential aggregation, and analyzing and validating of digital footprints with those collected in previous temporal structure.

    Value Knowledge generated from this research gives design implcations for information system that not only fulfil the needs in police practice on a general level but in the actual work of capturing and managing digital footprints. The article also provides knowledge on how digital footprints are forming police practice in 21st century.

     

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