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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    An Analysis of Screen-Printed Stretchable Conductive Tracks on Thermoplastic Polyurethane2019Inngår i: FLEPS 2019 - IEEE International Conference on Flexible and Printable Sensors and Systems, Proceedings, 2019, artikkel-id 8792266Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    An Analysis of Screen-Printed Stretchable Conductive Tracks on Thermoplastic Polyurethane2019Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    The table is a result from cyclic strain test with 25 % and 50 % elongations of screen-printed stretchable conductive tracks on thermoplastic polyurethane.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Elongation Results
  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Skerved, Vincent
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Gyllner, Linnea
    Iniss Triab AB, S-16250 Vällingby.
    Soldering Surface Mount Components onto Inkjet Printed Conductors on Paper Substrate using Industrial Processes2016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, E-ISSN 2156-3985, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 478-485, artikkel-id 7422029Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes mounting of standard surface mount component packages on a paper substrate using an industrial solder process with a low-temperature solder. The use of paper as a substrate for printed flexible electronics is becoming more and more widespread as an alternative to the more commonly used plastic substrates, such as polyethylene and polyimide. Paper has the benefits of being environmentally friendly, recyclable, and renewable, as well as inexpensive. It is shown that it is possible to mount standard surface mount device components on paper substrates using low-temperature solder in an industrial soldering process. The contact resistances obtained are mostly low, although the yield of functioning contacts is low. The reason is cracking of the substrate coating layer that goes through the printed silver tracks. It was observed that the cracks appear mostly close to the contact pads, the most likely cause is thermal mismatch between the coating layer and solder and also thermal expansion of the photo paper resin coating. The smallest component package size, 0201, resulted in the highest yield of >80% with decreasing yield for larger package sizes.

  • 4.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Mittuniversitetet.
    Flexible Circuits and Materials for Creating Large-Area RFID Reader Antenna Systems2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the applications for RFID technology is to monitor and position RFID-tagged objects over large volumes. To achieve this, one possible option is to implement RFID reader antennas, which are relatively thin but with significantly large areas, and place them beneath the RFID-tagged objects.  In order to realise RFID reader antennas with large-areas, circuit materials other than conventional rigid PCB materials should be investigated and utilized. Therefore, this thesis addresses how non-conventional PCB materials can be used to achieve large-area RFID reader antenna structures.

       Non-conventional PCB materials are firstly chosen, which comprises patterned Al-polyimide foil, printed conductive Ag inks onto paper, polyethylene foam as antenna substrate. The physical and electrical properties of the materials are measured. These properties are later used in antenna simulations. In addition, assembly methods, e.g. circuit lamination and VIA fabrication, for the chosen materials are developed. 

       Three novel surface mounting techniques are developed and characterized in this thesis. The techniques are developed for mounting SMD components onto tracks made by Al, a screen printed Ag flake ink, and an inkjet printed Ag nanoparticle ink. These techniques are characterized and evaluated by various methods, including contact resistance measurements, bonding strength tests, and microscopy studies. The characterizations show these techniques have achieved low contact resistance and sufficient bonding strength.

       Based on the previous efforts, two antenna systems, respectively operating on UHF (867 MHz) and HF (13.56 MHz) bands, are fabricated. The two antenna systems are designed into SP4T switching networks, using standard antenna elements as the loads of the network. The input RFID interrogation signals from commercial industrial RFID readers are directed into every antenna element periodically through the SP4T switching networks. Both antenna systems are characterized by means of various RF power attenuation measurements and passive RFID tag interrogation tests. It is shown in the results that both antenna systems have low RF attenuations, potentials to perform passive RFID tag positioning, and possibilities to be expanded to larger areas.

       In the end, based on the antenna system characterization results and design parameters, a great amount of calculation is performed in order to discuss how large the antenna system areas can be as well as how many antenna elements can be achieved in one antenna system. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Towards Large-Area Electronic Systems Using Non-Conventional Substrate and Conductor Materials2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible circuits, also known as flexible printed circuit boards, were originally developed in the 1950s for interconnection between multiple electronic devices when flexibility and movement were required. Nowadays, flexible circuits can be used for implementing electronic systems much more complicated than just interconnections. A commonly seen material combination of flexible circuits is copper foils laminated on polyimide substrates, although these solutions are both expensive and environmentally hazardous. With developments in printed electronics, many non-conventional materials can be used in fabricating flexible circuits that have advantages such as increased flexibility, low cost, a small environmental impact, etc. In addition, fast and efficient manufacturing methods can produce flexible electronics in large volumes. This opens a window of opportunity to create electronic systems over geometrically large areas. This thesis proposes methods and guidelines for how to implement largearea electronic devices using non-conventional flexible materials and technologies. The thesis specifically focuses on electronic systems that integrate both digital and analogue signals. Further, it demonstrates and provides examples of how signals in the microwave frequencies, commonly requiring expensive materials, can be handled with non-conventional materials and technologies. Several conductor-substrate material combinations are used, which are fabricated using industrial processes. The conductor materials include conductive inks, copper foils, and aluminium foils, while the substrate materials comprise papers, a nonwoven fabric, and a polyimide. In particular, methods are investigated in order to achieve a low DC resistance in printed conductiveink-based tracks, which opens the possibilities for them to be used in highcurrent applications. Several surface mounting techniques are developed for incorporating surface mount devices within the fabricated flexible circuits, including the use of low-temperature solder paste, isotropic conductive adhesives, and anisotropic conductive adhesives. Some of the techniques have achieved sufficiently low contact resistance and adequate component bonding strengths, and thus can be used in implementing hybrid electronic systems. In addition, most of the techniques have the potential to be used in automated component assembly lines. As demonstrators, two antenna systems for commercial RFID readers operating at high frequency (13.56 MHz) and ultra-high frequency (867 MHz) iv Abstract bands are implemented, which comprise both digital and analogue signals. The two antenna systems are designed as part of SP4T switching networks using standard antenna elements as the loads of the network. It is shown in the results that both antenna systems have low RF attenuations, the potential to perform passive RFID tag positioning, and the possibility to be expanded to larger areas. Based on the characterisations to the two antenna systems, discussions are made about how large the antenna system areas can be as well as how many antenna elements can be achieved in a single antenna system. This thesis provides a material-to-system approach and demonstrates that non-conventional flexible materials and printed electronic technologies are suitable choices for large-area electronics.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Schön, Thomas
    Atlas Ind Print & Motala AB, Motala.
    Soldering surface mount components on screen printed Ag patterns on paper and Polyimide substrates for hybrid printed electronics2018Inngår i: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikkel-id 015003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of printed electronics on flexible substrates is increasing rapidly, where the main benefit is large area and low cost. However, the functionality and performance of printed circuits cannot compete with standard silicon based microprocessors or integrated circuits, though the functionality and performance of printed circuits are increasing. Therefore, in this work we investigate the possibilities of using Sn42/Bi57.6/Ag0.4 low-temperature solder paste together with a reflow solder oven and hot air solder iron to mount regular SMD components on screen-printed silver tracks. It was found that it is possible to solder standard Si SMD pack-ages onto screen-printed Ag ink tracks on paper substrate, however, the component bonding strength to Polyimide were not satisfactory. The resistance of the solder joints was found to be no more than 240 mΩ. The bond strength was found to be higher using the manual hot air sol-der iron than the reflow solder oven. Bending tests show that the bonding strength is higher for the hot air soldered components. Reference samples on FR-4 based copper PCB show a bond strength ~10 times higher but we conclude that it is possible to solder regular Si SMD components onto Ag-printed conductors on paper substrate with good results. The process could be used to fabricate hybrid printed electronics on a standard solder process line.

  • 7.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Flexible Circuits and Materials for Large-Area UHF RFID Reader Antenna Systems2018Inngår i: IOP Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikkel-id 015005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    RF electronics commonly incorporate PCB-materials with low loss tangents, which limits its use for large-area applications due to its high cost. This work verifies one alternative solution how non-conventional flexible circuit materials can be used to manufacture large functional surfaces for RF-based applications. Laminated Al foils are used for conducting layers and a flexible foam material is used for substrate. An RFID reader system has been developed to demonstrate the functionality, comprising of eight microstrip antenna elements arranged in a SP4T switching structure covering an area of 1.2 m × 0.6 m. Each antenna element is individually addressable with aid of distributed digital and analogue multiplexer circuitry and it is shown how these components can be soldered directly onto the Al conductors. The constructed system shows good RF performance, both with regards to the materials and to the interconnections with the distributed multiplexer circuitry. It can perform far-field RFID tag reading above its surface without dead zones and the system characterization implies that the concept can be further expanded to cover geometrical areas up to 1000 square meters.

  • 8.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    UHF RFID Shelf Reader Antennas for Object Classification and Distance Estimation of Non-Tagged RFID Objects2017Inngår i: 2017 Ieee International Conference On Microwaves, Antennas, Communications And Electronic Systems (Comcas), IEEE, 2017, s. 289-292Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    RFID readers serve the obvious role of extracting information from RFID tagged objects. Objects without RFID tags or objects with tags that for some reason are unreadable will not be noted at all when positioned within an RFID reader antenna's interrogation zone. In this paper, we investigate how UHF RFID reader systems for smart shelf applications could also be used for classification and distance estimation of non RFID tagged objects, if the reader modules provide access to antenna S-parameters. The investigation is performed with an inset fed microstrip antenna where objects of different materials are positioned at different heights above the antenna. It is shown how objects are detected and classified in terms of their materialistic properties through S-parameter analysis and how the distance from the antenna to the object could be estimated.

  • 9.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE research institude of Sweden.
    Öhman, Robert
    Skultuna Induflex AB.
    Eriksson, Jeanette
    Skultuna Induflex AB.
    Genchel, Tove
    Skultuna Induflex AB.
    Flexible Circuits Based on Aluminum Conductor and Nonwoven Substrate2019Inngår i: 2019 IEEE International Flexible Electronics Technology Conference (IFETC), IEEE, 2019, s. 1-4Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic textiles, integrating functional electronics circuits into fabric materials, are emerging as an important branch of flexible circuits. In this paper, we introduce a novel material combination for electronic textiles that can be used in implementing hybrid electronics. This type of circuits is fabricated by laminating patterned aluminum foils onto a nonwoven substrate in a high-speed roll-to-roll method. An isotropic conductive adhesive and an anisotropic conductive adhesive are used to assemble standard surface mount device components onto the fabricated circuits. The surface mount techniques are characterized by means of contact resistance measurements, component bonding strength tests, circuit bending tests, and scanning electron microscopy. An NFC tag with relative humidity sensing functionality is fabricated to evaluate the fabricated circuits to an electronic system level.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE research institutes of Sweden.
    Öhman, Robert
    Skultuna Induflex AB.
    Eriksson, Jeanette
    Skultuna Induflex AB.
    Genchel, Tove
    Skultuna Induflex AB.
    Enabling paper-based flexible circuits with aluminium and copper conductors2019Inngår i: IOP Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, artikkel-id 045007Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing electronics systems on paper is an important area of flexible circuit technologies. One of the approaches is to print conductive inks onto paper substrates, on which silicon-based surface mount device components are mounted. However, one of the problems is that the printed conductors have unneglectable resistivity. In this paper, we present paper-based flexible circuits, using copper and aluminium conductors that are laminated onto paper substrates using a high-speed roll-to-roll method. Edge roughness inspections and repeated two-point bending tests are carried out to evaluate the manufactured flexible circuits. Three surface mount techniques are used to assemble standard surface mount device components onto the flexible circuits, including an isotropic conductive adhesive, an anisotropic conductive adhesive, and a low-temperature solder paste. Several characterizations are performed to the surface mount techniques, including contact resistance measurements, component bonding strength tests, assembled circuit bending tests, and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the characterizations suggest that flexible circuits made from Cu with paper substrate achieve satisfactory results for mechanical reliability, all surface mount techniques, and have the potential to be used on automatic component assembly lines. In order to test whether such flexible circuits and surface mount techniques can be used in implementing electronics systems, passive NFC tags with relative humidity sensing functionality are made, which are interrogated by an NFC equipped mobile phone.

  • 11.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Schön, Thomas
    Atlas Industrial Print i Motala AB.
    A Paper-Based Screen Printed HF RFID Reader Antenna System2018Inngår i: IEEE Journal of Radio Frequency Identification, ISSN 2469-729X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 118-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Screen printing is a stencil process where conductive inks are patterned onto substrates through a fine mesh of threads. Nowadays, screen printing can be used to print RFID antenna structures onto flexible and ultra-low-cost substrates such as pa-per. In this manuscript, we present an HF RFID reader antenna system, operating at 13.56 MHz, using screen printed Ag particle ink as conductor and using HP photo paper as substrate. The proposed antenna system comprises four loop antenna elements, matched to 50 Ω, and one I2C addressed SP4T multiplexer circuitry, controlled through an exterior embedded system. The geometries, designs and characterizations of the antenna system are described in the manuscript in details. Measurement results show that the antenna system has low power reflections and a suitable Q factor. It has a maximum 11.1 cm RFID tag read range at an antenna system input power of 33 dBm. 2D RFID tag positioning can be enabled by utilizing the RFID tag interrogation zones formed by the four loop antenna elements. In addition, a parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of loop antenna element DC resistance on the antenna element performance. It can be concluded that the proposed method can be used to create low-cost and large-area HF RFID reader antenna systems.

  • 12.
    Sidén, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Xiaotian, Li
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Microstrip Antenna Matrix for RFID Positioning over Large Surfaces2015Inngår i: Proc. IEEE RFID 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
1 - 12 of 12
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
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