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  • 1.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Adaptiv miljöplanering nästa2003In: Miljörätten i förändring: en antologi, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2003, p. 328-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Befolkningsfrågan - från överbefolkning till framtida generationer2001In: Fågelperspektiv på rättsordningen: vänbok till Staffan Westerlund, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2001, p. 335-351Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Control System for Sustainable Development2008In: Computing Anticipatory Systems / [ed] Dubois, DM, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2008, p. 187-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological sustainability presupposes that a global human population acts in such ways, that their total impact on the biosphere, together with nature's reactions, keeps the biosphere sufficient for sustaining generations to come. Human conduct is ultimately controlled by means of law. The problem can be summed up as:

    Controlling system - Population - Sustainable ecosystems

    This paper discusses two interlinked issues: a) the social scientific need for systems theory in the context of achieving and maintaining sustainable development and b) how theory of anticipatory modelling and computing can be applied when constructing and applying societal controlling systems for ecological sustainability with as much local democracy and economic efficiency as possible.

  • 4.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Do not Miss the Forest for all the Trees2010In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-4273, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2010, no 1, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s environmental issues became analysed ina global context. 1992 sustainable development wasmade the overall policy. 2010 the biosphere is in a worsestate than in the 1960s, and the world human populationis higher than ever. For sustainability, human behaviourmust be kept within biospherical carrying capacity. Thispresents enormous social and human scientific challenges.However, main social scientific schools generallyoverlook what basically makes democratic systems tick,namely Rule of Law. Most social scientific input hasbeen hampered by pre-environmental sectoral paradigmsmissing the holistic prerequisites. Modernenvironmental law methodology has on the other handanalysed old law and developed theory for sustainablelaw capable of i.a. handling non-linearity, complexityand what makes societies tick – Rule of Law. Thanksto this, some of what other social sciences have broughtforward can be reinterpreted for inclusion in an adequatesustainability theory, while much of the rest canbe explained as ineffective.This paper brings this into broader environmentalscience. It will (1) rely upon the still degrading biosphereand that no country has so far established effectivecontrol for sustainability; (2) explain why such controlcannot be achieved in a democracy without recognisingthe Rule of Law and adapting the law to sustainability;(3) explain why mainstream social and human sciencesyet have not contributed more effectively; (4) presenta fundamental theoretical holistic structure essentialfor social environmental science, and (5) based on thisdemonstrate why it is impossible to solve the globalunsustainability problems without full understandingof the Rule of Law.

  • 5.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Framtiden i förfädernas händer: Om äganderätt och annan rätt till marken från landskapslagarna till modern tid ur ett miljörättsligt perspektiv2000Book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Positioning environmental science versus natural, social and human sciences – sustainably2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    The Resource Management Act 1991 through external eyes2007In: New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law, ISSN 1174-1538, Vol. 11, p. 181-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Resource Management Act 1991 was drafted for sustainability and probably still reflects the state of the art as regards environmental legislation for sustainable development. Modern theory of environmental law methodology has to a high extent focused on implementation deficits based on the significance of law in rule of law countries and consequently on the concept of legal operationalisation of environmental goals (ultimately ecological sustainability). This not only puts, inter alia, balancing in a new light but also calls for systemic thinking and reconsideration of bottom-up approaches. What, then, is to be legally operationalised under the RMA and are there counterproductive functions, explicit or implicit, in it? This is discussed in depth, putting the RMA planning system at the centre and observing the lack of far-reaching substantive standards and obscurities as regards goals and means. The discussion reflects theory of environmental law methodology, systems theory, and the issue of non-linearity of ecosystems, also when the role of courts is elaborated.

  • 8.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    The rule of sustainability and planning adaptivity2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article confronts present main stream planning approaches against the perspective of ecological sustainability, as relevant for Rule of Law countries and based on a modern environmental law approach. It discusses the setting and implementation of environmental goals against the general experience of massive implementation deficits regarding environmental policies all over the world. In this confrontation, environmental planning, with at least some principles picked up from New Zealand's Resource Management Act, and much more taken from modern environmental law theory on legal operationalisation, is compared to adaptive management approaches which also allow for modifying the environment related goal if implementation fails or seems very difficult. The concept of adaptive environmental planning (AEP) is suggested as a possible road to choose for planning for sustainability, while maximizing development within the framework legally defined by means of environmental limits. This article presents five criteria, all of which must be met by AEP planning. One of these relates to a planning hierarchy which, among other things, leads to the conclusion that coastal planning, if it is intended to aim at sustainability, can not be dealt with in isolation, although such planning might have to meet very complex problems at the regional level.

  • 9.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making with focus on legal operationalisation2015In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm – business as usual – and the new one, aiming at operationalise sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development, ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics, and conditions set by ecosystems can therefore not been ignored, when (a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and to fully understand the consequences of such solutions, and (b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    Over the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making, such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Ecological Footprints, and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Ecological modelling contributes or complements such methods. Emergy analysis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing both ecology and economy. Less known is environmental legal modelling.

    This paper puts ecological models in the context of societal steering systems for sustainable development, and focuses on a legal model for implementing environmental policy goals.

  • 10.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Where did requirements for alternatives in EIA go?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s the growing interests for environmental questions became prominent and were worldwide recognized. The safeguard of natural resources, the recognition of the environment´s carrying capacity, and the need for planning to minimize conflicts between environment and development were issues pointed out. In 1969 the US enacted the National Environmental Policy Act, NEPA, with its “action forcing” provisions in section 102(2). The provisions included a procedure and a document and was directed towards activities, with likely significant impact on the environment. What gave this section teeth was the requirement for “alternatives to the proposed action”. This tool, internationally known as EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) was later picked up by other countries and international organisations, where it was considered as a vital component for decision making processes aiming at environmental awareness. EIA was outlined as guidelines and principles by UNEP 1972, reflected in the Espoo convention in 1991 and 1992 declared as principle 17 in the Rio Declaration. This clearly reflects a special degree of acceptance in modern environmental law. However, the postulate to investigate alternatives has been circumvented in practice. Today it can be left out without even being challenged. Many lawyers obviously have difficulties to really understand EIA and the idea behind it. From a sustainability perspective this is indeed fatal. This article puts the request for alternative investigations in perspective of a) effective decision making and sustainable use of natural resources, b) environmental quality standards and environmental planning and c) sustainable assessment tools.

  • 11.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Aðalheiður
    Faculty of Law, University of Iceland.
    Ecological Limits v. Economic Growth: The Role of Law and Legal Theory for the Need of Future Generations2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm - business as usual - and the new one, aiming at operationalize sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics and conditions set by ecosystems, can therefore not been ignored, when a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and fully understand the consequences of such solution and b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    During the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making. Related to ecosystems we have e.g. the carrying capacity and resilience models, to resource use there are Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecological Footprints, to economy there are eco-economy and green economy, to law there are Environmental Law Methodology (ELM) and Sustainable law. Emergy synthesis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing everything from thermodynamics to economy.

    There still is no “standard method” for this kind of decisions, which makes it important to contrast different methods. Some methods might enforce each other, whereas others might drive in different directions. It is therefore important to understand the methods in relation to each other.

  • 13.
    Englund, Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Forss, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Noaksson, E
    Säll, B
    Samverkan mellan små innovativa miljöteknikföretag och kund2014Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    From environmental problems to sustainable development and towards resilience: Development over time of a university program inenvironmental science aiming for action competences2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:During the latest decades society has developed from an environmental awareness, with reactive thinking, of the “preBrundtland age” into having sustainability as the goal for human development after the Rio declaration. Lately, within the environmentalscientific sphere, the concept of resilience is increasingly superimposed on the sustainability paradigm. It is seen as important both forunderstanding of the present situation as well as a necessity for societies to survive in times of rapid change. During this period from “preBrundtland” until today when resilience is in focus, the environmental science program of Ecotechnology started, developed and changed inresponse to changes in society. A goal, from the very beginning of the educational program, has been to empower students to take action.The types of action and how action competence has been perceived, has changed over the three decades the program has been running.

    Objectives: Environmental science and sustainability is often difficult to teach since it demands an interdisciplinary approach stretching overthe traditional faculty division of natural, social, and engineering sciences. At Mid Sweden University these three branches have beenintegrated in Ecotechnology education for 30 years. The purpose of this paper is to describe the interdisciplinary teaching with special focuson the development of the student’s action competence for sustainable development, in the light of how the environmental issues havedeveloped.

    Methods: The paper has a descriptive approach exploring the experiences from the 30 years of interdisciplinary teaching.

    Results: Different teaching methods and strategies have been employed over time, partly in sync with changing overarching societal goals.

    Conclusion: Some observations are 1) a key element to develop action competence is to push students to a self-propelled learning behaviorrather than traditional teaching of facts, 2) to not too easily provide the students with answers will develop problem solving skills, 3) “doingbefore-reading” teaching is more time consuming but seem to give deeper knowledge.

  • 15.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Barthelson, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Englund, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ekoteknik (Ecotechnics / Ecotehcnology) – 30 Years of Experience in Interdiciplinery Education2014In: Proceedings of the 20th International Sustainable Development Research Conference Trondheim 18-20 June 2014: Resilience – the new research frontier, Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Product Design , 2014, p. 17-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important part of a society’s resilience is how prepared it is to cope with the changing conditions during the alpha and omega phases according to resilience theory. Lars Thofelt, an academic from the mid Sweden region, early recognized this need for students to develop skills needed for a societal change, and devoted his life to pedagogy suitable for this. The main outcome of his achievement was the interdisciplinary university program in Ecotechnics/Ecotechnology (Ekoteknik in Swedish), at Mid Sweden University. Ecology, economy and technology in cooperation for sustainable development were the original approach, and still are.Thofelt’s ideas had a main focus of helping students develop their inherent capabilities of solving problems and overcome obstacles. After Thofelt’s 12 years at the program his ideas were carried on by former colleagues and students, and the teaching further developed with a mix of the Thofelt tradition and other experiences brought in by new employees. This paper describes this interdisciplinary teaching approach with special focus on development of resilience capacity in students.It was concluded that 1) a key element to develop resilience skills in students is to push them to a self-propelled learning behavior rather than traditional teaching, 2) not too easily provide the students with answers will develop their problem solving skills, 3) doing-before-reading teaching is more time consuming but seem to give deeper knowledge, 4) interdisciplinary teaching will in the long run benefit from having the interdisciplinary team within the department, rather than as a conglomerate of several departments.

  • 16.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Environmental Monitoring, County Administration of Jamtland, Östersund, Sweden .
    Brandén Klang, Anders
    Environmental Objectives, County Administration of Jamtland, Östersund, Sweden.
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    SIKA - Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Methodological considerations from a wastewater treatment case study in Kenya2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergy methodology questions were raised during a case study where a Sugar factory effluent were treated in a pond system in the Lake Victoria watershed, and evaluated from a performance, cost and resource use perspective. This paper focus on the methodological questions, which were the following: (1) how should the emergy systems diagram be drawn when dealing with a system that is in the recycle loop? Is the wastewater on top in the energy hierarchy (highest transformity) or should the treatment system be located somewhere between the sugar factory on the energy hierarchy top and the dispersed nutrients low down in the energy hierarchy? (2) Rain emergy dominated the local renewable inputs. But how do rain contribute to the wastewater treatment in a pond system, other than as minor dilution? And is evapotranspiration a relevant measure of rain emergy in an aquatic system? (3) Since the case study had a microeconomic focus, is the historical ecosystem work behind lime a relevant item to include from the company's perspective? (4) the wastewater can be considered as a treatment problem, but also as a nutrient and water resource for e.g. irrigation. How does emergy accounting deal with the dualism of a get-rid-of-view and a get-use-of-view? (5) Is the, among some people, controversial maximum empower theory needed for the evaluation of the system, or is the less controversial energy hierarchy theory sufficient for the interpretation? (6) Does the emergy evaluation add any information regarding the sustainability of the pond system?

  • 17.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    A systems ecology view on sustainable wastewater treatment2014In: / [ed] Kazala F., Lundström J., Rosenlund J., Hogland W., 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental, economic, and social dimensions of sustainability, were connected in a systems ecology model with focus on wastewater treatment. Life Cycle Assessment and similar approaches are the most common systems analysis models in the wastewater treatment context. These models are beneficial, but are not the only possible approach to systems analysis. The model in this paper showed that the social and economic dimensions were inseparable intertwined, and both of them dependent on the environmental dimension for ecosystem services in the form of natural resources and regenerating capacity. The holistic view, as applied by a systems ecology approach, put focus on how sustainable wastewater treatment are limited to deliver something that can be assimilated by the environmental systems, and in the best applications,  produce something that is again useful to the society.

  • 18.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    A systems ecology view on wastewater treatment sustainability2013Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Donor values in emergy assessment of ecosystem services2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently many definitions of ecosystem services in use. Common is an aim to visualize contributions, assets and costs not traditionally covered by market valuations, thus often giving ecosystems much lower value than their importance to economy. Emergy accounting, with its approach of donor values in contrast to receiver or market values, is one approach to assess contributions from the ecosystems and increase our understanding of the values of ecosystem services.

    Pulselli et al. (Ecol. Mod. 222:2924-2928) have connected the donor-side approach with a user side approach for ecological services. In this paper we investigate the donor-side more in depth, and put up an emergy model with two possible main paths to assess values for the ecosystem services: 1) the emergy values of the natural driving forces  (ES-DF), as sun, rain, wind and land cycle, and 2), the emergy values delivered directly to the human society and economy (ES-PS, environmental production systems). The first approach can be assessed with the common calculation procedure of emergy accounting; the second includes more challenging feedback flows of different types. The implications of these different feedback flows are discussed in the paper. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment terminology of supporting, providing, regulating and cultural ecosystem services relate primarily to the emergy ES-PS flows.

  • 20.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Donor values in emergy assessment of ecosystem services2015In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 101-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently many definitions of ecosystem services in use. Common for them is an aim to visualize contributions, assets and costs not traditionally covered by market valuations, thus often giving the ecosystems much lower value than their importance to economy. Emergy accounting, with its approach of donor values in contrast to receiver or market values, is one approach to assess contributions from the ecosystems and increase our understanding of the values of ecosystem services.

    Other authors have connected the donor-side approach with a user side approach for ecological services. In this paper, we investigate the donor-side more in depth, and put up an emergy model with two possible main paths to assess the values for the ecosystem services: (1) the emergy values of the natural driving forces (DrivEES), such as sun, rain, wind and land cycle and (2) the emergy values delivered directly to the human society and economy (FuncESS, ecosystem function ecosystem services). The first approach can be assessed with the common calculation procedure of emergy accounting; the second includes more challenging feedback flows of different types. The implications of these different feedback flows are discussed in this paper. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment terminology of supporting, providing, regulating and cultural ecosystem services relate primarily to the emergy FuncESS flows.

  • 21.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ecotechnology at Mid Sweden University – 30 years of Education in Environmental Consciousness and Entrepreneurship2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1983 was the starting year for an interdisciplinary and sustainability oriented education at Mid Sweden University. In this paper–30 years later–the different versions of the educational program over the years is examined with a focus on developing the students’ environmental consciousness. In 1983 the “slogan” for the education was: “Ecology, economy and technology in cooperation for sustainable development”. In the first decade after the millennia shift the education took a more international focus attracting students from countries all over the world.  A Master’s level was added and the first graduate students received their Ph.D. during this period. The latest development is to split the Bachelor’s program into three “sister” programs complementing the “old” Ecotechnology students with Ecoengineers, given a slightly more traditional engineer focus (but still interdisciplinary), and Ecoentrepreneurs with more social entrepreneur focus. Is a next interesting step to increase the interdiciplinarity even more over the faculties, towards the humanities?

  • 22.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergy as an additional indicator in a model of integrated management of the human-environmental system of reindeer herding2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several models have addressed the management of the Fenno-Scandinavian mountain region, for example Sverdrup et al (2010, Swedish EPA) presented many Causal Loop Diagram models of the Swedish mountain management. Burkhard and Müller (2008, Ecol.Indicators 8:828-840) presented a model for the Fenno-Scandinavian reindeer herding, including also an indicator system for the management. In this paper we add the relatively new measure emergy to these models, and discuss the benefits achieved.

    Emergy is a measure appearing when applying the energy hierarchy principle to natural (e.g. forests, lakes, or mountains) or human (e.g. mountain societies, cities or countries) systems, postulating that energies in any system will self-organize in hierarchical patterns given time to do so. Emergy is expressed in relation to one type of energy occuring in the hierarchy, most often solar emergy Joules, seJ.

    In the model by Burkhard and Müller (2008) the emergy values will add information both on the thermodynamic part of the model, but also on the economic side since emergy values in seJ can be alternatively expressed in a proportional, currency related unit, for example Em€ or Em$. The significance is that Em€ or Em$ measures the contribution different items give to the whole system, rather than how individuals give market values for different items; a donor value approach rather than a receiver or market  value approach.

  • 23.
    Longueville, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    How to misuse the EIA-tool – a Swedish example2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has its origin in the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), of 1969. The EIA-tool has been widely recognised and was implemented in EC-law in 1985. Sweden was late to introduce EIA and it was not fully implemented in the law until 1998, when the Environmental Code came into effect.

    If we look at how the EIA-instrument has been used in practice, there are deficiencies from several aspects. One is the requirement to present alternatives to the proposed action, which is considered to be the backbone of EIA. This requirement is often poorly met or even lacking. In this paper, the alternative criterion within EIA is given special attention and is analysed from a Swedish perspective. The emphasis is on how the legal requirements, in relation to the EIA, are met and how the reasoning of the courts goes, in reaching their decision.

  • 24.
    Longueville, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ecosystem Services Supporting Decision Making in Environmental Impact Assessments2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a systematic method to analyse and anticipate direct and indirect effects of activities. EIA considerably distinguishes itself from other assessment tools in that it is regulated by law. When the EIA method was introduced, it changed the prerequisites for getting consent for environmental hazardous activities.

    Within the EIA method, assessing alternatives is a powerful systems analysis to assess efficient resource use. However, in practice, few alternatives to a proposed project are assessed. Mitigation measures within the proponent’s mindset often dominate. If the EIA instrument shall fulfil the need as a base for decisions to steer towards sustainable development, alternatives proposed by others, outside the proponent’s sphere, must be allowed within be the scope of assessment. Ecosystem services is a concept increasingly discussed in international policy making, aiming to describe the values of ecosystems to human well being. Including ecosystem services as part of EIA alternative analysis could improve the EIA process, thus better supporting sustainable decision-making. At first glance, we see two immediate uses of ecosystem services within the EIA method. The first potential is when assessing the impact of a proposed project, by including decreased delivery of ecosystem services and not only environmental disturbances. The second potential for ecosystem services is as support to open up for innovative alternatives, i.e. other ways to fulfil the needs of the proposed activity.

    An increased understanding of ecosystem services could, within the EIA method, support a more comprehensive understanding of impacts from human activities, and help identify possible sustainable and advanced solutions to a proposed project.

  • 25.
    Longueville, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Whitten, Patience
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Can We Get “Alternatives Analysis Redux” Please?2015In: IAIA15 Conference Proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Mikaelsson, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonasson, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Nilsson, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Hållbara utvecklingsprocesser. Projektrapport 2015-03-312015Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Organizational perspectives on adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish multi-storey apartment buildings2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Skytt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Nielsen, Sören Nors
    Section for Sustainable Transitions, Department of Planning, Aalborg University.
    Ståhl, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    A strategic tool to find out regional sustainability methodologies helpingindividuals to make long term decisions2015In: Proceedings of Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Barcelona Sitges, November 1-4, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a variety of definitions of the concept ‘sustainable’ to be found, and many interestingideas how to measure and evaluate what can be regarded as ‘sustainability’. Meanwhile,whatever the definition is used it must have a strong physical background. There is also acontinuous flow of information and a general awareness about the necessity of taking action,thereby reducing the negative anthropocentric contribution to global warming and ecologicalsystems depletion. A number of visions about (for example) future emission values typically 15-30 years from today are often presented. At the same time there is a continuous political debateabout the balance between individual freedom vs political regulations. The typical individual -standing in the intersection of all this - still seldom gets practical guidelines on how to act in thedaily life to meet future visions. This paper argues that it is necessary to simplify the indicatorsused to evaluate sustainability and at the same time ensure clear instructions of action therebyincreasing the communicability. This is believed to be possible through the application of aholistic approach based upon a detailed mapping, thus making it possible to find out an over-allstrategy and then transform it into specific guidelines for the individual to apply, taking anentrance point in a realistic description of individual everyday life. The regional level is chosenas the most suitable level to work with to keep in touch with the individual level without losingthe strategic possibilities and over-all view when attacking the problem. Without a deep andcommon understanding of the ‘daily life’ in the region, visions and guidelines might show to becounterproductive.For the Swedish region Jämtland, a sparsely populated area with large forests, a lot of hydropower, and one major city (Östersund with about 60.000 inhabitants), some industries and skiresorts (the largest being Åre), the method developed by Nielsen and Jørgensen for the minorisland named Samsø in Denmark has been chosen. By building a model for evaluating thecarbon balance and the work energy balances we are able to focus the strategies and make aguideline for individuals. It seems necessary to accept some usage of fossil fuels also in thefuture but we need to see how this usage can be steered to applications where non-fossilalternatives are less realistic. By working with sectors, built together, we are able to work withsub-models without having to compromise on either lower or higher level of societal activities.Compared to the Samsø case, Jämtland is more complex and also much larger (127.000inhabitants compared to Samsø’s 4.000 and with an area about 20% larger than theNetherlands). The sectors chosen are Industry (Businesses other than those covered in othersectors), Agriculture, Forestry, Tourism, Nature, Public, Private (households), Reindeerherding, Wastes and Energy. The budget of each sector is mapped in terms of carbon and workenergy balances as a sub-model of an over-all model of Jämtland. By finding out the limits(constrains) from simulations carried out on the region it is possible to set for example carbonand energy budgets as basis for personal guidelines for the citizens of the region.The major idea is that most citizens of the region will understand and adapt to such guidelinesto an extent that may induce a change of individual behavioral patterns thus turning the regiontowards sustainability. Jämtland has a specific “culture” which can be used to create proudnessand interest for the sustainability aims. It is important to arrange a platform that serves to shapea fruitful dialogue between all stakeholders – from individual to groups – that will make itpossible to create a common plan for measurements to be implemented, i.e. a concertedgovernance which ensure and guarantee a future of optimal existence for ecosystems as wellas human beings.

  • 29.
    Skytt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Nielsen, Søren Nors
    Section for Sustainable Transitions, Department of Planning, Aalborg University, A.C.Meyers Vænge 15, Copenhagen SV, Denmark .
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ståhl, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Interdisciplinary Cooperation And System Modelling As Means To Govern The Anthropocene2015In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, international society for the systems sciences (ISSS) , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global development has now come to a critical state where humanity act as a new geological force and it is obvious that there are numerous of environmental problems which arise from the present geosphere-biosphere-anthroposphere interactions which urgently need to be addressed. This paper argues that systems analysis and modelling of environmental systems is one necessary part in successful governing of societies towards sustainability. In the 1960th many observations and data made it evident that the environment in most countries was in a bad state. To get a holistic view of the complex problems and to clarify the relationships of structure and function, systems thinking was applied e.g. modelling, cybernetics, systems analysis, life cycle assessment and energy and material flow analysis. Such tools used collectively, conceptualized as ‘integrated assessment’, can help to communicate fundamental knowledge, and to support decision-making when identifying, developing and implementing precautionary measures and solutions. There are good examples demonstrating the strength of such approaches; Solutions to the ozone depletion by replacing CFC’s with more chemically reactive compounds that are degraded within the troposphere. Acidification of European low buffer soils and lakes, sensitive to acid rain, has decreased due to concerted action on Sulphur emission control in large parts of Europe. The handling and recycling of solid waste has resulted in a considerable reduction of deposits in large parts of the world. This basically natural scientific knowledge has also influenced the development within e.g. economy and jurisprudence and today ecological economy and environmental law assume ecological systems as fundamental.

    The complexity of ecosystems and environmental issues can only be understood by use of advanced scientific tools such as modelling as a base for establishing interdisciplinary co-operation. Each component of such models will of course be an approximation, but validation and verification of the models will serve to make them useful. An ongoing research project at Mid Sweden University aims at building a complete carbon and energy balance model of an entire Swedish region, based on the Danish Samsø-model. Such models will make it possible to refer to a robust scientific base, thereby making it easier to argue for appropriate measures and actions. At the same time it will be clear what data these actions rest upon thereby making it easier to identify possible errors or limitations.

    Systems analysis and subsequent modes are constructs. According to systems theory and model development they are strategies as the best representations of nature, we can make. At the same time it must be assured, that a continuous adaptation and improvement in a studied area is possible - i.e. that model outcomes are matched with phenomenological observations and that empirical work also is carried out. Model development can therefore be characterized as a dynamic and iterative process.

    Governance in the Anthropocene must be based on an understanding of the problem picture at hand, and learning how to appropriately address increasingly complex issues. For identifying potential solutions and consequences of policy implementation, systems modelling on relevant levels will be one necessary tool. The current project developing an environmental regional model, illustrates how modelling can provide decision support for the county of Jämtland regarding management of energy resources and planning of future infrastructure, as well as serving regional and national information purposes.

  • 30.
    van den Brink, Paul
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Co-existence of reindeer and lemmings in alpine mountains of Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 30 of 30
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