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  • 1.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Estimating Contextual Situations using Indicators from Smartphone Sensor Values2014In: Proceedings - 2014 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things, iThings 2014, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications, GreenCom 2014 and 2014 IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical-Social Computing, CPS 2014, 2014, p. 243-250, article id 7059668Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current context-aware applications often use thelocation of a user as the only indication of the current situation.These existing applications are therefore limited in their situationawareness, because of the poor indoor resolution of the locationsensor and its high resource consumption. In response to theselimitations we present an approach to estimate the contextualsituation of a user without using resource inefficient locationsensors. Our proposed solution utilizes a wide range of lowpowered sensors, together with two modified machine learningtechniques to estimate the situation in a more resource efficientmanner. Simulations and a proof-of-concept application show thatthe situation of a user can be determined within 50 ms at anaccuracy above 90%, when only using the low energy sensorsavailable on a smartphone and its limited processing power.

  • 2.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    A Flexible Sensor and Actuator Gateway for Internet-of-Things Applications2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a vast amount of sensors, actuators, and other devices intended to create the Internet-of-Things. However, most of these only operate within a particular manufacturer’s ecosystem and with a limited set of compatible hardware. In response to this we present a general sensor and actuator gateway for the Internet-of-Things, which provides the flexibility to easily exchange sensor and actuator hardware. The gateway is implemented as a proof-of-concept prototype that is verified to be compatible with a wide range of commercial off the shelf hardware. It is also shown to be able to run the SensibleThings platform, a fully distributed and open communication platform for Internet-Things applications.

  • 3.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Location-Based Ubiquitous Context Exchange in Mobile Environments2010In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Vol 68, Springer, 2010, p. 177-187Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-aware applications and services require ubiquitous access to context information of users. The limited scalability of centralized servers used in the provisioning of context information mandates the search for scalable peer-to-peer protocols. Furthermore, unnecessary signaling must be avoided in large-scale context networks, when location-based services only require nodes in a certain area with which to communicate context. To this end, we propose a lightweight model for composing and maintaining unstructured location-scoped networks of peer-to-peer nodes, which gossips in order to ensure quality of service for each user. The model is implemented in a prototype application running in a mobile environment, which is evaluated with respect to real-time properties. This model can also be extended to include more context dimensions, other than location.

  • 4.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norling, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Dissemination of Anonymised Context Information by Extending the DCXP Framework2010In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Volume 32, Springer, 2010, p. 57-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing ubiquity of context aware services and systems has been primarily underpinned by the use of centralised servers employing protocols that do no scale well for real time distribution and acquisition of neither sensor data nor dependent services.Any shift from this generic sensor framework mandated a new thinking where sensor data was capable of being propagated in real time using protocols and data models which serve to reduce unnecessary communication overhead. DCXP is proposed as an alternative architecture for the real time distribution of context information to ubiquitous mobile services.As a P2P based distributed protocol, it inherently poses the challenge of user anonymity across the system. In this paper we briefly present DCXP along with further work to enable the anonymised dissemination of sensor information within the architecture.Such a solution would have a negligible impact on the overall scalability and performance of DCXP.

  • 5.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Challenges when Realizing a Fully Distributed Internet-of-Things - How we Created the SensibleThings Platform2014In: ICDT 2014, The Ninth International Conference on Digital Telecommunications / [ed] Constantin Paleologu, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania Andy Snow, Ohio University, USA, 2014, p. 13-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SensibleThings platform is an open source architecturefor enabling Internet-of-Things based applications.During its development, multiple problems have been faced andsolved, for example issues related to networking, information dissemination,sensors, and application access. This paper describesthese problems and the technical solutions that are implementedin the platform. We also present the current progress and aseries of demonstrator applications, which show the wide rangeof possibilities enabled by the platform. Finally, we present futurework and how it will be used in future research endeavors andcommercial interests.

  • 6.
    Imran, Muhammad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Munir, Huma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    STC-CAM1, IR-visual based smart camera system2015In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 195-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical applications require robust and real-time surveillance. For such applications, a vision sensor alone can give false positive results because of poor lighting conditions, occlusion, or different weather conditions. In this work, a visual sensor is complemented by an infrared thermal sensor which makes the system more resilient in unfavorable situations. In the proposed camera architecture, initial data intensive tasks are performed locally on the sensor node and then compressed data is transmitted to a client device where remaining vision tasks are performed. The proposed camera architecture is demonstrated as a proof-ofconcept and it offers a generic architecture with better surveillance while only performing low complexity computations on the resource constrained devices.

  • 7.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Department of Computer and System Sciences Stockholm University.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    MediaSense – an Internet of Things Platform for Scalable and Decentralized Context Sharing and Control2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in Internet-of-Things infrastructures hasso far mainly been focused on connecting sensors and actuatorsto the Internet, while associating these devices to applicationsvia web services. This has contributed to making the technologyaccessible in areas such as smart-grid, transport, health, etc.These early successes have hidden the lack of support forsensor-based applications to share information and limitationsin support for applications to access sensors and actuatorsglobally. We address these limitations in an novel open-sourceplatform, MediaSense. MediaSense offers scalable, seamless,real-time access to global sensors and actuators via hetero-geneous network infrastructure. This paper presents a setof requirements for Internet-of-Things applications support,an overview of our architecture, and application prototypescreated in order to verify the approach in a test bed withusers connected from heterogeneous networks.

  • 8.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness from Sensor Networks2010In: Enabling Context-Aware Web Services: Methods, Architectures, and Technologies, CRC Press, 2010, p. 449-468Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Users require applications and services to be available everywhere, enabling users to focus on what is important to them. Therefore, context information from users (e.g., spatial data, preferences, available connectivity and devices, etc.) needs to be accessible to systems that deliver services via a heterogeneous infrastructure. We present a novel approach to support ubiquitous sensing and availability of context to services and applications. This approach offers a scalable, distributed storage of context derived from sensor networks wirelessly attached to mobile phones and other devices. The support handles frequent updates of sensor information and is interoperable with presence services in 3G mobile systems, thus enabling ubiquitous sensing applications. We demonstrate these concepts and the principle operation in a sample ubiquitous mobile awareness service. The importance of this contribution, in comparison to earlier work, lies in the availability of real-time ubiquitous sensing to both applications on the Internet as well as applications in mobile systems.

  • 9.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Scenarios, Research Issues, and Architecture for Ubiquitous Sensing2010In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering  Vol 68, Springer, 2010, p. 285-297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes research issues and work-in-progress concerning ubiquitous sensing. We present scenarios where the current approaches are deficient in addressing the needs for ubiquitous sensing in services and applications on the Future Internet, involving the massive sharing of information from sensors via heterogeneous networks. We propose an information-centric architecture for real-time ubiquitous sensing which capitalizes on the proposed locator/identifier split, thus extending the Network of Information (NetInf) approach. From this we identify the challenges for which we present work-in-progress within the framework of the EU-funded MediaSense project. Firstly, we integrate sensors as addressable objects, exposed by means of sensor gateways and relocatable abstract interfaces. Sensor information is thus made available to applications solely based on identity. Secondly, sensor information is made available in a distributed data model towards searching and browsing. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of the architecture in proof-of-concept applications for intelligent commuting, environmental monitoring and seamless media transfer, utilizing two different sensor platforms.

  • 10.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norling, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Distributed Context Support for Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness Services2009In: 2009 Fourth International ICST Conference on Communications and Networking in China. ChinaCom'09., IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 869-873Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-aware applications and services require ubiquitous access to context information about the users or sensors such as preferences, spatial & environmental data, available connectivity, and device capabilities. Systems for the brokering or the provisioning of context data via wireless networks do so with centralized servers or by employing protocols that do not scale well with real-time distribution capabilities. In other cases, such as the extending of presence systems, the data models are limited in expressive capabilities and consequently incur unnecessary signaling overhead. This paper presents a distributed protocol, the Distributed Context eXchange Protocol (DCXP), and an architecture for the real-time distribution of context information to ubiquitous mobile services: We present the architecture and its principle operation in a sample ubiquitous mobile awareness service. Preliminary results indicate that our approach scales well for the ubiquitous provision of context data in real-time to clients on the Internet via 3G wireless systems. Performed measurements show that DCXP can reduce the time to process context data with a factor of 20 compared to similar approaches.

     

  • 11.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness from Sensor Networks2009In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Volume 12, Springer, 2009, p. 147-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Users require applications and services to be available everywhere,enabling them to focus on what is important to them. Therefore, contextinformation (e.g., spatial data, user preferences, available connectivity anddevices, etc.) has to be accessible to applications that run in end systems closeto users. In response to this, we present a novel architecture for ubiquitoussensing and sharing of context in mobile services and applications. Thearchitecture offers distributed storage of context derived from sensor networkswirelessly attached to mobile phones and other devices. The architecture alsohandles frequent updates of sensor information and is interoperable withpresence in 3G mobile systems, thus enabling ubiquitous sensing applications.We demonstrate these concepts and the principle operation in a sampleubiquitous Mobile Awareness service.

  • 12.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The MediaSense Framework2009In: Proceedings - 2009 4th International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, ICDT 2009, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 144-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication is evolving rapidly. People no longer only communicate with each other regardless of time and place, but also share other information that is important for tasks with which they are involved. In response to this growing trend the MediaSense framework addresses the intelligent delivery of any information to any host, anywhere, based on context-aware information regarding personal preferences, presence information, and sensor values. This includes another challenge to achieve seamless delivery, especially of multimedia content, and multimodal services via heterogeneous connections.

  • 13.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Automatic sensor clustering: connectivity for the internet of things2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current predictions from industry envision that within a decade, the Internet will bepopulated by tens of billion of devices. Already today, smart Internet devices havesensors that provide an enormous potential for creating new applications. The chal-lenge at hand is how this information can be shared on the future Internet in order tounlock the full capability of applications to interact with the real world. Therefore,there is an urgent need for scalable and agile support for connecting people, placesand artifacts in applications via a vast number of devices and sensors on the futureInternet. Clearly, this poses a challenge of sharing and thus storage of so-called con-text information. Beyond scalable context storage lays another challenge to identifyand locate devices that are important to the user. In a support for billion of contin-uously changing sensors and actuators, a search engine would not work. Thereforean intelligent way to group devices is required. This thesis deals with mainly three issues: Firstly, propose a method for devicesto be reachable and thus addressable independent of their location in the infrastruc-ture. Secondly, how can the proposed method be used to insure automatic connectiv-ity anywhere between clients and services offered by the device, in particular associ-ated sensors and actuators. Thirdly, how can the grouping and support be combinedand used to dynamically associate sensors from across the Internet with applications,assuming that the aforementioned grouping exists. The proposed solution to the firstissue is to store identifier-locator pairs in an overlay. For the second issue we pro-pose a sensor socket introduced which exploits the identifier/locator pairs to enabledevice mobility. The third issue is addressed by providing a group-cast operation inthe sensor socket. This arrangement allows communication with peers determinedby a grouping algorithm which operates on context information on the context over-lay. Thus we have enabled the creation of automated dynamic clustering of sensorsand actuators in the Internet of Things.The sensor socket is designed as a stand-alone module to support any contextoverlay that provides the same basic functionality. The sensor socket embodiesa support to automatically interconnect and communicate with devices. Using abridging software, remote devices can be dynamically found and inserted into legacylocal area network where current devices can benefit from the connectivity. For fu-ture work the bridge can be extended to actively locate and identify nearby sensorsthat are unable to participate in the overlay network otherwise.

  • 14.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Resource consumption in a distributed Internet of Things: Examining energy consumption, latencies and workload for timely data delivery and lookup2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The MediaSense Framework: Ranking Sensors in a Distributed Architecture2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication is evolving rapidly. People no longer only communicate with each other regardless of time and place, but also share other information that is important for the tasks with which they are involved. In response to this growing trend, the Media Sense framework addresses the intelligent delivery of any information to any host, anywhere, based on context-aware information regarding personal preferences, presence information, and sensor values. The focus of this paper is the overall framework, the handling of user profiles, management of context information, real-time distribution and proof of concepts.

  • 16.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The updated mediasense framework2010In: 5th International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, ICDT 2010, Athens, Glyfada: IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 48-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication is evolving rapidly. People no longer only communicate with each other regardless of time and place, but also share other information that is important for the tasks with which they are involved. In response to this growing trend, the MediaSense framework addresses the intelligent delivery of any information to any host, anywhere, based on context-aware information regarding personal preferences, presence information, and sensor values. The focus of this paper is the overall framework, the handling of user profiles, management of context information, real-time distribution and proof of concepts. © 2010 IEEE.

  • 17.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Fully Distributed Ubiquitous Information Sharing on a Global Scale for the Internet-of-Things2014In: International Journal On Advances in Telecommunications, ISSN 1942-2601, E-ISSN 1942-2601, Vol. 7, no 3 & 4, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet-of-Things will require ubiquitous informationsharing between connected things on a global scale, whichexisting systems do not offer. Most current efforts focus on solutionsfor information dissemination, which induce single pointsof failure and introduce unnecessary communication delays. Tothis end we propose the SensibleThings platform, which is afully distributed open source architecture for Internet-of-Thingsbased applications. This article describes the major problems thatInternet-of-Things platforms must address, our technical solutionto these problems, and an evaluation thereof. We also present thecurrent progress and a series of demonstrators, which show thewide range of applications enabled by the platform. Finally, wepresent how the platform will be used in our future research andpotential spin off companies.

  • 18.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Overlay Enhanced Mobility for the Internet of Things2015In: Journal of Networks, ISSN 1796-2056, E-ISSN 1796-2056, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 420-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major challenges to realize the Internet of Things is to support IP mobility for the large amount of connected entities when they move between different locations and access methods. Current solutions for mobility are host centric, requiring support from the infrastructure, or breaks backwards compatibility, which will take a long time or high economic motivation to implement. Solutions for context information exchange are created for specific, small, or localized scenarios with centralized coordination that do not scale well. There is therefore a need for a solution which both scales well, and support IP mobility, without additional demands on current or future Internet infrastructure.We propose the use of a dual-overlay network structure for both information dissemination and as an alternative to current IP mobility technologies. It separates identities from location by introducing a second overlay network where the identity-to-location association is stored. We show analytically that the proposed solution provide logarithmic latency for localization and reduces the overall workload when the number of sensors per host increases beyond seven, with a workload reduction of 15 percentage points at fifteen sensors per host.

  • 19.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Power consumption for global information dissemination in the Internet of Things2015In: 2015 IEEE 10th International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, ISSNIP 2015, 2015, p. Art. no. 7106933-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things is a research topic, where billions of things, both sensing and actuating, connect to the Internet, interact, exchange information and enable intelligent services. Current resource consumption models are adapted to information distribution where the cost of information gathering is neglected. However, the emerging Internet of Things will contain billions of sensors that are capable of producing information in real-time, which both demand more resources, and is of interest to fewer users. In this paper, we present an analytical power model for both information collection and distribution in order to find the total power consumption of the Internet of Things. We apply the model to both a centralized and a distributed scenario where billions of devices produce and consume sensor information continuously. We find through analysis that there is a reduced power consumption for content traffic in distributed solutions when compared with centralized solutions for equal numbers of devices, sensors, and users. Thus, we conclude that a fully distributed solution for information gathering and dissemination is preferable to centralized solutions for retrieving the current version of information that changes often.

  • 20.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Surveying indexing methods for the Internet of things2016In: Internet of Things. IoT Infrastructures: Second International Summit, IoT 360° 2015, Rome, Italy, October 27-29, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, Springer, 2016, Vol. 170, p. 282-291Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things is expected to expand several magnitudes in the coming decade surpassing over 50 billion devices. In the Internet of Things there is a need to support complex queries on the massive amount of information that will be made available. The scalability of the indexes used to support the queries is therefore critical. This paper therefore investigate what type of index that could scale to the size required by the Internet of Things. We find that range query is an approach that support continuously changing information and fast updates with the lowest increase in signaling per participating device.We find that a Chord-based distributed hash table hosting a NUBL range query indexing scheme will scale to the required size while supporting multidimensional range queries.

  • 21.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sensor sockets enabling reliable communication using a context based grouping mechanism2011In: 2011 Baltic Congress on Future Internet and Communications, BCFIC Riga 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 161-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more sensors connected to the Internet today and corporations predict that there will be billions of sensors within the decade. With billions of sensors, there is an opportunity for new behavior from applications in mobile devices based on sensor input. But such applications require a mechanism to provide a manageable subset of sensors, relevant to the user's current situation; since no single device is capable of maintaining a list of billion sensors. By using a context enabled distributed storage of sensors; we can provide communication with a finite set of nodes that are deemed relevant to the user's current context.We introduce the notion of a sensor socket, that share API similarities to a TCP/IP socket, which provides communication with remote devices. We identify requirements on the grouping mechanism concerning connectivity to ensure reliable communication decoupled from location. We then provide a scenario for how sensor sockets could enable device connectivity. Finally, we demonstrate a subset of the scenario, with a proof of concept, by presenting ad-hoc association of a printing resource with a mobile device connected to the Internet via mobile broadband

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