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  • 1.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Lundmark, Linda
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Beyond Post-productivism: From Rural Policy Discourse To Rural Diversity2014Ingår i: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 297-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a strong discourse in public policy aiming at transforming rural places from venues of primary production into truly diverse socioeconomic landscapes. Yet conceptualisations of the rural as envisioned in the policy and politics of the ‘new economy’ are often difficult to see materialise on the ground. However, post-productive activity in rural areas has become a major focus for rural studies scholars. This paper investigates the ideas of post-productivism and post-production in existing literature, and argues for a holistic understanding of post-productivism as an idea and political ambition rather than a manifest change of rural economic activity. The purpose of the study is to make clear the division between the related concepts in order to better understand processes of rural change in relation to different geographical contexts. It is argued that post-productivism as a concept stands apart from de facto post-production and should be regarded as part of broader regional development discourses. The paper outlines several important fields in which post-productivism is a necessary component for rural transformation and development. While it is not always easily captured in indicators or empirical studies in rural locations, post-productivism exists at the level of discourse and planning and thus has real effects on the ground. The paper concludes by offering suggestions on how to empirically investigate the concepts of post-production and post-productivism.

  • 2.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå Universitet.
    Creative Outposts: Tourism's Place in Rural Innovation2012Ingår i: Tourism Planning & Development, ISSN 2156-8316, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 383-396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of local tourism innovation in order to see how tourism development benefits tourism stakeholders including the local community. The paper is concerned with the social impacts of tourism and contends that there is a latent positive social capital in rural communities. Some "creative outposts" manage not just to survive but to thrive, and tourism often acts as a catalyst for innovative local development. Examples of tourism innovation can be new and better interactions among tourism stakeholders as well as changes in institutional arrangements. Entrepreneurs and institutional stakeholders are interviewed to investigate the dynamics of local tourism innovation. The social dimension in which tourism stakeholders operate is poorly understood and this paper presents a case study of Jokkmokk village with results showing tourism has a subtle yet palpable positive social role in the community. Themes emerging from the interviews are: the tourist office and tourism firms co-evolve over time, tourism networks are loose and project-based, tourism is a desirable diversifier, and tourism contributes to the local leisure space. Particular focus is given to the fact that this is an Arctic rural community, and the research provides a basis for understanding tourism innovation systems in this context. Tourism development is found to be complementary to rural coping strategies in "creative outposts"

  • 3.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Embedding Arctic Tourism Innovation in ‘Creative Outposts’2013Ingår i: From Talk to Action: How Tourism is Changing the Polar Regions / [ed] R.H. Lemelin, P. Maher, & D. Liggett, Thunder Bay, Canada: Centre for Northern Studies Press , 2013, s. 183-198Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has emerged as an important part of the economy in the Circumpolar North. Many northern communities grew as outposts of capitalism and prospered through primary sector activities such as agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry. Recently, entrepreneurial and institutional efforts have resulted in increasing tourism employment in the Arctic. While the contribution of tourism to Arctic economies is well-understood, other questions remain. Communities are not only dependent on what happens in the economy in the broader sense but also on endogenous generation of creative and innovative initiatives. This paper examines tourism in three Arctic communities and introduces the concept of creative outposts – communities in peripheral areas which manage to develop tourism despite difficult structural preconditions. Three cases from across the Circumpolar North, and at different stages of development, are presented and main themes explored include: the endogenous nature of tourism development and its potential for employment and entrepreneurship, the contribution of tourism to the local leisure space, and the potential of tourism as a diversification strategy. The paper utilises an innovation systems approach and highlights that tourism activity can act as a catalyst for the development of positive local social capital. The study is positioned within the Arctic Tourism Innovation System framework, highlighting how some northern communities manage not just to survive but to thrive with tourism and community resilience being complementary in creative outposts. The paper calls for future comparative studies across the Circumpolar North.

  • 4.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Evolutionary Economic Geography: A New Path for Tourism Studies?2014Ingår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 2-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary economic geography (EEG) is an emerging theoretical framework whichattempts to better understand long-term economic change and why it differs betweenregions. Tourism geographers are showing increasing interest in EEG with a growingnumber of publications and conference presentations on EEG applications withintourism studies. This article briefly sets out the conceptual background to EEG andhow it relates to extant studies within tourism, drawing on examples from theliterature on tourism studies and evolutionary research. A concise list of someactionable areas for EEG studies within tourism is presented as well as an appraisal ofthe theoretical particularities of applying EEG within tourism studies. EEG is shownto be a new path with much potential for tourism research.

  • 5.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Evolutionary Economic Geography and Tourism Studies: Extant Studies and Future Research Directions2014Ingår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 540-545Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the extant literature on evolutionary economic geography (EEG) and tourism studies and briefly reviews what has been produced thus far. There are two main areas addressed: path dependence (and how to break from a path) and co-evolution (of tourism paths within a given region and of regional paths including tourism). The papers already published on EEG and tourism feature cases from resort communities, mass tourism destinations and rural and peripheral areas with all cases from highly developed countries (Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Italy and Australia). Next, the papers of the special issue are explored and show a broadening of the geographical reach (to include China and Spain) and a move to apply EEG theory as part of a hybrid theoretical framework. Finally, the paper concludes with a call for broader evolutionary approaches in tourism studies beyond strictly business development studies. This ultimately requires the development of EEG measures in line with the goals of sustainable tourism development.

  • 6.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. Brock Univ, Canada; Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Evolutionary economic geography: reflections from a sustainable tourism perspective2017Ingår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 438-447Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary economic geography (EEG) is receiving increasing attention from tourism geographers with over 30 publications explicitly incorporating EEG into tourism between 2011 and 2016. Many of these contributions are conceptual, which is not surprising given the novelty of EEG within economic geography, in general, and tourism, in particular. However, a sizeable number of these are built on detailed case studies, using EEG as an analytical lens rather than as a conceptual point of departure. Thus, many tourism researchers have found that EEG has great potential for understanding change in tourism destinations. In this Research Frontiers paper I critically reflect on this early research of EEG in tourism geographies from a sustainable development perspective. In the cases presented, EEG offers a fresh understanding of two related challenges in each of two separate aspects of sustainable tourism development. First, pro-growth governance models can be disrupted by engaged local stakeholders in order to make tangible sustainability gains but these gains remain precarious over time as pro-growth governance models prove tenacious in the very long-term. Second, regional institutional legacies hamper new path emergence in two ways - through institutional inertia which keeps the region's focus on past success in other sectors and through the (possibly competing) institutional imperatives of the dominant and emerging tourism sub-sectors or sub-regions. These challenges are illustrated through two complementary Canadian cases drawn from the extant literature - the mass tourism destination of Niagara and the resort community of Whistler. I highlight how a sustainable tourism perspective can also help to critique EEG theory and empirics in line with other recent political economy critiques in economic geography. I conclude that sustainable tourism, at its best, is an established reflexive lens which will help to develop, validate, and challenge aspects of EEG theory within tourism studies, in particular, and economic geography, in general.

  • 7.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Post-inscription Challenges: Renegotiating World Heritage Management in the Laponia Area in Northern Sweden2016Ingår i: World Heritage Sites and Tourism: Global and Local Relations, Routledge, 2016, s. 117-128Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Tourism and Sustainable Community Development in Northern Sweden2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Small businesses with tourism as a focus are found in many rural and peripheral areas, including Northern Sweden. Tourism development in Northern Sweden has led to employment gains and it also contributes to local community development. This report presents findings on tourism’s modest but sustainable contribution to local and regional development. Tourism in Northern Sweden is mainly nature-based tourism (NBT) with a large share of businesses being accommodation providers as well as a large share of activity-based businesses. Domestic tourism dominates across the seasons and the region but a four seasons approach has been developing in recent decades. This report shows why tourism is closely aligned to sustainability goals in Northern Sweden with sustainable tourism development facing both challenges and opportunities. New tourism firms add to employment over time despite the failure of most new firms. Market segments which are geographically distant from protected areas are drawn to them because of their unique attributes. Climate change is a long-term challenge to winter tourism in particular. Food tourism is underdeveloped but growing in Northern Sweden and has potential to contribute to sustainable local food systems and community development. Tourism should be seen not as a last resort but more as a lasting resource for community development in northern Sweden.

  • 9.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Tourism Development in Peripheral Areas: Processes of Local Innovation and Change in Northern Sweden2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has reached almost all regions of the world and has had a notable growth in the peripheral regions of Europe. Attempts at tourism development in rural and peripheral areas have resulted in widely varying outcomes and have often been undertaken as a last resort by communities. Despite mixed results, tourism persists as a tool for regional development. There has not been so much research on the evolving nature of tourism entrepreneurship in regions where tourism is relatively new as a commercial/entrepreneurial activity, e.g., the rural and peripheral north of Europe. This thesis presents Northern Sweden as a regional case study but it is reasonable to assume that the research results are transferable to similar regions with a similar range of nature-based tourism in small communities.

     

    The results show that tourism stakeholders co-evolve over time even though formal networks are loose and project-based (Article 1). Tourism firm survival improves for entrepreneurs with previous related experience but there is not necessarily an outsider advantage and new tourism firms contribute to job creation despite high rates of attrition (Article II). Protected areas with unique attributes (e.g., Laponia) can attract distant entrepreneurs but must manage these stakeholders more proactively (Article III). Climate change is a long-term challenge with firms not needing to adapt yet but facing differing exposures dependent on location and firm mobility (Article IV). Finally, evolutionary economic geography helps to better understand the processes of change in tourism in rural and peripheral areas (Article V).

  • 10.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. Brock University, Canada.
    Clavé, Salvador AntonRovira i Virgili University, Spain.Gill, AlisonSimon Fraser University, Canada.Ioannides, DimitriMittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Tourism destination evolution2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Outlining the need for fresh perspectives on change in tourism, this book offers a theoretical overview and empirical examples of the potential synergies of applying evolutionary economic geography (EEG) concepts in tourism research. EEG has proven to be a powerful explanatory paradigm in other sectors and tourism studies has a track record of embracing, adapting, and enhancing frameworks from cognate fields. EEG approaches to tourism studies complement and further develop studies of established themes such as path dependence and the Tourism Area Life Cycle. The individual chapters draw from a broad geographical framework and address distinct conceptual elements of EEG, using a diverse set of tourism case studies from Europe, North America and Australia. Developing the theoretical cohesion of tourism and EEG, this volume also gives non-specialist tourism scholars a window into the possibilities of using these concepts in their own research. Given the timing of this publication, it has great potential value to the wider tourism community in advancing theory and leading to more effective empirical research.

  • 11.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. Brock University, Canada.
    Clavé, Salvador Anton
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain.
    Gill, Alison
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Why is tourism not an evolutionary science?: Understanding the past, present and future of destination evolution2016Ingår i: Tourism destination evolution / [ed] Patrick Brouder, Salvador Anton Clavé, Alison Gill and Dimitri Ioannides, Routledge, 2016, s. 1-18Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Eriksson, Rikard H.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Staying Power: What Influences Micro-firm Survival in Tourism?2012Ingår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 125-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how previous experience and location of entrepreneurs influence the survival of new tourism firms. The paper departs from recent evolutionary economic geography advancements, highlighting the importance of routines and skills as well as location-specific knowledge for firm success. While having been well-researched for manufacturing industries characterized by high entry barriers, little knowledge is currently available on the factors influencing survival rates in service sectors with low entry barriers. A quantitative approach applies hazard models to investigate the survival rates over a seven-year period of a total of 133 new micro-tourism firms started between 1999 and 2001 in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. The geo-referenced micro-database ASTRID links information on firm features (e.g. firm births and deaths, spatial coordinates and industry codes) to characteristics of entrepreneurs (e.g. age, education, previous experience). The main finding is that entrepreneurs with previous work experience in related sectors are more likely to survive and, in this case, entrepreneurs without local experience tend to be less successful. We find no evidence that new firms operating in regions specialized in tourism have a survival advantage. Our analysis also indicates that surviving firms improve performance over time. The paper thus contributes new knowledge on the determinants of micro-firm survival in tourism.

  • 13.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Eriksson, Rikard H.
    Univ, Dept Geog & Econ Hist, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Tourism Evolution: On the Synergies of Tourism Studies and Evolutionary Economic Geography2013Ingår i: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 43, nr Oct, s. 370-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism economy is a fertile ground for multi-disciplinary research. It is vast anddiverse and differs markedly from other sectors. The challenging epistemology of thetourism economy makes it an intriguing field of study for scholars who are not groundedin the discipline. Likewise, tourism scholars tend to be open to advancements in otherdisciplines and readily embrace them. However, the idiosyncrasies of the tourismeconomy mean any new approach must be carefully vetted for fitness to task. Currentadvances in evolutionary economic geography (EEG) are receiving increasing interestfrom tourism scholars. EEG emerged from the literature on path dependence, complexitytheory, and generalised Darwinism. It has proven to be a powerful explanatory paradigmin other sectors, e.g., high-technology and creative sectors. There remains, however, alack of theoretical discussion on evolutionary principles of economic change withinrelatively low-technology service sectors, of which tourism is a prime example.This paper introduces the sub-discipline of evolutionary economic geography (EEG) to awider tourism audience and explores its possibilities and its potential drawbacks inapplications within tourism research. After presenting the core principles of EEG andhow they relate to tourism studies, a selection of new research paths combining EEG andtourism studies are presented starting with a brief illustration comparing Butler'sTourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) to Martin's stylised alternative development paths. Asignificant advantage of EEG is its heterodox economic rationale which acknowledgesthe existence of several co-evolving, long-term, socially-embedded development paths.This has resonance for tourism scholars engaged in regional development research whosee tourism as one (or more) oft-contested, dynamic development path(s) among many.The paper finds a number of latent research synergies with potential mutual benefits toEEG development and tourism studies. The paper concludes by calling for furtherempirical engagement with EEG by tourism scholars to gain new perspectives ontourism's place in the wider processes of regional economic development.

  • 14.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. Brock University, Canada ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Fullerton, C
    Department of Geography, Brock University, Canada.
    Co-evolution and sustainable tourism development: From old institutional inertia to new institutional imperatives in niagara2015Ingår i: Tourism Destination Evolution / [ed] Brouder, P., Clavé, S.A., Gill, A., Ioannides, D., Taylor & Francis, 2015, s. 149-164Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. Brock Univ, Dept Geog, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.
    Fullerton, Christopher
    Brock Univ, Dept Geog, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.
    Exploring Heterogeneous Tourism Development Paths: Cascade Effect or Co-evolution in Niagara?2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 15, nr 1-2, s. 152-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is often galvanised around a central theme based on a region's strengths in product supply and promotional opportunity, which usually results in an identifiable regional brand. However, this also hides the existing heterogeneity of tourism supply, especially in regions with an established brand. Securing long-term community economic development requires a broader focus since some unheralded tourism development paths may prove resilient over the long term and ultimately contribute to community development. This paper investigates the less central stakeholders in the Niagara region of Canada and explores how future studies might integrate marginal tourism stakeholders in studies of the regional tourism economy. Through semi-structured interviews with regional tourism stakeholders, the analysis of the Niagara region, based on perspectives of co-evolution from evolutionary economic geography, reveals a new perspective on tourism development by focussing on the place of marginal stakeholders in a region with a strong tourism brand. The region exhibits strong path dependence based on its industrial and agricultural legacy but long-term, organic, incremental processes of change within the region are creating new tourism development paths. These new paths co-evolve with the dominant tourism paths as well as other community development initiatives leading to positive change across the region.

  • 16.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, United States .
    Urban Tourism and Evolutionary Economic Geography: Complexity and Co-evolution in Contested Spaces2014Ingår i: Urban Forum, ISSN 1015-3802, E-ISSN 1874-6330, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 419-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban tourism is an important research topic whether in mass tourism resortareas where tourism is the economic staple or in metropolitan areas where it is one (ormore) development path(s) among many. Urban areas are dynamic and fast-pacedenvironments but are also places where social and economic inequalities are moststark. Economic geography is one theoretical perspective through which researchersaddress urban tourism. The recent“evolutionary turn”in economic geography isfinding its way to tourism studies but has only been applied to a few urban tourismcases. This paper sets out the potential of evolutionary economic geography (EEG) as aconceptual framework for urban tourism studies. The analysis draws on recent studiesof urban tourism from an evolutionary perspective to highlight the strengths of takingsuch an approach and a number of avenues yet to be explored are put forward. Urbantourism affects large numbers of residents and businesses as well as influencing labourflows, and so understanding the dynamic nature of its development paths is vital.Tourism development does not occur in a vacuum, and urban tourism is one area wherethe complexity of the tourism economy and its place within broader regional develop-ment strategies is most obvious. Under recent neoliberal policies of urban development,tourism has become closely associated with place-based competition and large capitalinvestments. Urban tourism also enters the fray in matters of contested urban spaceswith issues of local governance, such as privatisation of public space, moving increas-ingly to the fore. The paper concludes with a list of future approaches to evolutionarystudies of urban tourism to broaden the scope beyond the dominant financial metrics oftourism success.

  • 17.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. 1. School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Department of Geography & Economic History, Umeå University,.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Department of Geography & Economic History, Umeå University.
    Hyper-Production: a New Metric of Multifunctionality2015Ingår i: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 134-143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctionality has emerged as the dominant framework for understanding rural socioeconomic landscapes. The central claim of multifunctionality - that rural regions need to be understood as being made up of more than just traditional uses - has led to the incorporation of new rural activities into regional development plans, e.g., tourism. In some places, such post-productive activity is perceived to be slowly replacing productive uses of the land, e.g., agriculture/forestry. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support such claims. Drawing on previous research and data from the Swedish countryside this paper shows that, even as the number of persons employed within traditional activities decreases, the economic output per areal unit and per labour hour is increasing over time and traditional uses still occupy the majority of rural space. Hyper-production is introduced as a new metric for understanding multifunctional regions going forward. The complementary union of economic mainstays, such as agriculture, and newer activities with more quality-of-life benefits, such as tourism, is highlighted in terms of economic diversification, job creation and local social capital development, while the conflict-prone intersection of these two modes is also acknowledged. Understanding hyper-production as a key metric of multifunctionality is thus argued as integral to planning and developing resilient rural regions now and for the future.

  • 18.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå Universitet.
    Climate Change in Northern Sweden: Intra-regional Perceptions of Vulnerability among Winter-oriented Tourism Businesses2011Ingår i: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 19, nr 8, s. 919-933Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a potential threat to society and business. Although research has noted that the tourism sector may be robust on the macro scale, significant losses at local levels have been suggested. This paper examines Upper Norrland, in Northern Sweden, by measuring the perceptions of winter-oriented tourism entrepreneurs. Their perceptions of potential threats from climate change are assessed, including how entrepreneurs view the future, in terms of climate change impacts and sustainability of the region as a winter-tourism destination. A quantitative survey of entrepreneurs (n = 63) gave responses along geographical and operator dimensions to reveal local differences within the Upper Norrland region, showing the coastland to be perceived as more exposed to change than inland areas. Venue-based businesses see climate change as a higher priority than activity-based, potentially mobile, businesses, regardless of their location. The general perception among businesses is that climate change will not drastically impact the tourism sector over the next 10 years. A basic model for mapping local differences is outlined to stimulate further study of the under-researched intra-regional nuances in climate change and tourism research. A case is made for regional planners to use this tool and to educate local businesses on adaptation techniques.

  • 19.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Wall Reinius, Sandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Managing Tourism for Sustainable Local Development in Jokkmokk, Sweden2016Ingår i: Tourism, People and Protected Areas in Polar Wilderness, Icelandic Tourism Research Centre , 2016, s. 36-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Consuming Stories: Placing Food in the Arctic Tourism Experience2013Ingår i: Journal of Heritage Tourism, ISSN 1743-873X, E-ISSN 1747-6631, Vol. 8, nr 2-3, s. 213-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Tourism and economic geography redux: evolutionary economic geography´s role in scholarship bridge construction2016Ingår i: Tourism destination evolution / [ed] Patrick Brouder, Salvador Anton Clavé, Alison Gill, Dimitri Ioannides, Routledge, 2016, s. 183-194Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University.
    När friluftsliv blir naturturism2013Ingår i: Friluftsliv i förändring: resultat från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] P. Fredman, M. Stenseke, K. Sandell, & A. Mossing, Stockholm, Sweden: Naturvårdsverket , 2013, s. 175-190Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Var någonstans man ägnar sig åt friluftsliv i förhållande till sin bostad kan tyckas irrelevant men faktum är att denna geografiska koppling får konsekvenser för åtskilliga aspekter av stor betydelse för friluftslivet. Det påverkar vilka typer av aktiviteter man har möjlighet att ägna sig åt, när man kan göra det och på vilket sätt. Att ägna sig åt friluftsliv utanför sin vanliga omgivning innebär som regel en högre grad av efterfrågan på tjänster och produkter i termer av transporter, förtäring, boende och kunskap om platsen man besöker. I detta kapitel försöker vi svara på frågan om när friluftsliv blir naturturism men också resonera kring förutsättningar för och konsekvenser av detta med utgångspunkt från en platsbunden allmänt tillgänglig naturresurs. Det geografiska perspektivet ger också upphov till resonemang om regional tillväxt, planering, destinationsutveckling och vinnare och förlorare i geografin, samt är grogrund för en diskussion om när naturturismen blir lönsam lokalt, regionalt och nationellt. Ett framåtblickande perspektiv på naturturismen i Sverige diskuteras utifrån klimatförändring, resursutnyttjande och lokalt turistande. Huvudfrågan som diskuteras i detta kapitel är följaktligen vilka konsekvenserna blir när friluftsliv blir naturturism. Utifrån denna problemformulering kan ett antal mer specifika frågor urskiljas: När blir friluftsliv naturturism? Vilka konsekvenser för planering och investeringar har det att friluftsutövare blir turister? Hur skiljer sig möjligheterna för turism i olika geografiska områden och vilka trender är viktiga för framtida turismutveckling?

  • 23.
    Müller, D. K.
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Dynamic development or destined to decline?: The case of arctic tourism businesses and local labour markets in Jokkmokk, Sweden2014Ingår i: Tourism Destination Development: turns and tactics / [ed] Viken, A; Granås, B, Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2014, s. 227-244Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Wall Reinius, Sandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Emerging sustainable tourism development in the arctic gateway of Jokkmokk, Sweden?2014Ingår i: International Polar Tourism Research Network IPTRN, 2014: Polar Tourism Gateways: Past, Present and Future, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Brouder, Patrick
    School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Business Advice Strategies of Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Sweden2015Ingår i: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 98-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there are any significant differences between native Swedish and immigrant entrepreneurs in business advice sought at start-up.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study, based on a unique and large database consisting of 304 immigrant and 2,512 native-owned firms, applies several univariate and multivariate statistical methods including ANOVA and regression analysis.

    Findings – According to the results there are certain similarities and differences between Swedish native- and immigrant-owned firms concerning the type of external business advice they seek. The results suggest there are significant differences between native and immigrant-owned firms for four of 20 types of advice received. Native-owned firms, on average, tend to seek more advice on accounting and on the choice of business form as well as the help of a knowledgeable person. On the other hand, immigrants seek, on average, more advice on export questions than their native counterparts.

    Research limitations/implications – This research contributes to policy-making by helping authorities gain a better understanding of the impact of immigrant background on business network decisions at the nascent stage of development. Immigrant access to good advice in the nascent stage should increase new firm survival. This study does not, however, measure performance. As this research is based on aggregate level secondary data, more specific analysis has been impossible. This is an important limitation of this paper. In addition, immigrants are not homogenous groups and they differ in age, education, work experiences, etc. The results should therefore be interpreted carefully.

    Originality/value – This paper is one of the first and few empirical studies investigating the issue of immigrant business advice strategies in the Swedish context. The study provides a detailed overview of how ethnicity influences entrepreneurs’ use of external business advice in the firm formation stage for micro and small firms.

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