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  • 1.
    Beery, T. H.
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Man and Biosphere Health, Kristianstad, Sweden .
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Nature to place: Rethinking the environmental connectedness perspective2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 40, p. 198-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental connectedness perspective posits that direct encounter with generalized, or non-specific "nature," leads to environmental connectedness and subsequent pro-environmental behavior. This article examines this perspective and proposes a place-based application of the nature encounter-environmental behavior relation. An empirical study using data from a national survey on outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism is presented. Results show a minimal relationship between measures of environmental connectedness and self-reports of environmental behavior. The following examination of the environmental connectedness perspective reveals that environmental connectedness is rooted in a material/objective perspective, neglecting the human domain of perceptions, values, and representations. The environment as "nature" is portrayed as a geographically undefined agent with the inherent power to change human attitudes and behavior. Based on this, the article concludes with a proposed replacement of the elusive concept of nature for the relational concept of place. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 2.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Romild, Ulla
    Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Östersund 83140, Sweden.
    Yuan, Mike
    School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Latent Demand and Time Contextual Constraints to Outdoor Recreation in Sweden2012In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the latent demand to outdoor recreation participation and identifies what factors are constraining people from realizing thisdemand. In Sweden, recreation in the outdoors is seen as a public right as articulated in public policy and much of the outdoor recreation centre around forested landscapes-over 60 percent of the land area is classified as forest. Using data from a nationwide survey of 43 recreation activities, the study takes a time-contextual approach to reveal variations in recreation constraints across weekdays, weekends and holidays. Results show that almost half the population has a latent demand to increase their participation in outdoor recreation. Three categories of time contextualconstraints are identified and several of the constraints studied show variations across outdoor activities and socio-economic factors. Practical implications for the promotion of outdoor recreation participation by public agencies, recreation managers and tourism businesses are discussed based on the study findings. 

  • 3.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lundberg, Christine
    University of Surrey.
    Ankre, Rosemarie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Dagens miljömål och framtidens fjällupplevelser: Iakttagelser av aktivitetsmönster, landskapsrelationer och kommunikationsformer2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten "Dagens miljömål och framtidens fjällupplevelser – Iakttagelser av aktivitetsmönster, landskapsrelationer och kommunikationsformer" ger inledningsvis en bakgrund till fjällupplevelser och en genomgång av de metoder som använts i projektet. Därefter följer en beskrivning av de förändringar forskarna anser kunna se i de olika datamaterial som samlats in, följt av en diskussion av dagens miljökvalitetsmål i förhållande till framtidens fjällupplevelser.

  • 4.
    Sievänen, Tuija
    et al.
    Natural Resource Institute, Finland.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Søndergaard Jensen, Frank
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lundberg, Christine
    University of Surrey.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet.
    Wall Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Foresight Outdoor Recreation: A discussion based on monitoring experiences in the Nordic context2016In: Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas, Abstract Book, 2016, p. 173-175Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Wall Reinius, Sandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lundberg, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad universitet.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fjällens nyheter2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Miljöengagemang och friluftsliv2009In: Friluftsliv i förändring: Sammanfattning av presentationer vid konferensen Friluftsforskning 2009 den 18-19:e november vid Mittuniversitetet, campus Östersund / [ed] Anders Mossing & Peter Fredman, Östersund: Mittuniversitetet. ETOUR , 2009, p. 36-36Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Miljöengagemang och friluftsliv: dags för omtag!2014In: Friluftsforskning 2014: Program, presentationer, deltagare / [ed] Peter Fredman, Klas Sandell, Rosemarie Ankre, Daniel Wolf-Watz, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    On Environmental Grounds: Outdoor Recreation, Place Relations and Environmental Sustainability2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the relationship between outdoor recreation and environmental concern as part of the wider issue of environmental sustainability in late-modern societies. It includes studies of environmentalists’ (that is environmentally committed individuals’) preferences and motivations with regard to outdoor recreation, and covers the inquiries of whether and how outdoor recreation can influence levels of environmental concern.

    The questions addressed are how environmentalists engage in outdoor recreation, with what motives, and whether participation in outdoor recreation can influence levels of environmental concern. Empirically, the thesis is based on a mixed methods approach, including analyses of data from a national survey on outdoor recreation and a qualitative case study of the organization Nature and Youth Sweden (Fältbiologerna). Theoretically, it is based on the concepts of place, habitus and field.

    Study results show that environmentally committed individuals favor participation in appreciative activities in areas perceived as pristine, preferably away from urban environments. Motivations refer to these preferences, but also to aspects of discursive context, social identity and social position. These aspects are also found to be crucial regarding the influence of outdoor recreation on environmental concern. Thus, study results also show a lack of support for environmental concern as an automatic outcome of outdoor recreation. It is rather a combination of interconnected conditions referred to as: favorable place relations, adequate outdoor experience and appropriate social context.

    The thesis contributes to new knowledge on the relationships and connections between outdoor recreation and environmental sustainability. While the results are of importance with regard to planning for outdoor recreation and development of nature-based tourism, they are of particular interest for environmental organizations, schools and other institutions working for a more sustainable society.

  • 9.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The outdoor recreation – environmentalism relationship2012In: Outdoor Recreation in Change: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges Stockholm, Sweden, August 21–24, 2012 / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Hanna Liljendahl, Anders Mossing and Daniel Laven, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Travelling for nature?: On the paradox of environmental awareness and travel for nature experiences2014In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Journal Tourism, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is widely regarded as the major environmental problem facing the world today. Due to this, transportation, including traveling for recreational purposes, is now being thoroughly examined. Still, and despite a growing awareness of the impact of traveling, the demand for nature based tourism holds its position in general and, paradoxically, also among environmentalists. To understand this paradox, a qualitative study was conducted of Nature and Youth Sweden, to explore an organization that combines a profound commitment to the environment with a great outdoor interest. Data were gathered through focus groups with district boards and by a content analysis of the organization 's magazine. Results show that recreational traveling of environmentalists may be explained by the practice of placing nature in remote and "pristine" areas. Preferences for places characterized by biodiversity, natural quiet, an absence of other people as well as human impact reflect a desire among environmentalists to distance themselves from contemporary urban society. This desire outweighs one of their most important environmental concerns: global warming. Even though the members of Nature and Youth Sweden reject traveling by air on environmental grounds, it is concluded that environmentalism appears to be a reason for traveling, rather than a barrier.

  • 11.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Environmentalism and Tourism Preferences. A Study of Outdoor Recreationalists in Sweden2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 190-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the linkages between nature-based recreation and preferences of individuals classified as “environmentalists”. Following an overview of the literature, this paper reports on an empirical investigation of the nature-based recreation vs. environmentalism nexus using data from a national Swedish survey. Study findings show that environmentalists (environmentally-oriented individuals) behave differently in terms of their recreation-related preferences when compared to non-environmentalists. Environmentalists prefer outdoor activities with little or no impact on the environment as demonstrated, for example, by their avoidance of extractive (e.g. hunting) and motorized activities (e.g. snowmobiling). Despite these differences, the findings were inconsistent in that while environmentalists avoid some extractive and motorized activities, other similar activities were not avoided. Thus, the results question the use of simplistic recreational classification systems for the understanding of activity preferences and the authors call for more in-depth, qualitative research to further understand the nature-based recreation choices of environmentalists. Study findings also show that environmentally-oriented individuals do not hesitate to travel away from residential areas for participation in nature-based recreation. Therefore, this paper helps us to understand which nature-based activities environmentalists demand and can provide a more informed basis for tourism planning and management.

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