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  • 1.
    Arnesson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Coach Succession and Team Performance: The Impact of Ability and Timing -- Swedish Ice Hockey Data2009In: Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, ISSN 1559-0410, Vol. 5, no 1, p. Article 2-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify a function for the team performance for professional ice hockey teams in Sweden. In order to understand how team performance relates to key variables such as coaching ability and coaching experience and succession, the OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) and the more robust quantile regression techniques are used to estimate team performance for the ice hockey teams. Quarterly data for the period 1975-2006 is used for this purpose. The results have shown that coaching ability has a rather significant positive effect on team performance, and that managerial succession during the season is found to have a rather significant negative effect on team performance. The results also indicate a strong correlation between coaching ability and team performance. Moreover, the quantile regression approach provided a better understanding regarding the dynamics of the factors that affect performance and provided more interesting results than the OLS normally does.

  • 2.
    Kronenberg, Kai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Economic Effects of Advertising: A Swedish Destination Study of International Tourists2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Kronenberg, Kai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Höpken, Wolfram
    Business Informatics Group, University of Applied Sciences Ravensburg-Weingarten, Doggenried Str., DE-88250 Weingarten, Germany .
    Economic effects of advertising expenditures – a Swedish destination study of international tourists2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 352-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates the effects of advertising on internationaltourism demand for the leading Swedish mountain destination Åre. In contrast to previous studies, which primarily focus ontourism demand at a national or sectorial level, this research isconducted at the destination level. The study considers pricelevels at tourism destinations and tourists’ income asdeterminants for tourism demand. However, following advertisingtheories and previous research, the dominance of the marketpower function (i.e. product differentiation) and the informationfunction (i.e. market transparency) are identified as major codeterminantsfor international tourism demand. Demand elasticitycoefficients are empirically estimated for the origin countriesNorway, Finland, the Russian Federation, Denmark and the UK.Findings show that advertising is a significant driver of tourismdemand from Norway, the UK and Russia. Interestingly, incomeand tourism price levels are less significant drivers of demand inall analysed origin markets.

  • 4.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Testing the Causal Nexus between output and unemployment: Swedish data2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 29-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we aim at testing for the Granger causality test between real GDP and unemployment in Sweden. We model a VAR (4) model on Swedish two macro-economic variables, namely, the gross domestic product (GDP) and unemployment (Un) for the period 1993:Q1 – 2011:Q2. Our main aim is to supporting further empirical evidence so as to identify the relationship between the GDP and unemployment in terms of females, males and total unemployment, with special reference to Sweden. A Granger causality test is used. The test shows that it is the GDP Granger that causes unemployment but not the other way around. An econometric model is deployed and developed on the basis of Okun’s Law. Total unemployment, male unemployment and female unemployment coefficients of the relationship between the GDP and unemployment coefficients are diverted from Okun’s coefficient and they are found to be approximately 8 per cent and statistically significant for Sweden. This stayed almost steady over time. This result also has important implications for determining macroeconomic policy.

  • 5.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Zampatti, Davide
    Faculty of Economics, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Assessing Risk Factors Of Business Failure In The Manufacturing Sector: A Count Data Approach From Sweden2015In: International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, ISSN 2348-0386, Vol. III, no 9, p. 42-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The paper investigates risk factors of business failure of small-sized manufacturing firms in Sweden. Traditionally, linear models are applied to estimate the influence of risk factors on business failure by using continuous data. By contrast, in this study a count data approach is employed to deduce consistent Poisson, Quasi-Poisson, and Negative-Binomial estimators by using bankruptcy count data of small-sized Swedish manufacturing firms. Findings confirm that interest and exchange rates are significant determinants of business failure. Moreover, we found that openness is a determinant of business success. Our main finding highlights the role of business productivity, which turned out to be the main risk factor of business failure.

  • 6.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Investigating Causal Relations between the GDP Cycle and Unemployment: Data from Finland2014In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 118-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between two macroeconomic variables, the gross domestic product (GDP) cycle and unemployment, in Finland. This has been done using the vector autoregressive (VAR) model for the period Q1 1995 to Q2 2011. The goal of this study is to gather further evidence for the relationship between the GDP cycle and total, male and female unemployment individually, with special reference to Finland which is a member state of the EU, and has been part of European monetary union, since 1995. The relationship has been investigated using the Granger-causality test in accordance with Okun's (1962) formula. The empirical facts mostly indicate the existence of a uni-directional causal relationship from the GDP cycle to unemployment. This pattern is not found to be significant when using the model for unemployment in women however. The coefficients of unemployment, total, male and female, are abstracted from the Okun's coefficient and found to be around -4 per cent total, male and female unemployment individually, -5 per cent and -1 per cent respectively. These results also have important implications for determining macroeconomic and labor-market policy.

  • 7.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Department of Economics and Statistics Linnaeus University, Department of Economics and Statistics Jönköping University Sweden.
    Purchasing Power Parity Theory Determinants –A Swedish Destination Study of International Tourists: A Count Data Approach2015In: American International Journal of Social Science, ISSN 2325-4149, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 294-316, article id AIJSSArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    This paper employs the time-series negative binomial regression model (TNBM) to test the hypothesis effects of purchasing power parity (PPP) theory on the counts data of visitors to the north-west of  Sweden (SW6 region).  We consider a sample of monthly time-series count data from 1993:01 to 2008:12 taken from five countries: Denmark, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Japan and the United States. For each visiting country, we specify separate equations by including the relative available information. We then estimate these equations using the time - series negative binomial model (TNBM). The benefit of this model is that it is much more flexible and therefore likely to fit better (if the data is not Poisson distributed) and hence is more efficient than single-equation estimation methods such as least squares. We found that the number of visitors to Sweden is negatively related to the absolute PPP and relative PPP. This result is in accordance with macroeconomic theory and the PPP theory. The results also show that some lagged dependent variables, and several monthly dummies (representing seasonal effects), have a significant impact on the number of visitors to north-west Sweden. We also find that, in at least some cases, absolute PPP, relative PPP and relative price have significant effects on international tourism demand.

  • 8.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    von Bergman-Winberg, Marie-Louise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Estimating domestic international tourism demand in the objective 6 region in Sweden:: A time seires analysis2004Book (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Profitability in Swedish Micro-Firms: a quantile regression approach2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify a function for the profitability of Swedish micro firms in the sectors of health, transport, trade and metal. In order to understand how micro firms relate to key variables, such as firm size, growth of sales, productivities, lagged profits, asset turnover and firm’s age, OLS (Ordinary Least Squares), and the more robust quantile regression techniques, are used to estimate micro-firm profitability. Data from 2007 is used for this purpose. The results show that growth (competitive condition) and total factor productivity (comparative advantage) have a significant positive effect on micro-firm profitability, and that size (diminishing returns states) is found to have a rather significant negative effect on micro-firm profitability. The results also indicate a strong relationship between microeconomic theory suggestions and micro-firm profitability for the all micro firms except those in the metal sector. Moreover, the quantile regression approach provided a better understanding, regarding the dynamics of the factors that affect profitability, and provided more interesting results than OLS normally do.

  • 10.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Zampatti, Davide
    University of Brescia- Italy.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Department of Economics , Finance, Statistics and Informatics- Jönköping University .
    Macroeconomic Determinants, Innovation and the Birth of New Firms: Negative Binomial Regression Approach: Negative Binomial Regression Approach2013In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Abstract

    This paper employs the random-effects negative binomial regression model (RENBM) to test the relationship between macroeconomic factors and the birth of new firms. The test is across countries and uses count data. We consider a sample of 135 panel-data observations, taken from 27 countries in the European Union (EU) during the period 2004 to 2008. We found that the birth of new firms is positively related to the growth of gross domestic product (GDP), inflation and openness, and is negatively related to unemployment. This result is in accordance with macroeconomic theory. The results also show that expenditure on research and development (R&D) has a significant positive effect on the number of new firms. This result further supports the hypothesis of new economic growth theory. Moreover, the empirical evidence shows a positive correlation between the number of new businesses and ethnic heterogeneity. 

  • 11.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    A Macroeconomics Model & Stabilization Policies for OPEC countries: With Special Reference to the Iraqi Economy1999Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on the macroeconomics issues which directly affect OPEC countries, this work sets them in the context of the overall development effort. Theoretical and empirical aspects in macroeconomics are integrated with institutional issues and policy questions. The analysis is illustrated through examples to show how the theories relate to the real world, especially to ongoing debates on developing economies as well as debates that encompass both developing and OPEC, and developed countries.

  • 12.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    An Introduction to the Mathematical Economics1991Book (Other scientific)
  • 13.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Estimating tourism demands through cointegration analysis model: Swedish Data.2003In: Current Issues in Tourism Journal, ISSN 1368-3500, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 323-339Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Using the SUR model of tourism demand for neighbouring Regions in Sweden and Norway2011In: Advance in Econometrics; Theory and Applications book, I / [ed] INTECH Open, Editor: Miroslav Verbic, Croatia: InTech, 2011, 1, p. 97-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Coach succession and team performance; the impact of ability and timing: Swedish ice hockey data2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify a function for the team performance for professional ice hockey teams in Sweden. In order to understand how team performance relates to key variables such as coaching ability and coaching experience and succession, the OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) and the more robust quantile regression techniques were used to estimate the team performance for the ice hockey teams. Quarterly data for the period 1975-2006 is used for this purpose. The results have shown that coaching ability has a rather significant positive effect on team performance, and they have also shown that managerial succession during the season is found to have a rather significant negative effect on team performance. We also found a strong correlation between coaching ability and team performance. Moreover, the quantile regression approach provided a better understanding regarding the dynamics of the factors that affect performance and provided more interesting results than the OLS normally does.

  • 16.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sörensson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Estimating the Swedish and Norwegian international tourism demandusing (ISUR) technique2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the demand for tourism to Sweden and Norway for five countries:

    Denmark, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Japan, and the United States. For each visiting

    country, and for Sweden and Norway, we specify separate equations by including relative

    information. We then estimate these equations using Zellner’s Iterative Seemingly Unrelated

    Regressions (ISUR). The benefit of this model is that the ISUR estimators utilize the

    information present in the error correlation of the cross regressions (or equations) and hence are

    more efficient than single equation estimation methods such as ordinary least squares. Monthly

    time series data from 1993:01 to 2006:12 are used. The results show that the consumer price

    index, some lagged dependent variables, and several monthly dummies (representing seasonal

    effects) have a significant impact on the number of visitors to the SW6 region in Sweden and

    Tröndelag in Norway. We also find that, in at least some cases, relative prices and exchange

    rates have a significant effect on international tourism demand.

  • 17.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sörensson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Shukur, G
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Jönköping University, Centre of Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), Linnaeus University, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Estimating international tourism demand for selected regions in Sweden and Norway with iterative seemingly unrelated regressions (ISUR)2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 395-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the demand for tourism to Sweden and Norway from five countries: Denmark, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Japan, and the United States. For each visiting country, and for selected regions in Sweden and Norway, we specify separate equations by including relative information. We then estimate these equations using Zellner's Iterative Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (ISUR). The benefit of this model is that the ISUR estimators utilize the information present in the error correlation of the cross regressions (or equations) and hence are more efficient than single equation estimation methods such as ordinary least squares. Monthly time series data from January 1993 to December 2006 are used. The results show that the consumer price index, some lagged dependent variables, and several monthly dummies (representing seasonal effects) have a significant impact on the number of visitors to the SW6 region in Sweden and Tröndelag in Norway. We also find that, in at least some cases, relative prices and exchange rates have a significant effect on international tourism demand.

  • 18.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Testing for Granger Causuality between Industrial output and CPI in the presence of Regime shift: Swedish Data2004In: Journal of Economic Studies, ISSN 0144-3585, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 492-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on the Granger casuality test in the presence of regime shift. We apply a vector autoregressive (4) model on Swedish series of industrial output and consumer price index for the period 1980:1 - 1998:6. To test for casuality, three different test methods namely the single equation Likelihood Ration test, the systemwise Rao's F-test and the Bootstrap test, have been used in this study. We show that when the assumption of parameter constancy is violated, due to the occurrence of the structural changes, Granger casuality tests can provide misleading inference about the underlining relationship of casuality.

  • 19.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    von Bergmann-Winberg, Marie-Louise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Comparison of Econometric Modelling of Demand for Domestic and International Tourism: Swedish Data2007In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 323-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify functions for the domestic and international demand for tourism in the objective 6 region in Sweden (SW:6), in order to understand how tourism demand relates to the key macroeconomic variables and other variables such as real income, nominal and real exchange rate, price level and the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. An econometrics model is used to estimate the domestic tourism demand in SW:6. Monthly data for the period 1980–1998 are used. The results do not indicate any statistically significant effect of income, exchange rate or the Chernobyl nuclear disaster on the domestic tourism demand. Meanwhile, the consumer price index (CPI) and weather condition variables are found to have a rather significant effect on the domestic tourism demand. In this paper we also use a cointegration analysis to estimate the long-term relationship between monthly flows to SW:6 from the USA, the UK, Germany, Finland, Norway and Denmark, and factors such as income, CPI and exchange rate that influence arrivals. Monthly time series data for the period 1980–1998 are also used for this purpose. The estimated model does not indicate any statistically significant effect of the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the Gulf war on international tourism demand; on the other hand, significant effects of income, exchange rate and CPI on international tourism demand are found. The estimation and diagnostic testing strategy supports the specification of both models. When comparing these two parts of the study, regarding the domestic demand for tourism, we found the CPI, lags of the dependent variable and several of the monthly dummy variables that stand for the seasonal effects, to have significant effects on the number of visitors. On the other hand, we find income, exchange and CPI have a great influence on international tourism demand.

  • 20.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    von Bergmann-Winberg, Marie-Louise
    Modelling the Tourism Domestic Demand to the Area No. 6 in Sweden.: the 11th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research conference2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Macroeconomic Factors and Swedish Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firm Failure2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper employs a time series cointegration approach to evaluate the relationship between manufacturing firm failure and macroeconomic factors for the Swedish manufacturing sector in the period 1986 – 2006. It uses quarterly data for this period. We found that in long run a firms’ failure is negatively related to the level of industrial activity, money supply, GNP and economic openness rate, and positively related to the real wage. Time series Error Correction Model (ECM) estimates suggest that macroeconomics risk factor impinge on firm failure on the sam direction in both the short run and the long run that adjustment to stabililise the relationship is quite slow.

  • 22.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University.
    The Determinants of Failure of Small Manufacturing Firms: Assessing the Macroeconomic Factors2011In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Life Cycle of Growth Path among Micro Firms: Swedish Data2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether the implications of the life cycle model hold on the growth path of a sample of Swedish micro firms. The study is based on a sample containing 22001 Swedish micro firms across six industries for the year 2007. Several methods are used to analyse the impact of the life stage and two control variables, size and industry, to analyse the impact on firm growth. The empirical results of the study confirm a clear pattern of the growth life-cycle process among Swedish micro firms. Young micro firms, generally, grow on average more than their older counterparts and as they age and develop, their growth rate decreases. Additionally, firm growth among firms of different sizes and in various industries still follows the general pattern of the total sample. Thus, it appears from the results that the growth rate of Swedish micro firms included in the sample follows a systematic and predictable pattern associated mainly with the life stage.

  • 24.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Life Cycle of profitability among Swedish micro firms2013In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 340-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the profitability life cycle among Swedish micro firms. The study sample contains 22,710 micro firms across six industries for which complete financial information is available for the year (2007, giving a total of 68,130 observations. The results of the empirical study indicate that the firm profitability changes systematically over its life cycle stages. The profitability is high in the first life cycle stage, and as firms age and develop, it decreases. The change of firm profitability in different industries over their life cycles follows the general pattern of the total sample. Empirical tests provide support for two additional predictions of the life cycle model: specifically, that firm size influences profitability, and that the industry affiliation has a more pronounced effect on firms’ profitability than the variables size and life cycle stage. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the life cycle model to explain the profitability development pattern.

  • 25.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level: Swedish micro firm data2012In: International journal of economics and finance, ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 4, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses job-creation determinants at the firm level for a panel of Swedish micro firms across four industry sectors, using the GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) system to analyse a database consisting of 12532 Swedish micro firms during 2007. It was found that the firms’ size and age, the importance of debt financing and increased availability of liquidity are positively related to job creation as well as industry affiliation. Finally, the results suggest that a resource-based approach is at work in explaining job creation in micro firms. Unlike the majority of previous studies, this study is characterized by being based on a large and cross-sectoral firm-level dataset, testing a number of hypotheses driven from the resource-based approach. The present study contributes to the literature on the determinants of employment at the firm level as it investigates the importance of liquidity and financial leverage to firm labour demand dynamics in Sweden.

  • 26.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level Swedish Micro Firm Data2012In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the profitability life cycle among Swedish micro firms. The study sample contains 22,710 micro firms across six industries for which complete financial information is available for the year 2007, giving a total of 68,130 observations. The results of the empirical study indicate that the firm profitability changes systematically over its life cycle stages. The profitability is high in the first life cycle stage, and as firms age and develop, it decreases. The change of firm profitability in different industries over their life cycles follows the general pattern of the total sample. Empirical tests provide support for two additional predictions of the life cycle model: specifically, that firm size influences profitability, and that the industry affiliation has a more pronounced effect on firms’ profitability than the variables size and life cycle stage. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the life cycle model to explain the profitability development pattern.

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