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  • 1.
    Grundén, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Gunnervall, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Världscupen i Skidskytte & Jamtli Julmarknad 2008: Utvärdering2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hösten 2008 fick Anna Grundén, Anders Gunnervall och Kristina Zampoukos på ETOUR i uppdrag att utvärdera effekterna av att två evenemang, Jamtli Julmarknad och Världscupen i Skidskytte, sammanföll i tid. Frågan var om konkurrens mellan evenemangen uppstod, eller om några synergieffekter kunde ses. Undersökningen visar på mycket nöjda besökare av båda evenemangen. Viss konkurrens kunde påvisas när det gäller besökare från närområdet. Däremot konkurrerar inte evenemangen med varandra om de tillresta besökarna. Näringslivet är försiktigt positiva när det gäller evenemangens påverkan på kundunderlag och ekonomiskt resultat. Hotellnäringen redovisar ett mycket högt bokningstryck, något som möjligen skulle kunna ge än mer positiva effekter genom att förlägga evenemangen på olika tidpunkter. Det finns i undersökningens material inget entydigt svar på frågan om vad som är bäst; att evenemangen ligger under samma eller skilda helger. Dock framstår tydligt behovet av samordning i samband med större evenemang.

  • 2.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Exploring the geographic dimensions of tourism work and workers2019In: A Research Agenda for Tourism Geographies / [ed] Dieter K Müller, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, 1, p. 89-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the neoliberal era we live in, a number of issues crop up, seriously hindering the pursuit of equity/social justice dimensions of sustainable development in numerous communities worldwide. Importantly, in many tourism-related sectors we notice an ever-increasing reliance on outsourced casual/part-time labour, much of it based on zero-hours contracts. Often we hear that workers demand a ‘living wage’, given that government-mandated minimum wage contracts – if they exist – do not reflect the reality of ever-increasing living costs encountered in places affected by tourism. This chaptercalls for a research agenda relating to the geographies of tourism work and workers. Specifically, this agenda draws inspiration fromthe work of Andrew Herod, who argues that workers are the authors of their own everyday geographies under capitalism, as well as the research conducted by Tufts, who specifically examines issues revolving around the geography of hotel workers. The chapter seeks to set an agenda to further strengthen our understanding of the everyday geographies of people who are classified as tourism workers. Issues addressed relate inter alia to the workers’ identity, geographic mobility (or immobility), and workers’coping strategies in negotiatinga highly uneven playing field in the working environment but also in terms of access to resources such as affordable housing. The chapteralso raises questions such as:In what manner do recent developments (e.g., the rise of the shared economy) impact the geography of tourism workers?

  • 3.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Tourism's Labour Geographies: Bringing Tourism into Work and Work into Tourism2018In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographers have certainly contributed actively to the extant scholarly literature relating to tourism work and workers. Nevertheless, with few notable exceptions, most of this research has been piecemeal and case-based demonstrating unawareness of broader theoretical discussions and debates within the emerging sub-field of labour geography. For this special issue, a total of eight papers have been selected, most of which deal to varying degrees with labour mobilities, a theme that mainstream labour geographers themselves have largely avoided in the past. Additionally, the thorny issue of setting the intellectual boundaries between what constitutes work and leisure in contexts such as volunteer tourism is taken up in some of the discussions. Our aim with this special issue is to encourage the development of closer intellectual connections between labour geography and the study of tourism work and workers and their everyday mobilities. 

  • 4.
    Jordhus-Lier, David
    et al.
    Department of Sociology and Geography, University of Oslo.
    Underthun, Anders
    Centre for Welfare and Labour Research, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Changing workplace geographies: Restructuring warehouse employment in the Oslo region2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we want to discuss changing workplace geographies, and the effects of restructuring, in four selected warehouse workplaces in the Oslo region. The theoretical framework for the analysis is an adapted version of the TPSN framework developed by Jessop et al. (2008), which we argue offer a more precise terminology for capturing socio-spatial change – also at the scale of the workplace. Socio-spatial concepts such as territory, place and network are used as structuring principles to examine how labour hire and labour migration have redrawn workplace geographies in the Norwegian logistics industry. The paper argues that a peripheral temporary agency workforce, many of which are Swedish migrants, are embedded in the workplace through management’s practices of control – but also through forms of social reciprocity. While temporary work agencies represent networks of recruitment which can benefit employers and employees in the short term, the paper problematises how these employers do not offer their employees a sense of workplace themselves, and also how they destabilise established workplace boundaries in their client firms.

  • 5.
    Jordhus-Lier, David
    et al.
    Department of Sociology and Geography, University of Oslo.
    Underthun, Anders
    Centre for Welfare and Labour Research, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Changing workplace geographies: Restructuring warehouse employment in the Oslo region2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we want to discuss changing workplace geographies, and the effects of restructuring, in four selected warehouse workplaces in the Oslo region. The theoretical framework for the analysis is an adapted version of the TPSN framework developed by Jessop et al. (2008), which we argue offer a more precise terminology for capturing socio-spatial change – also at the scale of the workplace. Socio-spatial concepts such as territory, place and network are used as structuring principles to examine how labour hire and labour migration have redrawn workplace geographies in the Norwegian logistics industry. The paper argues that a peripheral temporary agency workforce, many of which are Swedish migrants, are embedded in the workplace through management’s practices of control – but also through forms of social reciprocity. While temporary work agencies represent networks of recruitment which can benefit employers and employees in the short term, the paper problematises how these employers do not offer their employees a sense of workplace themselves, and also how they destabilise established workplace boundaries in their client firms.

  • 6.
    Jordhus-Lier, David
    et al.
    Department of Sociology and Geography, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Underthun, Anders
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Changing workplace geographies: Restructuring warehouse employment in the Oslo region2019In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 69-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines changing employment relations in Norwegian warehouses, and conceptualises the increasing use of temporary agency workers as a redrawing of workplace geographies. The empirical basis for the analysis is four qualitative warehouse workplace studies, including focus group and interview data. The theoretical framework of the article combines an adapted version of the territory-place-scale-network (TPSN) framework developed by Bob Jessop, Neil Brenner and Martin Jones with the concepts of labour control and labour agency. The analysis shows how a networked recruitment system based on Swedish labour migrants, mediated via temporary work agencies, encourage workers to work their way through levels of employment insecurity in order to secure permanent employment. The article argues that the blurring and redrawing of legal boundaries through labour hire can be understood as a territorial strategy of control that affects the workplace as a scale of justice for trade unions. Moreover, the analysis shows how managerial control is conditioned by workers’ individual, habitual and collective agency.

  • 7. Underthun, Anders
    et al.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Jordhus-Lier, David
    Core-periphery relations and organizational commitment among agency workers and permanent employees in client workplaces: Case studies from the warehouse sector in the Oslo area2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Wall Reinius, Sandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The trend towards all-inclusive and other pre-planned tourist destinations: Does geography matter?2011In: IV Critical Tourism Studies Conference / [ed] Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. & Ateljevic, I., Cardiff, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this explorative paper, the focus is on all-inclusive tourism developments, the latest outgrowth of a growing tendency over the decades to develop various types of planned tourism resorts in areas, which are often physically separated from existing communities. More and more of these planned enclave destinations are a direct outgrowth of the neoliberal global regime, which pits many countries and regions in a global place competition as they seek to attract foreign direct investment on a grand scale. Many of these all-inclusive resorts exist out of context of their surroundings and standardized global themes are reflected in characteristics like facility design and activities. Regardless of where these developments occur they do little to acknowledge local geographical contingencies. An overriding question within this paper relates to the role of place in contemporary tourism. Does this situation, then, reflect the fact that the geographical setting of the destination no longer matters? Is it true that in these destinations the activities on offer have replaced locational characteristics as a principal determinant of travel motivation? Among others the discussion focuses on the long-term implications of enclavic tourism, and on the forces and the key players behind their development.

  • 9.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Does Geography Matter in All-Inclusive Resort Tourism?: Marketing approaches of Scandinavian tour operators2019In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 766-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, there has been noticeable rise in popularity of all-inclusive holidays. This growth has coincided with the propensity in many destinations to develop tourism enclaves, which can either be purpose-built gated resorts physically isolated from their surrounding community or appear in the form of cruises, which have emerged as a particularly popular form of travel. In this explorative paper, we focus on the marketing of all-inclusive holidays, specifically those occurring in enclaves (including cruise-ships). We investigate to what extent the geographic location of the tourist enclave is an important consideration for the travel industry. In other words, when it comes to all-inclusive holiday products, do the place-based attributes on offer at the destination and the actual location of the holiday matter from the perspective of those who are creating and selling the travel packet? An explorative study of Scandinavian tour operators shows that the local settingof the holiday is in fact a secondary consideration compared to the services and facilities on offer. Thus, there is an overriding tendency to downplay the destination’s place-based attributes and it does not seem so important where the all-inclusive resort is located as long as it is well connected to the market and promises a comfortable holiday to the consumer. Tourism enclaves in the context of placelessness are discussed.

  • 10.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Agnesberg och Ballongberget. En studie av två bostadsområden i Solna1996Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Att köa för en tillsvidareanställning: exempel från vård och omsorg i Högsby och transport och logistik i Helsingborg2007Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Den attraktiva staden som arbetsmiljö ur ett kulturgeografiskt perspektiv2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I spåren av (de västerländska) städernas avindustrialisering sker en omvandling där slakthusområden och hamnar, lokstallar och industrilokaler ersätts av, eller omstöps till, arenabyggen och kongresshallar, designhotell och konsthallar, gallerior och shoppingcentra. Den industriella staden blir till en stad för upplevelser avsedd att attrahera den ”kreativa klassen”. Men denna stad tarvar också - då som nu - sina arbetare: Hotellstäderskor, receptionister, butiksbiträden, konferensvärdinnor, servitriser, kockar och diskare – alla som bidrar till att reproducera såväl staden som besökaren och den kreativa klassen. Med servicearbetet följer också vissa krav och förväntningar: Att framstå som attraktiv, charmig, vänlig och välkomnande sträcker sig ända in i märgen på de anställda, särskilt för dem som möter kund. Syftet med den här texten är att bidra till ett kulturgeografiskt perspektiv på begreppet ”arbetsmiljö”, och för att göra det använder jag mig av exemplet det excellenta hotellet i den attraktiva staden. Diskussionen tar utgångspunkt i idén att arbetsmiljön (i vid bemärkelse) är formad av kapitalets cirkulation, en process som kan avläsas i såväl stadsomvandling, på den enskilda arbetsplatsen och i omdaningen av den arbetande människan. Det är också genom denna process som olika geografiska skalnivåer länkas samman. I syfte att attrahera kapital genomgår staden själv, men även arbetaren på hotellarbetsplatsen, en akt av (själv)disciplinering för att verka/vara tilldragande, trygg, ren och underhållande.

     

  • 13.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Den attraktiva staden som arbetsmiljö ur ett kulturgeografiskt perspektiv2015In: Sprickor, öppningar & krackeleringar: Nya perspektiv på arbetsmiljö / [ed] Angelika Sjöstedt Landén, Gunilla Olofsdotter, Malin Bolin, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, Forum for Gender Studies , 2015, 1, p. 69-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här texten diskuterar jag arbetsmiljön (i vid bemärkelse) som formad av kapitalets cirkulation (Harvey 1985), en process som kan avläsas i såväl stadsomvandling, på den enskilda arbetsplatsen och i omdaningen av den arbetande människan. Städernas reaktion på avindustrialiseringen och den ekonomiska omstruktureringen har sedan ett par decennier tillbaka bestått i en sorts ”kapprustning” för att framstå som attraktiva för kapitalet, vilken form detta än tar; investeringar, turister, eller inflyttare av rätta sorten (Harvey 1990; Peck 2005; Leslie & Catungal 2012). I den attraktiva staden sker en omvandling där slakthusområden och hamnar, lokstallar och industrilokaler ersätts av eller omstöps till arenabyggen och kongresshallar, designhotell och konsthallar, gallerior och shoppingcentra. Men denna stad tarvar också - då som nu - sina arbetare: Hotellstäderskor, receptionister, butiksbiträden, konferensvärdinnor, servitriser, kockar och diskare – alla som bidrar till att reproducera såväl staden som besökaren och ”den kreativa klassen” (Florida 2004). Med servicearbetet följer också vissa krav och förväntningar: Att framstå som attraktiv, charmig, vänlig och välkomnande sträcker sig ända in i märgen på de anställda. Särskilt gäller detta för dem som möter kund. I den attraktiva staden sker därmed en självdisciplinering omfattande staden själv – tilldragande, trygg, ren och underhållande – och där hotellet blir ett symbolbärande ting på samma sätt som den arbetande människan förväntas personifiera produkten. Men vad sker då med människan? Vad sker med människan vars hela person flyttas ut på arbetets marknad – finns det kanske till och med en risk att personen produktifieras?

  • 14.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    "Det lilla extra" - om ekonomiseringen av vård och omsorg och det meningsfulla arbetet2008In: Arbete, hälsa och kön, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2008, p. 61-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Emotional and aesthetic labour in hospitality2013In: Mobilizing gender research: challenges and strategies / [ed] Katarina Giritli Nygren, Siv Fahlgren, Mittuniversitetet , 2013, p. 123-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Enclave Tourism: exclusive Spaces or Spaces of Exclusion?2012In: AAG Annual Meeting: New York 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Heldelprojektet i Piteå: En diskussion om rum, ekonomi och genus2005Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Hospitality workers and the relational spaces of labor (im)mobility2018In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 49-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on the recent interest among labor geographers for workers’ ability to strategize around their mobility, and tourism researchers’ longstanding examination of mobile tourism workers, this paper explores the mobility agency of differently positioned hospitality workers. The findings suggest that workers are not always ‘strategic’ in relation to labor mobility, and that labor mobility and career paths must be recognized as fragmented, happenstance and erratic. Furthermore, this article argues for an approach to the study of mobile tourism workers that takes the relational as well as temporal aspects into account. This endeavor is in particular guided by the notion of stories-so-far and the understanding of people as both being and becoming. The empirical basis of this paper consists of 22 interviews with hospitality workers in four hotel workplaces in Sweden; the luxury city hotel, the suburban chain hotel, the city chain hotel and the seasonal hotel. Ultimately, I suggest that the multifaceted complex of considerations which workers negotiate, could be conceptualized as the relational spaces of labor (im)mobility.

  • 19.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Information Technology, Municipal Planning and Geographical Rationalities2004In: Networks and Communication Studies: Netcom, Vol. 18, no 3-4, p. 181-201Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    IT, planeringen och geografiska rationaliteter2002In: Nordisk Samhällsgeografisk Tidsskrift, no 35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    IT, planeringen och kommunerna2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    IT-planering i Ystad, Helsingborg och på Gotland2000In: Mot en kommunal utvecklingsplanering?: - fallstudier av Sveriges kommuner, Uppsala, Ascender AB , 2000Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Kompetensförsörjning, arbetskraftsrörlighet och innovationsförmåga: fallstudier av tre hotellföretag2014Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Labor mobility in tourism and hospitality: effects on firms´capacity to innovate2012In: AAG Annual Meeting: New York 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to various theories of economic geography, agglomeration economies drive innovation and the dynamic benefits of clustering facilitate learning and innovation.  Additionally, many observers claim that labor mobility is a key factor when it comes to the diffusion of ideas and knowledge. In this paper we try to explore whether these theories also apply to firms in the service industry, notably tourism and hospitality. The majority of jobs in tourism and hospitality are poorly paid, highly feminized, semi-skilled or unskilled and temporary. Tourism and hospitality is also notorious for its high staff turnover.  In this paper we try to identify under what circumstances labor mobility might benefit or pose a problem to firms´ capacity to innovate and meet the demand for service quality. The discussion is based on interviews with directors and human resource managers in firms located in Åre (a mountain resort in the north of Sweden) and Stockholm (capital of Sweden). Apart from being located in regions with very different conditions concerning population, labor market mobility, seasonality, and so on, the selected firms represent different sub-sectors (hotel, restaurant, tourism supplier) and also vary in terms, for example, of their size and organization. The paper concludes with a discussion on labor mobility in connection to, on the one hand, knowledge diffusion and, on the other hand, knowledge-accumulation.

  • 25.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Labour geographies of young Swedish workers: negotiating mobility and spatial fix in everyday life2013In: RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas in the past, many workers looked forward to a lifetime of loyal service to one single employer, new generations of workers face a labour market where secure jobs are becoming increasingly scarce and career paths less obvious (Roberts, 2009; MacDonald, 2011; Williams et al, 2012).  This paper discusses what strategies young workers of various backgrounds apply in order to navigate in the Swedish labour market and in order to make a living, through an account and analysis of young workers bio-geographies (Castree, 2007). It is suggested that because of repeated break-ups from work-places and at times even repeated migration, the (relative) spatial fixity of workers is delayed. Spatial fix has been, and still is, an important feature of peoples´ everyday life, influencing for instance the possibility of having a permanent home, to start a family, and to hold a sense of belonging, a sense of place (Tuan, 1996). In order to contribute to new knowledge regarding emerging and highly complex labour geographies, concepts such as translocal, translocal place (Adey, 2010) and socio-spatial labour mobility (Zampoukos & Ioannides, 2011) could be used to further analyse the intersections between space, work and worker agency in a changing labour market.

  • 26.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Labour (im)mobility and the accumulation of knowledge in hotel companies2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with labour mobility among hotel staff and how it affects the accumulation of knowledge and, by extension, how it impacts on the quality of service in hotel companies. The empirical basis is made up of case-studies of three hotel companies located in different geographical settings; a small seasonal hotel located in the county of Jämtland, mainly attracting Swedish ski tourists; a luxury hotel in Stockholm catering to business travelers and celebrities from all over the world; and an international chain hotel situated in a Stockholm suburb, serving a relatively diverse crowd. The aim of the paper is twofold: i) to critically examine the construction of knowledge in the tourism and hospitality literature on labour mobility and knowledge transfer, and ii) to demonstrate in what ways labour (im)mobility affects the accumulation of knowledge and service quality in the case-study hotels. 

  • 27.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Länsarbetsnämndernas arbete för att minska deltidsarbetslösheten2004Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Mentorskap inom vård och omsorg i Övertorneå: genus, lärande och rörlighet i kunskapssamhällets ekonomiska geografi2006Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Staden, IT och framtiden. En diskussion om informationssamhället och Uppsala1997Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tourism and Hospitality workers: the Internationalization of Reproductive Labor2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jobs in tourism are important for many localities large and small, and in many contexts they provide one of the very few employment opportunities. Nevertheless, considerable criticism exists concerning tourism-dependent jobs. Observers argue that these jobs are poorly paid, semi-skilled or unskilled, temporary, highly feminized and with limited career opportunities. Low salaries and poor benefits (combined with long hours and little appreciation) ensure that a large army of tourism workers have minimal incentives to stay on in their present job. Tourism workers might, depending on the spatial but also their individual socio-economic context, either "stay where they are" or choose to exit. This paper (the first of two papers in the session) will be based on a literature review aiming to give an overview of what we understand about the people working in this sector in general, and more specifically what we know and do not know about tourism workers in Sweden (in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, education, previous occupations, geographical and sectoral mobility etc). A presentation of a lifecycle perspective of Sweden's tourism workers will be offered.

  • 31.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tourism and Hospitality Workers.: The Internationalization of Reproductive Work?2011In: Innovation Processes and Destination Development in Tourist Resorts, Östersund 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is moving, and so are we. People with a western life-style travel frequently and over longer distances, hence tourism is becoming increasingly international. At the same time international migration also increases, especially from the South to the North. This paper puts focus on the socio-spatial labor mobility in (and out of) tourism and hospitality. Tourism and hospitality are widely thought to be highly feminized sectors. Jobs are considered low paid, temporary and/or part-time, low skilled and with few career opportunities. What is more, staff turnover is high. However, tourism and hospitality is sometimes claimed to be gateways for immigrants and young people to enter the labor market. Moreover, in deindustrializing and in sparsely populated, rural regions, expectations of tourism and hospitality as remedies to rising unemployment are high. This paper suggests a study of labor and the socio-spatial labor mobility in tourism and hospitality from an intersectional perspective (gender, race, class) and in two different geographical settings: the urban and the rural. What patterns of socio-spatial labour (im)mobility can be discovered?  What patterns of division of labor in each context (urban/rural)? This paper also suggests that work performed by front-end workers in tourism and hospitality could be labeled “reproductive”. Internationalization is taking place since labour travel across state borders to be reproduced, or in many cases, to perform reproductive work.

  • 32.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Young workers´ biogeographies: an account and tentative analysis2013In: Forum för Arbetslivsforskning (FALF) 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas in the past, many workers looked forward to a lifetime of loyal service to one single employer, new generations of workers face a labour market where secure jobs are becoming increasingly scarce and career paths less obvious (Roberts, 2009; MacDonald, 2011; Williams et al, 2012).  Being a labour geographer it is my contention that the scope of action in the labour market is depending on the simultaneous intersection of who you are (identities such as sex, race, class, age, previous working experience and so on), where you are (geographical setting, sector of economy, firm) and what you aspire to become (dreams for the future, hopes and desires). The aim of this paper is therefore to discuss how the changes in working life are negotiated by representatives of a new generation of workers, aged 25-30: What strategies do young workers of various backgrounds apply in order to navigate in the current labour market and in order to “make a living”? How do they perceive their possibilities to advance?

    This is done through an account and analysis of young workers bio-geographies (Castree, 2007). It is suggested that because of a labour mobility that includes repeated break-ups from work-places and at times even repeated migration, the (relative) spatial fixity of workers is delayed. Spatial fix has been, and still is, an important feature of peoples´ everyday life, influencing for instance the possibility of having a permanent home, to start a family, and to hold a sense of belonging, a sense of place (Tuan, 1996). In order to contribute to new knowledge regarding emerging and highly complex labour geographies, labour geographers might adopt concepts such as translocal, translocal place (Adey, 2010) and socio-spatial labour mobility (Zampoukos & Ioannides, 2011) by which the intersections between space, work and worker agency in a changing labour market can be further analysed.

  • 33.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Making difference within the hotel: Labour mobility and the internationalization of reproductive work2015In: A Hospitable World? Organising Work and Workers in Hotels and Tourist Resorts / [ed] D. Jordhus-Lier and A. Underthun, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 11-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Tourism Labour Conundrum: Agenda for New Research in the Geography of Hospitality Workers2011In: Hospitality & Society, ISSN 2042-7913, E-ISSN 2042-7921, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 25-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this review, we argue that the study of tourism and hospitality labour geography must be re-addressed since it has, with few exceptions, only superficially been treated within the overall economic geography of tourism. Specifically, this past research has largely evaded the rigorous political economy approach advocated by many commentators over the last two decades. The resurrection of the labour theme is especially important since the tourism and hospitality sector is advocated as a significant job generator in many regions worldwide. However, jobs in this industry are often low-paid, low-skilled, temporary and/or part-time. These include the numerous lower-end employment positions within the hospitality sector where limited training appears to be the norm and long-term career opportunities are few. The hospitality workforce at this lower tier of the employment spectrum predominately consists of women, immigrants and young people. We argue that these individuals’ work is first and foremost reproductive; in other words, these hospitality workers’ tasks are associated with the housewife´s unpaid tasks within the home. Furthermore, staff turnover in this sector is notoriously high. Taken together this leads us to suggest a focus on the socio-spatial labour mobility and the division of labour from an intersectional perspective (sex, race and class) in an attempt to better understand the complex relations and processes at work expressed in a tourism and hospitality labour geography.

  • 35.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Knutsen, Hege Merete
    Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
    Bjerga Kiil, Majken
    Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Swedish temp nurses and agency warehouse workers in Norway: Negotiating and strategizing the spatiotemporalities of the migrant worker2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we seek to contribute to the theorization of migrant workers’ ability to strategize around their mobility by exploring the labour mobilities of Swedish agency warehouse workers and temp nurses working in Norway. Nurses and warehouse workers obviously differ in terms of for instance skills and market power, and these differences clearly impact on their mobility strategies. However, our findings also point to the plasticity of workers’ mobility strategies, with workers who make up their pathways as they go and/or as circumstances change. In this paper, therefore, we argue that the intentional, purposive agency as emphasized by the notion of ‘strategy’ (as in ‘mobility strategy’) needs to be complemented by a conceptualization of agency that includes (erratic) probing.  Mobility strategies evolve as workers negotiate the spatiotemporalities typically involved in the existence of the migrant worker, i. e. the lives and places that they have (temporarily) left behind, the present situation as temps/agency workers in the host country, and the future that lies ahead. Following from this, we argue that workers mobility agency is imbued as well as informed by the spatiotemporalities of the ‘past-space’, the ‘now-space’ and the ‘may-be space’.   

  • 36.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Knutsen, Hege Merete
    Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Kiil, Maiken Bjerga
    Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Mobile with an agency: Negotiating the spatiotemporalities of the temp migrant worker2018In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 93, p. 40-47, article id GEOF_2541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several calls have been made by labour geographers in support for a more thorough investigation and theorization of labour as an active agent in the production of economic geographies. The present paper responds to this challenge by examining how Swedish agency warehouse workers and temp nurses working in Norway act and think in relation to mobility and how certain spatiotemporalities come into play in the mobility agency of individual workers. Though we are particularly concerned with the ambiguities involved in the relationship between mobility, agency and power, a second objective is to contribute to the theorization of how space and time matters to mobile workers. Drawing on data from twenty interviews with Swedish temp nurses and six focus group interviews with Swedish agency warehouse workers, and by combining several strands of literature ranging from current research on mobilities and migration to the work of classical scholars in geography and sociology, we propose that a ‘trialectics of spatiotemporalities’ is part and parcel of workers’ mobility agency. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the purposive agency as emphasized for instance by the notion of ‘mobility strategy’ needs to be complemented by a conceptualization of agency that includes what we term (erratic) probing. We conclude that labour mobility may be strategic and a sign of power, but not always and everywhere, and not in any pure sense.

  • 37.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Olausson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lindahl, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Hirvelä, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Elbilar, hållbarhet och planering - en genomlysning av norska och svenska rapporter och examensarbeten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns the electric car and charging infrastructure. It provides an overview of the debates presented in selected Swedish and Norwegian reports, as well as bachelor and master theses. The main purpose is to explore what are the challenges to the adoption of electric cars and charging infrastructure, but also to examine what possibilities exist to promote adoption. Another purpose is to investigate which tools (governmental practices, incentives and planning tools) are emphasized in the creation of sustainable mobility and sustainable cities. Norway is commonly considered to be one of the leading nations concerning the adoption of electric cars, while Swedish attempts to increase the use of electric cars are sometimes believed to be too moderate. The readings indicate that Norwegian policies have been, and still are, strongly aimed at diffusing the electric car within the Norwegian society by using incentives such as exemptions from Value Added Tax (VAT) and registration tax at the national level, and by allowing access to bus lanes, cheaper ferry fares and exemption from toll road charges at the local level. The main purpose behind this effort is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, but perhaps more importantly to spur the development of industries in connection to electric vehicles (EVs).  Sweden, as compared to Norway, has taken a somewhat different approach. There is no national, coherent plan for the diffusion of the electric car. Instead Sweden is to a high degree relying on municipal planning to try out various technical and management measures, with the aim to create sustainable cities. The Swedish conservative government has also been criticized by the Swedish National Audit Office (Riksrevisionen) among others for being too vague when it comes to the governing of infrastructure and transport in relation to environmental agreements and objectives. Despite these differences between Sweden and Norway, the readings show a high degree of consistency regarding challenges and opportunities in the nexus of adoption of electric cars-sustainable development: Limited range, lack of trust and inadequate knowledge are still considered to be major obstacles to the adoption of electric cars. Innovation and improvements of batteries are among the “hard” measures to ensure diffusion and adoption, while municipal and state mobility management, also including effective policies and incentives, are held to be among the most important “soft” tools for fostering sustainable mobility.

    Apart from providing the abovementioned overview, this report also offers a theoretical discussion in order to contextualize the electric car and charging infrastructure. The discussion stretches from diffusion of innovation theory, to urban governmental and planning practices onto the importance of mobility and/or accessibility for social justice and inclusion.

1 - 37 of 37
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