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  • 1.
    Aydogan, Emre
    et al.
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Yilmaz, Selim
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Sen, Sevil
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    A Central Intrusion Detection System for RPL-Based Industrial Internet of Things2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8758024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Internet-of-Things (IoT) is revolutionizing the IT sector, it is not mature yet as several technologies are  still being offered to be candidates for supporting the backbone of this system. IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is one of those promising candidate technologies to be adopted by IoT and Industrial IoT (IIoT). Attacks against RPL have shown to be possible, as the attackers utilize the unauthorized parent selection system of the RLP protocol. In this work, we are proposing a methodology and architecture to detect intrusions against IIoT. Especially, we are targeting to detect attacks against RPL by using genetic programming. Our results indicate that the developed framework can successfully (with high accuracy, along with high true positive and low false positive rates) detect routing attacks in RPL-based Industrial IoT networks.

  • 2.
    Cai, Zhipeng
    et al.
    Georgia State Univ, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Chang, Rong N.
    IBM TJ Watson Res Ctr, Yorktown Hts, NY USA.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kos, Anton
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Wang, Chaokun
    Tsinghua Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Privacy in the Internet of Things2018In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, Vol. 2018, article id 8281379Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Enabling Adaptive Context Views for Mobile Applications: Negotiating Global and Dynamic Sensor Information2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile devices with Internet access and large amounts of sensors, pushes the development of intelligent services towards new forms of pervasive applications. These applications are made context-aware by utilizing information from sensors and hence the context of a situation, in order to provide a better service. Based on this, the focus of this thesis is on the challenge of creating context awareness in mobile applications. That both utilizes dynamic context information from globally available sensors and provides adaptive views of relevant context information to applications.

    The first challenge is to identify the properties of an architecture that provides scalable access to information from global sensors within bounded time, because existing systems do not support these properties in a satisfactory manner. The majority of related systems employ a centralized approach with limited support for global sensor information due to poor scalability. Therefore, this thesis proposes a distributed architecture capable of exchanging context between users and entities on a peer-to-peer overlay. Pervasive applications can thus utilize global sensor information in a scalable and manageable way within predictable time bounds.

    The second challenge to support continually changing and evolving context information, while providing it as both adaptive and manageable views to applications. To address this particular problem, this thesis proposes the usage of a locally stored evolving context object called a context schema. In detail, this schema contains all context information that is considered as being relevant for a specific user or entity. Furthermore, this thesis proposes an application interface that can provide snapshots of the evolving context schemas as adaptive views. These views can then be used in context-aware mobile applications, without inducing unnecessary delays.

    By successfully addressing the challenges, this thesis enables the creation of pervasive and adaptive applications that utilize evolving context in mobile environments. These capabilities are made possible by enabling access to global sensor information based on a distributed context exchange overlay, in combination with evolving context schemas offered as views through an application interface. In support of these claims, this thesis has developed numerous proof-of-concept applications and prototypes to verify the approach. Hence, this thesis concludes that the proposed approach with evolving context information has the ability to scale in a satisfactory manner and also has the ability to dynamically offer relevant views to applications in a manageable way.

  • 4.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Enabling fully distributed global services on the Internet-of Things2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Challenges of Securing the Industrial Internet of Things Value Chain2018In: 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018 - Proceedings, IEEE, 2018, p. 218-223, article id 8428344Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We see a shift from todays Internet-of-Things (IoT)to include more industrial equipment and metrology systems,forming the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). However, thisleads to many concerns related to confidentiality, integrity,availability, privacy and non-repudiation. Hence, there is a needto secure the IIoT in order to cater for a future with smart grids,smart metering, smart factories, smart cities, and smart manufacturing.It is therefore important to research IIoT technologiesand to create order in this chaos, especially when it comes tosecuring communication, resilient wireless networks, protectingindustrial data, and safely storing industrial intellectual propertyin cloud systems. This research therefore presents the challenges,needs, and requirements of industrial applications when it comesto securing IIoT systems.

  • 6.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    A Performance and Cost Evaluation of Combining OPC-UAand Microsoft Azure IoT Hub into an Industrial Internet-of-Things System2017In: GIoTS 2017 - Global Internet of Things Summit, Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, p. 327-332, article id 8016265Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected monetary costs and response time performance is important information to know before deploying an industrial Internet-of-Things system. The system investigated in this paper is built up by combining the Open Plant Communication Universal Architecture and the Microsoft Azure Internet-of-Things Hub. We consider a real life industrial scenario that remotely monitors a piece of industrial equipment consisting of 1500 sensors, of which 600 update their values every second. The measured results show that the response times for a fiber based Internet connection was on average 770 ms with a standard deviation of 330 ms and the same measurements on a mobile internet connection was on average 1150 ms with a standard deviation of 340 ms. Cost wise, the investigated scenario fits within the most expensive price plan for the IoT hub and ends in a total of just over \$5000 per month for the whole cloud service.

  • 7.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    An Implemented Open Source Blockchain Market for Smart Grids and Microgrids Using Autonomous Agents2019In: COINS '19 Proceedings of the International Conference on Omni-Layer Intelligent Systems, ACM Digital Library, 2019, Vol. F148162, p. 116-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a system for creating an implemented open energy market for future smart grid systems, microgrids, the Internet of Things, and the Industrial Internet of Things. We also investigate and analyze different aspects of blockchain technologies for this purpose in order to choose the appropriate methods, technologies, and approaches for realizing and implementing the system as an open source project. Based on this analysis, we present our resulting functional implementation of this energy market. Including measurements and a quantitative evaluation of the implementation itself. Showing the potential of the approach, where this implantation can be applied, showing its drawbacks, and finally our planned future work.

  • 8.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Rise Acreo, Hudiksvall.
    Lindqvist, Jonas
    Rise Acreo, Hudiksvall.
    Surveying and Identifying the Communication Platforms of the Internet of Things2018In: 2018 Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), IEEE, 2018, p. 121-126, article id 8534556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and industry invest time and resources in producing Internet of Things-based services, and the concept of Internet of Things platforms is climbing in the hype cycle for emerging technologies. Consequently, there is a vast number of enabling technologies, making it difficult to find the most suitable platform. The aim and goal of this article is to list and identify the currently available communication platforms for the Internet of Things. In this work, we surveyed the area and found over \numTot different platforms for communication of data between things and services, out of which \numProm fulfilled our listed basic requirements for being an IoT communication platform.

  • 9.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kanter, Theo
    Department of Computer and System Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, SE-164 40, Sweden .
    Continuously Changing Information on a Global Scale and its Impact for the Internet-of-Things2014In: Journal on spesial topics in mobile networks and applications, ISSN 1383-469X, E-ISSN 1572-8153, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the challenges of supportingcontinual changes of context information in Internetof-Things applications. These applications require aconstant flow of continuously changing information fromsensor based sources in order to ensure a high quality-ofexperience.However, an uncontrolled flow between sourcesand sinks on a global scale wastes resources, such ascomputational power, communication bandwidth, andbattery time. In response to these challenges we presenta general approach which focuses on four layers wherewe provide a proposed solution to each layer. We haverealized the general model into a proof-of-concept implementationrunning on devices with limited resources,where we can moderate the information exchange basedon relevance and sought after quality-of-experience bythe applications. In conclusion, we evaluate our solutionand present a summary of our experiences regardingthe impact of continuously changing information on theInternet-of-Things.

  • 10.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Enabling Continuously Evolving Context Information in Mobile Environments by Utilizing Ubiquitous Sensors2012In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 289-303Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-aware applications require local access to current and relevant views of context information derived from global sensors. Existing approaches provide only limited support, because they either rely on a network broker service precluding open-ended searches, or they adopt a presence model which has scalability issues. To this end, we propose a fully distributed architecture employing context user-agents co-located with data-mining agents. These agents create and maintain local schemas using ranking of global context information based on context proximity. Continually evolving context information thus provides applications with current and relevant context views derived from global sensors. Furthermore, we present an evaluation model for assessing the effort required to present local applications with current and relevant contextual views. We show in a comparison with earlier work that the approach achieves the provisioning of evolving context information to applications within predictable time bounds, circumventing earlier limitations.

  • 11.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kanter, Theo
    Department of Computer and System Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, 164 40, Sweden .
    Enabling Ubiquitous Sensor-Assisted Applications on the Internet-of-Things2014In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 977-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in sensor-assisted applicationssuch as sensing campaigns and interactions in large-scalepopulations put new demands on seamless sharing ofsensor information on a global scale. Existing support islimited due to simplified information models reflectingnarrow application scenarios and poorly scaling architectures.In response to this, we present an application architecturefor pervasive internet-of-things applications whichcircumvents these limitations. Our architecture enablesapplications to utilize information from sensors and wirelesssensor networks via a peer-to-peer overlay. Theoverlay shares sensor information in an generic informationmodel, which is extensible and thus enables intelligentapplication behavior. Our evaluation of the architectureindicates that it supports the sharing of sensor informationon a global scale in sensor-assisted applications, with lowresponse times. Finally, we evaluate the feasibility ofrunning such applications in end devices with limitedresources in a sensor-assisted application prototype.

  • 12.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Department of Computer and System Sciences Stockholm University.
    Johansson, Olle
    Acreo AB, SE-824 42 Hudiksvall, Sweden.
    Real-Time Distributed Sensor-Assisted mHealth Applications on the Internet-of-Things2012In: Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom-2012: 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC-2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 1844-1849Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing sensor-assisted mHealth applications wouldbenefit from large-scale sharing of sensor information in realtime.Existing communication solutions are however limited inthis respect, because of centralized application-level communication.In response to this, we presents a distributed communicationsolution for mHealth applications which circumvents these limitations.Our Internet-of-Things architecture enables mHealth applicationsto utilize information from sensors and wireless sensornetworks via a peer-to-peer overlay, where sensor information isorganized in an information model which is stored in the overlayitself. We present a proof-of-concept application and evaluationresults regarding the architecture’s real-time capabilities. Theresults indicate that a fully distributed architecture can supportreal-time sensing in mHealth applications and the support isavailable as an open source platform, MediaSense. Current workis focused on evaluating scalability in very large scale scenariosusing field trials.

  • 13.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Department of Computer and System Sciences Stockholm University.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ubiquitous Secure Interactions with Intelligent Artifacts on the Internet-of-Things2012In: Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom-2012: 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC-2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 1520-1524Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent artifacts are real-world objects enhancedwith capabilities in order to display relevant behavior in varioustypes of context-aware applications, such as in mHealth,commerce, or pervasive games. This can be achieved by attachingsensors and store associated information on the Internet.Interaction with such artifacts requires secure communication,to protect personal and private information. This mandatesresearch in how to safeguard interactions via heterogeneousmeans of communication involving interconnected local and nonlocalartifacts. In response to these challenges, this paper presentskey schemes to secure interaction via heterogeneous means ofcommunication. In conclusion, the architecture can securelyauthenticate an intelligent artifact as well as securely exchangesensor information with other authenticated artifacts attached inan overlay. Our proof-of-concept application demonstrated in anInternet-of-Things platform validates the approach.

  • 14.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Estimating Contextual Situations using Indicators from Smartphone Sensor Values2014In: Proceedings - 2014 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things, iThings 2014, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications, GreenCom 2014 and 2014 IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical-Social Computing, CPS 2014, 2014, p. 243-250, article id 7059668Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current context-aware applications often use thelocation of a user as the only indication of the current situation.These existing applications are therefore limited in their situationawareness, because of the poor indoor resolution of the locationsensor and its high resource consumption. In response to theselimitations we present an approach to estimate the contextualsituation of a user without using resource inefficient locationsensors. Our proposed solution utilizes a wide range of lowpowered sensors, together with two modified machine learningtechniques to estimate the situation in a more resource efficientmanner. Simulations and a proof-of-concept application show thatthe situation of a user can be determined within 50 ms at anaccuracy above 90%, when only using the low energy sensorsavailable on a smartphone and its limited processing power.

  • 15.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    A Flexible Sensor and Actuator Gateway for Internet-of-Things Applications2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a vast amount of sensors, actuators, and other devices intended to create the Internet-of-Things. However, most of these only operate within a particular manufacturer’s ecosystem and with a limited set of compatible hardware. In response to this we present a general sensor and actuator gateway for the Internet-of-Things, which provides the flexibility to easily exchange sensor and actuator hardware. The gateway is implemented as a proof-of-concept prototype that is verified to be compatible with a wide range of commercial off the shelf hardware. It is also shown to be able to run the SensibleThings platform, a fully distributed and open communication platform for Internet-Things applications.

  • 16.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Location-Based Ubiquitous Context Exchange in Mobile Environments2010In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Vol 68, Springer, 2010, p. 177-187Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-aware applications and services require ubiquitous access to context information of users. The limited scalability of centralized servers used in the provisioning of context information mandates the search for scalable peer-to-peer protocols. Furthermore, unnecessary signaling must be avoided in large-scale context networks, when location-based services only require nodes in a certain area with which to communicate context. To this end, we propose a lightweight model for composing and maintaining unstructured location-scoped networks of peer-to-peer nodes, which gossips in order to ensure quality of service for each user. The model is implemented in a prototype application running in a mobile environment, which is evaluated with respect to real-time properties. This model can also be extended to include more context dimensions, other than location.

  • 17.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norling, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Dissemination of Anonymised Context Information by Extending the DCXP Framework2010In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Volume 32, Springer, 2010, p. 57-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing ubiquity of context aware services and systems has been primarily underpinned by the use of centralised servers employing protocols that do no scale well for real time distribution and acquisition of neither sensor data nor dependent services.Any shift from this generic sensor framework mandated a new thinking where sensor data was capable of being propagated in real time using protocols and data models which serve to reduce unnecessary communication overhead. DCXP is proposed as an alternative architecture for the real time distribution of context information to ubiquitous mobile services.As a P2P based distributed protocol, it inherently poses the challenge of user anonymity across the system. In this paper we briefly present DCXP along with further work to enable the anonymised dissemination of sensor information within the architecture.Such a solution would have a negligible impact on the overall scalability and performance of DCXP.

  • 18.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Challenges when Realizing a Fully Distributed Internet-of-Things - How we Created the SensibleThings Platform2014In: ICDT 2014, The Ninth International Conference on Digital Telecommunications / [ed] Constantin Paleologu, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania Andy Snow, Ohio University, USA, 2014, p. 13-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SensibleThings platform is an open source architecturefor enabling Internet-of-Things based applications.During its development, multiple problems have been faced andsolved, for example issues related to networking, information dissemination,sensors, and application access. This paper describesthese problems and the technical solutions that are implementedin the platform. We also present the current progress and aseries of demonstrator applications, which show the wide rangeof possibilities enabled by the platform. Finally, we present futurework and how it will be used in future research endeavors andcommercial interests.

  • 19.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Department of Computer and System Sciences Stockholm University.
    Evaluating Ubiquitous Sensor Information Sharing on the Internet-of-Things2012In: Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom-2012: 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC-2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 1454-1460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation context-aware mobile applicationswill require a continuous update of relevant information about auser’s surroundings, in order to create low latency notificationsand high quality of experience. Existing mobile devices alreadycontain a large number of built in sensors which are capableof producing huge amounts of sensor data, exceeding boththe capacity of the local storage and the Internet connection.Therefore, we will in this paper study the limits when sharingcontextual information from mobile devices, as well as finding theimpact of this information overload for the Internet-of-Things.Furthermore, we present an evaluation model for assessing theeffort required to present applications with relevant contextinformation. In conclusion, the model shows that one feasiblesolution for the future Internet-of-Things is a peer-to-peer basedsolution which can control the flow of information without anycentralized authority, to circumvent earlier limitations.

  • 20.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Fiordigigli, Federico V.
    Low delay video streaming on the internet of things using raspberry Pi2016In: Electronics (Switzerland), ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things is predicted to consist of over 50 billion devices aiming to solve problems in most areas of our digital society. A large part of the data communicated is expected to consist of various multimedia contents, such as live audio and video. This article presents a solution for the communication of high definition video in low-delay scenarios (<200 ms) under the constraints of devices with limited hardware resources, such as the Raspberry Pi. We verify that it is possible to enable low delay video streaming between Raspberry Pi devices using a distributed Internet of Things system called the SensibleThings platform. Specifically, our implementation transfers a 6 Mbps H.264 video stream of 1280 × 720 pixels at 25 frames per second between devices with a total delay of 181 ms on the public Internet, of which the overhead of the distributed Internet of Things communication platform only accounts for 18 ms of this delay. We have found that the most significant bottleneck of video transfer on limited Internet of Things devices is the video coding and not the distributed communication platform, since the video coding accounts for 90% of the total delay.

  • 21.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Department of Computer and System Sciences Stockholm University.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    MediaSense – an Internet of Things Platform for Scalable and Decentralized Context Sharing and Control2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in Internet-of-Things infrastructures hasso far mainly been focused on connecting sensors and actuatorsto the Internet, while associating these devices to applicationsvia web services. This has contributed to making the technologyaccessible in areas such as smart-grid, transport, health, etc.These early successes have hidden the lack of support forsensor-based applications to share information and limitationsin support for applications to access sensors and actuatorsglobally. We address these limitations in an novel open-sourceplatform, MediaSense. MediaSense offers scalable, seamless,real-time access to global sensors and actuators via hetero-geneous network infrastructure. This paper presents a setof requirements for Internet-of-Things applications support,an overview of our architecture, and application prototypescreated in order to verify the approach in a test bed withusers connected from heterogeneous networks.

  • 22.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness from Sensor Networks2010In: Enabling Context-Aware Web Services: Methods, Architectures, and Technologies, CRC Press, 2010, p. 449-468Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Users require applications and services to be available everywhere, enabling users to focus on what is important to them. Therefore, context information from users (e.g., spatial data, preferences, available connectivity and devices, etc.) needs to be accessible to systems that deliver services via a heterogeneous infrastructure. We present a novel approach to support ubiquitous sensing and availability of context to services and applications. This approach offers a scalable, distributed storage of context derived from sensor networks wirelessly attached to mobile phones and other devices. The support handles frequent updates of sensor information and is interoperable with presence services in 3G mobile systems, thus enabling ubiquitous sensing applications. We demonstrate these concepts and the principle operation in a sample ubiquitous mobile awareness service. The importance of this contribution, in comparison to earlier work, lies in the availability of real-time ubiquitous sensing to both applications on the Internet as well as applications in mobile systems.

  • 23.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Scenarios, Research Issues, and Architecture for Ubiquitous Sensing2010In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering  Vol 68, Springer, 2010, p. 285-297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes research issues and work-in-progress concerning ubiquitous sensing. We present scenarios where the current approaches are deficient in addressing the needs for ubiquitous sensing in services and applications on the Future Internet, involving the massive sharing of information from sensors via heterogeneous networks. We propose an information-centric architecture for real-time ubiquitous sensing which capitalizes on the proposed locator/identifier split, thus extending the Network of Information (NetInf) approach. From this we identify the challenges for which we present work-in-progress within the framework of the EU-funded MediaSense project. Firstly, we integrate sensors as addressable objects, exposed by means of sensor gateways and relocatable abstract interfaces. Sensor information is thus made available to applications solely based on identity. Secondly, sensor information is made available in a distributed data model towards searching and browsing. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of the architecture in proof-of-concept applications for intelligent commuting, environmental monitoring and seamless media transfer, utilizing two different sensor platforms.

  • 24.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norling, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Distributed Context Support for Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness Services2009In: 2009 Fourth International ICST Conference on Communications and Networking in China. ChinaCom'09., IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 869-873Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-aware applications and services require ubiquitous access to context information about the users or sensors such as preferences, spatial & environmental data, available connectivity, and device capabilities. Systems for the brokering or the provisioning of context data via wireless networks do so with centralized servers or by employing protocols that do not scale well with real-time distribution capabilities. In other cases, such as the extending of presence systems, the data models are limited in expressive capabilities and consequently incur unnecessary signaling overhead. This paper presents a distributed protocol, the Distributed Context eXchange Protocol (DCXP), and an architecture for the real-time distribution of context information to ubiquitous mobile services: We present the architecture and its principle operation in a sample ubiquitous mobile awareness service. Preliminary results indicate that our approach scales well for the ubiquitous provision of context data in real-time to clients on the Internet via 3G wireless systems. Performed measurements show that DCXP can reduce the time to process context data with a factor of 20 compared to similar approaches.

     

  • 25.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness from Sensor Networks2009In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Volume 12, Springer, 2009, p. 147-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Users require applications and services to be available everywhere,enabling them to focus on what is important to them. Therefore, contextinformation (e.g., spatial data, user preferences, available connectivity anddevices, etc.) has to be accessible to applications that run in end systems closeto users. In response to this, we present a novel architecture for ubiquitoussensing and sharing of context in mobile services and applications. Thearchitecture offers distributed storage of context derived from sensor networkswirelessly attached to mobile phones and other devices. The architecture alsohandles frequent updates of sensor information and is interoperable withpresence in 3G mobile systems, thus enabling ubiquitous sensing applications.We demonstrate these concepts and the principle operation in a sampleubiquitous Mobile Awareness service.

  • 26.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The MediaSense Framework2009In: Proceedings - 2009 4th International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, ICDT 2009, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 144-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication is evolving rapidly. People no longer only communicate with each other regardless of time and place, but also share other information that is important for tasks with which they are involved. In response to this growing trend the MediaSense framework addresses the intelligent delivery of any information to any host, anywhere, based on context-aware information regarding personal preferences, presence information, and sensor values. This includes another challenge to achieve seamless delivery, especially of multimedia content, and multimodal services via heterogeneous connections.

  • 27.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The MediaSense Framework: Ranking Sensors in a Distributed Architecture2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication is evolving rapidly. People no longer only communicate with each other regardless of time and place, but also share other information that is important for the tasks with which they are involved. In response to this growing trend, the Media Sense framework addresses the intelligent delivery of any information to any host, anywhere, based on context-aware information regarding personal preferences, presence information, and sensor values. The focus of this paper is the overall framework, the handling of user profiles, management of context information, real-time distribution and proof of concepts.

  • 28.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The updated mediasense framework2010In: 5th International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, ICDT 2010, Athens, Glyfada: IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 48-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication is evolving rapidly. People no longer only communicate with each other regardless of time and place, but also share other information that is important for the tasks with which they are involved. In response to this growing trend, the MediaSense framework addresses the intelligent delivery of any information to any host, anywhere, based on context-aware information regarding personal preferences, presence information, and sensor values. The focus of this paper is the overall framework, the handling of user profiles, management of context information, real-time distribution and proof of concepts. © 2010 IEEE.

  • 29.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Fully Distributed Ubiquitous Information Sharing on a Global Scale for the Internet-of-Things2014In: International Journal On Advances in Telecommunications, ISSN 1942-2601, E-ISSN 1942-2601, Vol. 7, no 3 & 4, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet-of-Things will require ubiquitous informationsharing between connected things on a global scale, whichexisting systems do not offer. Most current efforts focus on solutionsfor information dissemination, which induce single pointsof failure and introduce unnecessary communication delays. Tothis end we propose the SensibleThings platform, which is afully distributed open source architecture for Internet-of-Thingsbased applications. This article describes the major problems thatInternet-of-Things platforms must address, our technical solutionto these problems, and an evaluation thereof. We also present thecurrent progress and a series of demonstrators, which show thewide range of applications enabled by the platform. Finally, wepresent how the platform will be used in our future research andpotential spin off companies.

  • 30.
    Klareld, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Blockchainteknologi och arkiv2019In: Nordisk Arkivnyt, ISSN 0546-2851, no 1, p. 46-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Blockchain, främst känd som teknologin bakom Bitcoin, kan användas till mycket mer än kryptovalutor. World Economic Forum har nyligen listat 65 exempel på hur tekniken kan bidra till att lösa olika miljöutmaningar och MIT:s tidskrift Technology Review har beskrivit hur blockchain används i ett flyktingläger för att människor ska kunna köpa förnödenheter utan att behöva vare sig identitetshandlingar eller kontanter. Med nya tekniker för att hantera mänskliga aktiviteter följer också nya former för dokumentation av dessa. I denna artikel kommer vi därför ge en översiktlig bild av hur blockchain kan användas inom arkivsektorn.

  • 31.
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Combining Fog Computing with Sensor Mote Machine Learning for Industrial IoT2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 5, article id 1532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is a global trend becoming ever more important to our connected and sustainable society. This trend also affects industry where the Industrial Internet of Things is an important part, and there is a need to conserve spectrum as well as energy when communicating data to a fog or cloud back-end system. In this paper we investigate the benefits of fog computing by proposing a novel distributed learning model on the sensor device and simulating the data stream in the fog, instead of transmitting all raw sensor values to the cloud back-end. To save energy and to communicate as few packets as possible, the updated parameters of the learned model at the sensor device are communicated in longer time intervals to a fog computing system. The proposed framework is implemented and tested in a real world testbed in order to make quantitative measurements and evaluate the system. Our results show that the proposed model can achieve a 98% decrease in the number of packets sent over the wireless link, and the fog node can still simulate the data stream with an acceptable accuracy of 97%. We also observe an end-to-end delay of 180 ms in our proposed three-layer framework. Hence, the framework shows that a combination of fog and cloud computing with a distributed data modeling at the sensor device for wireless sensor networks can be beneficial for Industrial Internet of Things applications.

  • 32.
    Lindén, Johannes
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Evaluating Combinations of Classification Algorithms and Paragraph Vectors for News Article Classification2018In: Proceedings of the 2018 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems / [ed] Maria Ganzha, Leszek Maciaszek, Marcin Paprzycki, Warzaw: Polskie Towarzystwo Informatyczne , 2018, p. 489-495, article id 8511213Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    News companies have a need to automate and make the process of writing about popular and new events more effective. Current technologies involve robotic programs that fill in values in templates and website listeners that notify editors when changes are made so that the editor can read up on the source change on the actual website. Editors can provide news faster and better if directly provided with abstracts of the external sources and categorical meta-data that supports what the text is about. In this article, the focus is on the importance of evaluating critical parameter modifications of the four classification algorithms Decisiontree, Randomforest, Multi Layer perceptron and Long-Short-Term-Memory in a combination with the paragraph vector algorithms Distributed Memory and Distributed Bag of Words, with an aim to categorise news articles. The result shows that Decisiontree and Multi Layer perceptron are stable within a short interval, while Randomforest is more dependent on the parameters best split and number of trees. The most accurate model is Long-Short-Term-Memory model that achieves an accuracy of 71%.

  • 33.
    Lindén, Johannes
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Wang, Xutao
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bilingual Auto-Categorization Comparison of two LSTM Text Classifiers2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Qureshi, Umair Mujtaba
    et al.
    City University of Hong Kong.
    Hancke, Gerhard Petrus
    City University of Hong Kong.
    Gebremichael, Teklay
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Survey of Proximity Based Authentication Mechanisms for the Industrial Internet of Things2018In: IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an overview of the variousproximity based authentication mechanisms that can be usedin the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). We seek to identifyand highlight from a holistic point of view which mechanismscan enable proximity based authentication for the IndustrialInternet of Things. In addition, we identify which upcomingproximity authentication mechanisms are most important for theproliferation of the Industrial Internet of Things, and highlightmajor obstacles that remain unsolved with regard to authen-tication. In answering this, we present seven mechanisms forproximity based authentication (i.e. wire, radio, acoustics, light,image, gesture and biometrics) and discuss each mechanism inperspective of their vulnerability to different kind of attacks (suchas eavesdropping, impersonation and denial of service attacksetc.) and their usability (such as proximity range, hardwarerequirement and ease of use) in terms of the practicality in IIoTenvironment in the light of which we present two typical IIoTuse cases that require proximity based authentication.

  • 35.
    Sidén, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Skerved, Vincent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Home Care with NFC Sensors and a Smart Phone2011In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world's aging population and limited hospital resources together with advancements in information technology provides a thorough basis for further development of tele-healthcare and assisted living. For ordinary people, and especially elderly people, to be diagnosed and treated in their homes there is a definite need for technical equipment that is extremely easy to handle. One way to facilitate tele-healthcare is to take advantage of modern cell phone technology and the infrastructure surrounding these units. Many elderly people are today comfortable with using cell phones and even advanced smart phones can be purchased to a cost that is low compared to corresponding specialized medical equipment. The concept presented in this work is based upon Near Field Communication (NFC), a wireless feature that is currently being widely launched in cell phones. Amongst other capabilities, NFC technology allows a phone to act as a 13.56 MHz RFID reader. This work shows how NFC-equipped phones can be used to read passive NFC tags that in turn are equipped with general resistive sensors and how sensor data are read and communicated to a web server without the need to push a single button. © 2011 ACM.

  • 36.
    Wiss, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Feasibility and Performance Evaluation of SCTP for the Industrial Internet of Things2017In: Proceedings IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 6101-6106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to provide a high Quality of Service is a crucial aspect in the acceptance and widespread dispersion of the Industrial Internet of Things and it has a key role to enhance the end user experience. The emerging fog cloud computing architectural concept aims to diminish the experienced latency while simultaneously providing a seemingly unlimited quantity of computational power by moving computations from the cloud and things to the edge. To enhance the reliability, fault-tolerance, and connectivity of the data transmission, the transport layer protocol Stream Control Transport Protocol may be applied. To this end, we analyzed the feasibility of this protocol for an Industrial Internet of Things and fog computing setting by demonstrating and conducting essential network performance measurements. Our results reveal, that the protocol is a valid candidate for industrial scenarios in a fog computing environment and that it outperforms established Internet transport layer protocols in several of the conducted measurements. 

  • 37. Wiss, Thomas
    et al.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Performance Evaluation of Secure CoAP and MQTT Communication on Resource-Constrained Devices2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One important consideration for the Internet of Things is protecting sensitive data communicated from resource-constrained devices. In this paper, we investigate the performance of the Constrained Application Protocol and the Message Queue Telemetry Transport protocol in combination with and without their respective transport layer security. The testbed consisted of Raspberry Pi devices as representatives of resource-constrained devices and the evaluation identified that the processing of certificates and the establishment of a secure connection represents a heavy burden to the devices. Furthermore, the results show varying performances between the protocols when evaluated under lossy network conditions.

  • 38.
    Zanni, Alessandro
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bellavista, Paolo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Elastic Provisioning of Internet of Things Services using Fog Computing: an Experience Report2018In: 2018 6th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Cloud Computing, Services, and Engineering (MobileCloud), IEEE, 2018, p. 17-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption of cloud and fog computing techniquesfor elastic provisioning of quality-constrained industrial Internet of Things (IoT) services is largely envisioned as very promising, but experience reports and lessons learned from real deployment still lack. To fill this gap, this paper presents andreports the evaluation of a system consisting of virtual services in a combined fog, cloud, and IoT setting, made up of multiple devices with varying computation capabilities. In particular,we have utilized and integrated off-the-shelf solutions into our architecture and have experimentally investigated the benefits of virtualization to move and redeploy mobile components to the fog nodes closest to the targeted end devices. In addition, the paper proposes an original solution to dynamically scale and provision the resources for the fog computing layer by using geometric monitoring. The reported results show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed exploitation of both fog and cloud virtualized resources to enable scalability in the domain of IoT-assisted mobile presence services.

1 - 38 of 38
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