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  • 1.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Forens Psychiat Ctr, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Forens Psychiat Ctr, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Storey, Jennifer E.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Gibas, Andrea L
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Kropp, P Randall
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Hart, Stephen D
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Assessment and management of risk for intimate partner violence by police officers using the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide2012In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 60-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a crime that is present in all countries, seriously impacts victims, and demands a great deal of time and resources from the criminal justice system. The current study examined the use of the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, 2nd ed. (SARA; Kropp, Hart, Webster, & Eaves, 1995), a structured professional judgment risk assessment and management tool for IPV, by police officers in Sweden over a follow-up of 18 months. SARA risk assessments had significant predictive validity with respect to risk management recommendations made by police, as well as with recidivism as indexed by subsequent contacts with police. Risk management mediated the association between risk assessment and recidivism: High levels of intervention were associated with decreased recidivism in high risk cases, but with increased recidivism in low risk cases. The findings support the potential utility of police-based risk assessment and management of IPV, and in particular the belief that appropriately structured risk assessment and management decisions can prevent violence.

  • 2. Hart, S. D.
    et al.
    Storey, Jennifer
    SImon Fraser University, Canada.
    Forensic and clinical issues in the assessment of psychopathy2012In: Handbook of psychology, Vol. 11: Forensic psychology / [ed] R. K. Otto & I. B. Weiner, Hoboken, N, J,: John Wiley & Sons, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Kropp, P.R.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada .
    Hart, S.D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada .
    Lyon, D.R.
    Department of Criminology, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey, BC, Canada .
    Storey, Jennifer E.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
    The development and validation of the guidelines for stalking assessment and management2011In: Behavioral Sciences and the Law, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 302-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International research has established that stalking is a prevalent problem with serious and often life-threatening consequences for victims. Stalking is also a unique form of violence due to its nature and diversity, making it difficult for criminal justice and health professionals to establish which perpetrators and victims have the greatest need for services and protection. Risk assessment is one way to address these problems but few tools exist. This article describes the development of the Guidelines for Stalking Assessment and Management (SAM), the first risk assessment instrument designed specifically for the stalking situation. Preliminary data are presented, indicating that the SAM has promise for use by professionals working with stalkers and their victims. Results indicated that interrater reliabilities for the SAM risk factors and total scores range from fair to good, and the structural reliability of the SAM is sound. Moreover, the SAM showed good concurrent validity when compared with two other measures of violence propensity: the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV) and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG). Limitations of the study are discussed, especially those related to the difficulties inherent in file-based research, and suggestions for future research are offered. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 4.
    Slaney, Kathleen
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University , Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
    Storey, Jennifer
    Department of Psychology , Simon Fraser University , Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
    Barnes, Jordan
    Simon Fraser University , Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
    Is My Test Valid? Guidelines for the Practicing Psychologist for Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of Measures2011In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1499-9013, E-ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 261-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general logic for data-based test evaluation based on Slaney and Maraun's (2008) framework is described. On the basis of this framework and other well-known test theoretic results, a set of guidelines is proposed to aid researchers in the assessment of the psychometric properties of the measures they use in their research. The guidelines are organized into eight areas and range from general recommendations, pertaining to understanding different psychometric properties of quantitative measures and at what point in a test evaluation their respective assessments should occur, to clarifications of core psychometric concepts such as factor structure, reliability, coefficient alpha, and dimensionality. Finally, an illustrative example is provided with a data-based test evaluation of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 1991) as a measure of psychopathic personality disorder in a sample of 384 male offenders serving sentences in a Canadian correctional facility.

  • 5.
    Slaney, Kathleen
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby , British Columbia, Canada.
    Storey, Jennifer
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby , British Columbia, Canada.
    Barnes, Jordan
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby , British Columbia, Canada.
    When “Good Enough” Is Just Not Good Enough: Response to Holden and Marjanovic2011In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1499-9013, E-ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 290-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we respond to a commentary by Holden and Marjanovic (this issue) on Slaney, Storey, and Barnes’ article “‘Is My Test Valid?’: Guidelines for the Practicing Psychologist for Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of Measures” (this issue). Specifically, we reply to Holden and Marjanovic's claims that our guidelines: endorse a “construct approach” to test evaluation and development, rely too heavily on modern test theoretic methods and as such are too mathematically and technically intractable to be practically useful, and may present too unrealistic a challenge to be used in test development and the evaluation of well-established measures. Finally, we attempt to clarify the major themes that the guidelines described in Slaney, Storey, and Barnes were intended to convey.

  • 6.
    Storey, J.E.a
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada .
    Gibas, A.L.a
    Reeves, K.A.a
    Hart, S.D.b
    Evaluation of a violence risk (threat) assessment training program for police and other criminal justice professionals2011In: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 554-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a great deal of research has focused on the development and validation of violence risk (threat) assessment instruments, few studies have examined whether professionals can be trained to use these instruments. The present study evaluated the impact of a violence risk assessment training program on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of 73 criminal justice professionals, including police officers, civilian support staff, and prosecutors. The program covered principles of violence risk assessment, the nature of mental disorder and its association with violence risk, and the use of various structured professional judgment (SPJ) risk assessment instruments. Comparisons of pre- and post-training evaluations indicated significant improvements on measures of knowledge about risk assessment, skills in the analysis of risk in a case vignette, and perceived confidence in conducting violence risk assessments. Findings support the utility of risk assessment training for criminal justice professionals and the utility of SPJ violence risk assessment instruments generally. © 2011 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.

  • 7.
    Storey, Jennifer E.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser University.
    Commentary on DeClue and Zavodny (2014). 2014In: Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, ISSN 2169-4842, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 185-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. This commentary focuses on the paper by DeClue and Zavodny (2014, pp. 145–161) in this issue of the Journal of Threat Assessment and Management. In their series of papers (DeClue, 2013; DeClue & Campbell, 2013; DeClue & Zavodny, 2013), the authors identify six questions commonly encountered by evaluators using Static 99R. The questions relate to the method by which risk estimates are obtained and the reporting of those estimates. In the present study, DeClue and Zavodny (2014) provide clear answers for each of the questions raised and guidelines for evaluators on how to proceed with and present their assessments. In addition to providing this information, their paper raises several important issues that will be discussed herein, including a) the need for similar guidelines for other violence risk assessment instruments, b) the need for research on the use of violence risk assessment instruments in practice, c) the need for research on the communication of violence risk, and d) the selection of violence risk assessment instruments for use in practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
  • 8.
    Storey, Jennifer E.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hurting the Healers: Stalking and Stalking-Related Behavior Perpetrated Against Counselors2016In: Professional psychology, research and practice, ISSN 0735-7028, E-ISSN 1939-1323, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased risk of stalking faced by mental health professionals (MHPs) raises many important questions for practitioners. For instance, what factors place MHPs at greater risk of being stalked, and what perceptions do MHPs have about stalking? The present study investigates these and other understudied questions pertaining to stalking and stalking-related behavior perpetrated toward MHPs in the context of their work, by surveying a sample of 346 registered clinical counselors in British Columbia, Canada. Results indicated that many respondents had experienced individual stalking-related behaviors, and 7% (n = 23) had been stalked by a client. Work-related stalking and stalking-related behavior was perpetrated by clients, coworkers, and the acquaintances of clients. Respondents treating clients for forensic, substance abuse, and sexuality issues as well as for sexual abuse were at greater risk of being victimized. However, respondents treating clients out of their residence were not at greater risk. Less than half (47%) of respondents were aware of their heightened risk of being stalked, and many (50%) endorsed the view that poor clinical skill can increase stalking victimization. The majority of respondents reported that they would call police or terminate therapy in the event that they were being stalked by a client and three-quarters wanted to receive training on stalking. Findings suggest the need and desire for training that raises the awareness and abilities of MHPs to manage stalking behavior, but that also challenges unfounded and potentially harmful beliefs that some MHPs hold about their victimized colleagues.

  • 9.
    Storey, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada .
    Campbell, V. J.
    Alberta Justice and Solicitor General, Criminal Justice Division, Crown Prosecutor's Office, Edmonton, AB, Canada .
    Hart, S. D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada .
    Expert Evidence About Violence Risk Assessment: A Study of Canadian Legal Decisions2013In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1499-9013, E-ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 287-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades the practice of violence risk assessment and use of violence risk assessment instruments has become widespread in the criminal justice system. How are courts reacting to these developments? Herein the findings of a survey of Canadian case law are reported. Using Quick Law 35 cases were systematically identified in which judges commented on expert evidence regarding violence risk. Judicial comments were summarized with respect to evaluator qualifications, assessment procedures used, and presentation of findings and opinions. Findings indicate a wide variety of judicial preferences including the skill and knowledge of the evaluator, the type of information used, the description of findings and procedures, and the applicability of legal rules. Although potentially useful to evaluators caution is urged regarding the incorporation of some judicial preferences. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 10.
    Storey, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada .
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Assessing violence risk among female IPV perpetrators: An examination of the B-SAFER2013In: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, ISSN 1092-6771, E-ISSN 1545-083X, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 964-980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem and one in which frontline assessment and management falls primarily to police. Although IPV is often conceptualized as a male-perpetrated crime, evidence substantiates female IPV perpetration and increased arrest rates, raising important issues for police. This article examines police use of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER; Kropp, Hart, & Belfrage, 2005, 2010), a violence risk assessment tool for IPV. The B-SAFER was used to assess and manage 52 women arrested for IPV. When compared to Belfrage and Strand (2008), who examined men arrested for IPV in the same sample, women possessed fewer risk factors. Risk factors were related to summary risk judgments, although differences existed between genders and risk judgments were not related to management recommendations. Results suggest that risk factors, in addition to those in the B-SAFER, are required to assess risk for female IPV. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 11.
    Storey, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada .
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The characteristics and violence risk management of women arrested by the police for intimate partner violence2012In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 636-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and management efforts in the area of intimate partner violence (IPV) have primarily focused on male perpetrators and female victims, resulting in more limited knowledge of female IPV perpetrators and their male victims. In the current study the violence risk assessments of police officers were examined in order to outline the characteristics of female perpetrators of IPV and their male victims. In addition, the officers' assessments of violence risk and proposed risk management strategies are presented. Results reveal some similarities between the female perpetrators and male victims and their more studied counterparts. However, differences appear to be present in the perceived violence risk posed by the perpetrators and the violence risk management strategies proposed to reduce that risk and protect the victim. The results suggest a need for further research in the area, particularly with respect to the violence risk assessment and management of female IPV perpetrators.

  • 12.
    Storey, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Watt, Kelly A.
    Pro Active ReSolutions Inc., Vancouver, BC, Canada .
    Hart, Stephen D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    An examination of violence risk communication in practice using a structured professional judgment framework.2015In: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 39-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of violence risk assessment tools in professional practice has sparked

    the development of best-practice guidelines for communicating about violence risk.

    The present study examined 166 pre-sentence reports, authored by clinicians and probation

    officers, to determine the extent to which they are consistent with those guidelines.

    We examined the frequency with which reports contained information about

    five topics: the presence of risk factors; the relevance of risk factors; scenarios of future

    violence; recommended management strategies; and summary risk judgments. Analyses

    revealed that the topics addressed most frequently in reports were the presence of

    risk factors and recommended management strategies, but none of the five topics was

    addressed consistently, completely, or clearly in reports. This was especially the case

    for probation reports. The findings highlight the need to improve practice through

    better implementation of guidelines for risk communication. Also needed is research

    on the extent to which information in risk communications is comprehended,

    accepted, and used by various stakeholder groups.

  • 13.
    Storey, Jennifer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hart, S.D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Cooke, D.J.
    Department of Psychology, Glasgow Caledonian University, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Michie, C.
    Department of Psychology, Glasgow Caledonian University, United Kingdom.
    Psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a representative sample of Canadian federal offenders2016In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 136-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is a commonly used psychological test for assessing traits of psychopathic personality disorder. Despite the abundance of research using the PCL-R, the vast majority of research used samples of convenience rather than systematic methods to minimize sampling bias and maximize the generalizability of findings. This potentially complicates the interpretation of test scores and research findings, including the “norms” for offenders from the United States and Canada included in the PCL-R manual. In the current study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of PCL-R scores for all male offenders admitted to a regional reception center of the Correctional Service of Canada during a one-year period (n = 375). Because offenders were admitted for assessment prior to institutional classification, they comprise a sample that was heterogeneous with respect to correctional risks and needs yet representative of all offenders in that region of the service. We examined the distribution of PCL-R scores; classical test theory indices of its structural reliability; the factor structure of test items; and the external correlates of test scores. The findings were highly consistent with those typically reported in previous studies. We interpret these results as indicating it is unlikely any sampling limitations of past research using the PCL-R resulted in findings that were, overall, strongly biased or unrepresentative.

  • 14.
    Storey, Jennifer
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby,Canada .
    Hart, S.D.a b
    How Do Police Respond to Stalking?: An Examination of the Risk Management Strategies and Tactics Used in a Specialized Anti-Stalking Law Enforcement Unit2011In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 128-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do police respond to and manage complaints of stalking? To answer this question, we conducted a 3-phase study. First, we reviewed the literature to identify risk management tactics used to combat stalking. Second, we asked a group of police officers to review those tactics for completeness and group them into categories reflecting more general risk management strategies. The result was 22 categories of strategies. Finally, we used qualitative methods to evaluate the files of 32 cases referred to the specialized anti-stalking unit of a metropolitan police department. We coded specific risk management tactics and strategies used by police. Results indicated that a median number of 19 specific tactics from 7 general strategies were used to manage risk. Also, the implementation of strategies and tactics reflected specific characteristics of the cases (e. g., perpetrator risk factors, victim vulnerability factors), suggesting that the risk management decisions made by police were indeed strategic in nature. Qualitative analyses indicated that some of the strategies and tactics were more effective than others. We discuss how these findings can be used to understand and use stalking risk management more generally, as well as improve research on the efficacy of risk assessment and management for stalking. © 2011 The Author(s).

  • 15.
    Storey, Jennifer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Canada .
    Kropp, P. Randy
    British Columbia Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission, Canada.
    Hart, D. Stephen
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. University of Bergen, Norway .
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Assessment and Management of Risk for Intimate Partner Violence by Police Officers. Using the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER).2014In: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 256-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of intimate partner violence (IPV) typically falls to police. For assistance, officers are increasingly using violence risk assessment tools like the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER). This study replicates the methodology of Belfrage et al. but examines the B-SAFER as used by Swedish police officers when assessing and managing IPV. Results revealed a positive relationship between risk and management. Total scores and overall risk ratings predicted recidivism (AUC [Area under the curve] = .70 and .69, respectively). Finally, a pattern where management recommendations were associated with decreased recidivism in high risk perpetrators but increased recidivism in low risk perpetrators was found. Results validate the use of the B-SAFER by police and reveal mostly comparable findings between the B-SAFER and the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, as examined by Belfrage et al., but suggest that the B-SAFER may be better suited for police.

  • 16.
    Storey, Jennifer
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada .
    Watt, K.A.b
    Jackson, K.J.a
    Hart, S.D.a
    Utilization and implications of the Static-99 in practice2012In: Sexual abuse. A Journal of Research and Treatment, ISSN 1079-0632, E-ISSN 1573-286X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 289-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Static-99 is the most commonly used risk assessment instrument for sexual violence in North America and its results can affect highly consequential decisions made in the criminal and civil justice systems. Despite its influence, few studies have systematically examined how the Static-99 is used by clinicians in practice. The current study compares the Static-99 ratings of clinicians to those of researchers for 100 adult males who completed an outpatient sex offender treatment program and were followed up over an average of about 4 years. Results showed good agreement between the ratings of clinicians and researchers for total scores on the Static-99, as well as for most individual items. Ratings by clinicians tended to be slightly lower than those made by researchers. The predictive validity of ratings made by clinicians and researchers was very similar and moderate in terms of effect size. In 30 cases, clinicians used discretion to "override" or adjust the Static-99 ratings when making final risk judgments, but the predictive validity of the clinical adjusted ratings was worse than that of the original Static-99 ratings made by clinicians. The need for quality assurance and training are discussed along with the need for clear empirically supported guidelines regarding overrides. © The Author(s) 2012.

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