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  • 1. Ekehammar, B
    et al.
    Akrami, N
    Gylje, M
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    What matters most to prejudice: Big Five Personality, Social Dominance Orientation, or Right-Wing Authoritarianism?2004In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 463-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas previous research has studied the relation of either (i) personality with prejudice, (ii) personality with social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), or (iii) SDO and RWA with prejudice, the present research integrates all approaches within the same model. In our study (N = 183), various causal models of the relationships among the Big Five, SDO, RWA, and Generalized Prejudice are proposed and tested. Generalized Prejudice scores were obtained from a factor analysis of the scores on various prejudice instruments (racism, sexism, prejudice toward homosexuals, and mentally disabled people), which yielded a one-factor solution. The best-fitting causal model, which was our suggested hypothetical model, showed that Big Five personality had no direct effect on Generalized Prejudice but an indirect effect transmitted through RWA and SDO, where RWA seems to capture personality aspects to a greater extent than SDO. Specifically, Generalized Prejudice was affected indirectly by Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness through RWA, and by Agreeableness through SDO, whereas Neuroticism had no effect at all. The results are discussed against the background of previous research and the personality and social psychology approaches to the study of prejudice.

  • 2.
    Jonsson, Gun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Roempke, Stina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Att undvika oligarki i teori och praktik.2003In: Kooperation,ideellt arbete & lokal ekonomisk utveckling, Stockholm: Fören. Kooperativa studier , 2003, p. 43-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Jonsson, Gun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Roempke, Stina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Democratic dilemmas in voluntary organizations.: Paper presented at the 9th International Social Justice Conference, Skövde, June 17-20, 2002.2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Jonsson, Gun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Roempke, Stina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The political language - a threat to the democratic organization?: Paper presented at the ISPP 25th conference in Berlin, Germany, July 16-19, 2002.2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Jonsson, Gun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Organizational dilemmas in voluntary associations.2005In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265, Vol. 28, no 9/10, p. 849-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robert Michels stated that all democratic organizations sooner or later end up as ruled by the few. But are there certain dilemmas forcing organizations more or less easily into the oligarchic path? In the interview material from six small voluntary associations such dilemmas were identified. Dilemmas seemed to arise regarding representativeness and competence among leaders, handling of external forces, interpretation of goals, and maintaining commitment. Some of the dilemmas were implicit, some were more explicitly acknowledged. It is concluded that the “iron law of oligarchy” is avoidable, if the organization becomes aware of these dilemmas.

  • 6.
    Jonsson, Gun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Organizational dilemmas in voluntary associations.: Paper presented at the EGPA annual conference in Lisbon, Portugal, September 3-6, 2003.2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Löfstrand, Pär
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Competitive Versus Non-Competitive Goals in Group Decision-Making2014In: Small Group Research, ISSN 1046-4964, E-ISSN 1552-8278, ISSN 1046-4964, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 451-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents results from a group decision task in which groups were assigned either a competitive or a non-competitive goal. A total of 20 groups were tasked with putting together a relay team either with the goal to maximize the chance to win or with the goal to maximize the sense of community. Interaction process analysis revealed that there were more positive reactions in groups with the non-competitive goal. Analysis of the content of the conversations showed all groups to go beyond information given about the target persons. Attributes associated with the stereotype dimensions of competence and warmth were used to characterize the persons who were to be included or excluded on the relay teams. Groups with a competitive goal applied both positive and negative attributes, whereas groups with a non-competitive goal applied only positive attributes. The results suggest that stereotypes are applied to legitimize decisions about inclusion and exclusion.

  • 8.
    Löfstrand, Pär
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "What about the child issue?" Group negotiations of gender and parenthood contracts in recruitment situations2017In: SOCIETY HEALTH & VULNERABILITY, ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, no Sup 1, p. 1-12, article id UNSP 1317566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Men and women becoming parents are supposed to have equal opportunities in working life. However, inequality and discrimination are not easily avoided. The aim of this study was to investigate how argumentation related to parenthood and careers takes form in group discussions of a fictional recruitment situation, and how stereotypes such as competence and warmth are manifested in such discussions. Thirty-five ad-hoc groups of university students were asked to make a choice between three candidates for a consultancy position. The first two candidates were a man and a woman, while the third alternately was described either as a man or a woman described as having a newborn child. Parenthood was sometimes seen as reducing competence, but it was more often viewed as adding to competence. Parenthood was also considered to add warmth to the organization. Interestingly, all groups avoided relating the parenthood issue to gender. Three conversation patterns were found, differing in the amount of elaboration of the topic of parenthood and work. It was concluded that the most elaborated kind seems to foster a situation where implicit norms are made visible more easily.

  • 9.
    Löfstrand, Pär
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zipsanse, H
    Bäckström, M
    Does role-playing the situation of a refugee affect racism: Paper presented at International Society fo Political Psychology conference, Barcelona, July 2006.2006Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 10.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Robert
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tracking tourists: Mobility, experiences and the supply-demand gap in a Swedish mountain resort2011In: Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, ISSN 1757-031X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on method development in the areas of visitor and experience tracking. It is about understanding experiences in a time-spatial framework made up by visits to a particular destination. These issues were identified as central for destination stakeholders in their attempts at meeting or exceeding visitor expectations at their destination. Development of methods here thus aims at supporting producers in generating such knowledge. The approach that emerged was to track and measure tourism experiences with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, follow-up surveys and in-depth interviews. The empirical findings are from a case study of the Swedish mountain resort Åre during the summer of 2008. Results in general partly confirmed what key destination stakeholders intuitively thought of different aspects of the destination, but also brought out new knowledge which seems to have implications for the preparations for coming seasons. These include the realization of the destination‟s unique qualities for "the comfort-seeking nature based tourist" and insights about visitor movements in time and space. On the basis of the latter, three new tourist typologies emerged as potential target groups; the excursion, activity, and village families.

  • 11.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Big Five Inventory (BFI): Utprövning för svenska förhållanden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Big Five Inventory (BFI) är ett test bestående av 44 påståenden avsett att mäta de fem grundläggande personlighetsdimensionerna Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism och Openness (John & Srivastava, 1999). Testet har utformats främst för forskningsändamål men någon systematisk utprövning för svenska förhållanden har inte gjorts. Enkäter distribuerades till fem olika undersökningsgrupper med varierande bakgrund (n=431, 45% män och 55% kvinnor), i ålder varierande från 18 till 80 år. Testet analyserades i relation till demografiska variabler, samt arbetslivsrelaterade faktorer såsom arbetsmotiv, intressen, yrkes- och utbildningsval, samt attityder och fördomar. Resultaten visade på en god reliabilitet (Cronbach’s alpha-koefficienter varierande mellan .73 och .84), en tydlig faktorstruktur samt låga till måttliga korrelationer mellan dimensionerna. De fem personlighetsdimensionernas samband med de arbetslivsrelaterade faktorerna var i allmänhet i förväntad riktning. Särskilt tydligt var detta för dimensionen Openness. Inte i något fall visade resultaten samband som gick i motsatt riktning mot vad som förväntades. Slutsatsen är att BFI är ett tillförlitligt test som fungerar väl att användas främst i forsknings- och utbildningssyfte.

  • 12.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Construction of a short version of the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) scale2005In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 863-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an attempt to develop a short (15 item) version of the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) scale (Altemeyer, 1998). Participants were three samples of high school and university students (1750 years old). The scale developed had items that were shorter, with less extreme wording, and less reference to specific groups (e.g., women, homosexuals), i.e., relating to attitudes to be predicted from RWA, rather than being part of the RWA concept itself. The scale displayed reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha) varying between 0.72 and 0.80 in the three samples. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the short RWA scale substantially contributed to the variance in ethnic tolerance, racism, and sexism (when controlling for social dominance orientation). It was discussed that this version of the RWA scale presumably taps a somewhat narrower authoritarianism concept, but still functions as predicted from theory and earlier research. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Engagement in voluntary associations and socio-political attitudes and behavior: A tentative test of the causal direction: Paper presented at ISSID conference, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, July 18-22.2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Finns det skillnader i medborgarkultur i Sverige? 2001In: Kooperation, socialt kapital och medborgerliga insatser, Stockholm: Fören. Kooperativa studier , 2001, p. 143-171Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 15.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Gender differences in Social Dominance Orientation: Gender invariance may be situation invariance2008In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 59, no 3-4, p. 254-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies of gender differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) have investigated settings more or less hierarchy-enhancing. The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in SDO (1) within social structures varying in equality-enhancement, i.e., communities differing in political equality between men and women, and (2) settings where equality was maximized and held constant, i.e., democratic, voluntary associations, but varying in gender composition, using survey data from a random sample of 831 Swedish adults (median age = 47 years). There was a significant interaction effect between gender and membership in voluntary associations dominated by women, with men and women displaying equally low levels of SDO. In all other instances the main effect of gender remained statistically significant.

  • 16.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kön och makt: Relationen mellan sociala strukturer, kön och identitet2007In: Genusmaraton 2007: Mittsveriges genusforskare på frammarsch, Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2007, p. 63-68Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sex differences in Social Dominance Orientation: Is male dominance inevitable?: ISPP 27th annual meeting, Lund, Sweden, 14-18 July, 20042004Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 18.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Anderzén, Marie
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lenell, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sandelin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ambivalent sexism: A tool for understanding and improving gender relations in organizations2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested predictions regarding ambivalent sexism, previously studied cross-culturally, here ‘‘within-culturally’’, between groups from different organizational settings. Based on three samples (334 adults in general, 744 industrial employees, and 189 high school students), completing a Swedish version of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the results revealed that men scored higher on hostile and benevolent sexism than women, and high school students scored higher than both adult samples on both forms of sexism. The results generally confirmed the predictions; the gender gap in benevolent sexism decreased as a function of increasing levels of general sexism and the correlation between hostile and benevolent sexism decreased with higher levels of general sexism. In fact, the groups scoring highest on general sexism displayed significant negative correlations indicating a polarized ideology of women among these groups. Implications, both theoretical and practical, derived from these results are discussed.

  • 19.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Löfstrand, Pär
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tolerance, SDO, RWA, and perceived upbringing in Sweden: Paper presented at the ISPP 25th conference in Berlin, Germany, July 16-19, 2002.2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 20.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Löfstrand, Pär
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vem får vara med och vem bestämmer?: Om exklusion och inklusion i idrottsföreningars beslutsfattande2010In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 2, p. 40-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tanken är att idrott ska vara till för alla, av alla. Idrotten fyller också andra funktioner än enbart bollsparkande och skidåkande, särskilt utanför städerna. Vi kommer i denna artikel att presentera resultat från två olika studier. I den första behandlas frågan om hur styrelserna i några mindre idrottsföreningar hanterar dilemman mellan olika intressen. Är det så att alla får vara med eller finns intressen och grupper som exkluderas? Den andra studien handlar om hur dessa dilemman hanteras i beslutande organ om förutsättningarna systematiskt varieras, i fråga om hur målet för verksamheten definieras och ifråga om hur könssammansättning ser ut. Studierna har finansierats med medel från CIF och EU:s strukturfonder (Mål 1).

  • 21.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Skoglund, Wilhelm
    Jämtland läns institut för landsbygdsutveckling.
    Jonsson, Gun
    Naturvårdsverket.
    Löfstrand, Pär
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Idrottens roll i lokal samhällsutveckling: bortom Real Madrid och storstädernas mångfald2008Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Emotions in motion: Tourists' experiences in time and space2012In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 505-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology enables the study of tourists’ activities and movement patterns in real time. But what does this information tell us about tourists’ subjective experiences? The present paper accounts for the results from four case studies: two event studies and two destination studies. Two of these took place in the wintertime, and two in the summertime. Visitors carried a GPS device for one day, after which they answered a brief questionnaire. A total of 241 visitors participated in the study. Based on cluster analyses of distance measures calculated from the GPS data, several movement patterns were revealed. Three of these, labelled Main attraction visitors, Wanderers, and Specialists, emerged in all four cases. The reported experiences differed between the clusters, especially concerning negative experiences. In the destination studies, the clusters differed with regard to what was considered a negative experience, while in the event studies, the clusters differed with regard to how the tourists responded emotionally to their experiences. The authors conclude that GPS technology is a promising tool for tourism research but that, if one is to gain a full understanding of tourists’ experiences and mobility, it ought to be combined with other methods.

  • 23.
    Zillinger, Malin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography. Lund University.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does method matter?: Understanding experience data collected through different mobile techniques2017In: E-review of Tourism Research, ISSN 1941-5842, E-ISSN 1941-5842, Vol. 14, no 3/4, p. 149-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on the influence of methods on research outcomes is scarce within experience studies. In this study, GPS devices were compared to smartphones to collect experience data in theme parks. Departing from the relevance of epistemology, it was assumed that the choice of method influences the results. We show that data collection modalities themselves influence empirical results when it comes to the number of reported experiences and their level of conveyed detail. The reported categories however are similar among the methods. We can also show that, and in which way, method choice influences the outcome of studies related to experiences.

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