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  • 1. Born, Dennis
    et al.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Swarén, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Is heart rate a valid measure to monitor exercise intensity during trail running in undulating terrain?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Born, DP
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science, University of Würzburg.
    Faiss, R
    ISSUL-Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strahler, J
    University of Marburg, Clinical Biopsychology, Marburg, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Millet, GP
    ISSUL-Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Repeated Sprint Training By Elite Cross-Country Skiers Under Hypoxic Conditions Does Not Influence Their Mucosal Immune Function To A Greater Extent Than Identical Normoxic Training2014In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Congress of the ECSS, 2014, p. 3-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Sperlich, Billy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Osman-Reinkens, S
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.
    Zinner, Christoph
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.
    Krueger, M
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cardiorespiratory, metabolic and hormonal responses during open-wheel indoor kart racing2014In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 475-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study aimed to quantify the cardiorespiratory, metabolic and hormonal responses of elite open-wheel indoor kart racers.METHODS: Ten male racers (age: 21±3 yrs; height: 1.92±0.06 m, body mass: 76.0±5.9 kg) participated in a racing tournament. Their peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by a ramp test (100 W, increase 30 W·min-1) in the laboratory. During the racing itself, the cardio-respiratory and accelerometer values were recorded and pre- and post-race levels of blood lactate and salivary cortisol were determined.RESULTS: The average peak values for all of the drivers with respect to oxygen uptake and heart rate were 4.5±0.8 L·min-1 (56.7±7.9 mL·min-1·kg-1) and 193±5 beats·min-1, respectively. Overall, 28.3±3.3 laps were completed during 30-min of racing. Acceleration forces for the entire test averaged 1.20±0.51 G (maximum: 3.30 G), declining from the first 10 min until the end of racing (P<0.03). The oxygen uptake (~20 mL·min-1·kg-1), heart rate (~133 beats·min-1), respiratory exchange ratio (~0.96) and ventilation (~70 L·min-1) observed indicated moderate cardio-respiratory responses. Blood lactate concentration was significantly higher after the race than before but remained at <2 mmol·L-1 (P<0.01; effect size: 1.62).CONCLUSION: There were no differences between salivary cortisol levels before and after the race (P<0.06; effect size: 0.49). Directly after the race, the drivers rated their perceived exertion on Borg’s scale as 11.1±1.3. The present data revealed that the psycho-physical exertion associated with a 30-min open-wheel indoor kart race is moderate.

  • 4.
    Zinner, Christoph
    et al.
    Univ Wurzburg, Dept Sport Sci, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany.;Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Swedish Winter Sports Res Ctr, Ostersund, Sweden..
    Hauser, Anna
    Swiss Fed Inst Sport, Sect Elite Sport, Magglingen, Switzerland..
    Born, Dennis-Peter
    Univ Wurzburg, Dept Sport Sci, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Wehrlin, Jon P.
    Swiss Fed Inst Sport, Sect Elite Sport, Magglingen, Switzerland..
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Univ Wurzburg, Dept Sport Sci, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Influence of Hypoxic Interval Training and Hyperoxic Recovery on Muscle Activation and Oxygenation in Connection with Double-Poling Exercise2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, article id e0140616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we evaluated the influence of breathing oxygen at different partial pressures during recovery from exercise on performance at sea-level and a simulated altitude of 1800 m, as reflected in activation of different upper body muscles, and oxygenation of the m. triceps brachii. Ten well-trained, male endurance athletes (25.3 +/- 4.1 yrs; 179.2 +/- 4.5 cm; 74.2 +/- 3.4 kg) performed four test trials, each involving three 3-min sessions on a double-poling ergometer with 3-min intervals of recovery. One trial was conducted entirely under normoxic (No) and another under hypoxic conditions (Ho; FiO2 = 0.165). In the third and fourth trials, the exercise was performed in normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, with hyperoxic recovery (HOX; FiO2 = 1.00) in both cases. Arterial hemoglobin saturation was higher under the two HOX conditions than without HOX (p<0.05). Integrated muscle electrical activity was not influenced by the oxygen content (best d = 0.51). Furthermore, the only difference in tissue saturation index measured via near-infrared spectroscopy observed was between the recovery periods during the NoNo and HoHOX interventions (P<0.05, d = 0.93). In the case of HoHo the athletes' P-mean declined from the first to the third interval (P < 0.05), whereas P-mean was unaltered under the HoHOX, NoHOX and NoNo conditions. We conclude that the less pronounced decline in P-mean during 3 x 3-min double-poling sprints in normoxia and hypoxia with hyperoxic recovery is not related to changes inmuscle activity or oxygenation. Moreover, we conclude that hyperoxia (FiO2 = 1.00) used in conjunction with hypoxic or normoxic work intervals may serve as an effective aid when inhaled during the subsequent recovery intervals.

  • 5.
    Zinner, Christoph
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Heart rate responses during biathlon races of different lengths in elite athletes2014In: Science & Skiing VI / [ed] Erich Muller, Josef Kroll, Stefan Lindinger, Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2014, p. 483-494Chapter in book (Refereed)
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