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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Screen Printed Piezoresistive Sensors for Monitoring Pressure Distribution in Wheelchair2019In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2055-2063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged sitting inadequacies cause pressure ulcer to many individuals, especially to disadvantaged with reduced mobility. The measurement of distributed pressure and detection of irregular sitting postures is essential for preventing the risk of developing pressure ulcer. In this paper, a pressure sensing system capable of recognizing sitting postures by means of measuring interface pressure through printed pressure sensors is presented. A thin and flexible large area sensor is screen-printed using silver flake and carbon particle inks and comprises 16 sensing elements. For the evaluation of practical usability, the sensor characterization is carried out by conducting stability, repeatability, drift and bending tests. The performance of the sensor is checked under varying environmental conditions. Sitting posture detection accuracy above 80 % is achieved using a classification algorithm for four different sitting postures. Pressure distribution is monitored at a scanning rate of 10 Hz. A low power and small form factor of read-out electronics enables a compact packaging inside the seat cushion. The presented sensor design targets smart wheelchairs, but it is extendable to much larger areas, for example to be used in beds. The proposed sensing system would be of a great assistance for caregivers and health professionals.

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sitting Posture Recognition using Screen Printed Large Area Pressure Sensors2017In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, IEEE, 2017, p. 232-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the biomedical sector, pressure sensors exhibit an important role towards monitoring and recognition of sitting posture for wheelchair users, which is helpful for pressure ulcer prevention and cure.  In this paper, a flexible and inexpensive screen printed large area pressure sensing system is presented. The large area sensor comprise three layers, is able to cancel-out false pressure detection, and achieves a sitting classification accuracy over 80 percent. The sensor matrix contains 16 sensors distributed over an area of 23.5 cm × 21.5 cm and the pressure points are monitored at a scanning rate of 77 Hz. The sensor system provides wireless communication and a Windows based GUI is developed that allows real-time presentation of pressure data by means of a pressure map. The presented sensor design targets smart wheelchairs but is suitable for any low cost and high throughput pressure distribution monitoring systems. 

  • 3.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    An Analysis of Screen-Printed Stretchable Conductive Tracks on Thermoplastic Polyurethane2019In: FLEPS 2019 - IEEE International Conference on Flexible and Printable Sensors and Systems, Proceedings, 2019, article id 8792266Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    An Analysis of Screen-Printed Stretchable Conductive Tracks on Thermoplastic Polyurethane2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The table is a result from cyclic strain test with 25 % and 50 % elongations of screen-printed stretchable conductive tracks on thermoplastic polyurethane.

  • 5.
    Akram, Shazad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Alam, Farhan Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Capacitive and optical sensing for automatic detection and characterization of cleaning sponges in fiber optic microduct installations2019In: Proceedings - 2019 8th International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces, IWASI 2019, IEEE, 2019, p. 274-278, article id 8791315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical fiber duct installation requires blowing of cleaning sponges for dirt and moisture removal before blowing the fiber cables. The traditional method requires one operator that blows the sponge and one operator in the receiving end that manually evaluate the sponges until a dry sponge is received. The proposed system eliminates the need of a second operator by introducing a solution for automatic sponge detection and characterization of moisture in sponges at the receiving end. An optical sensor is used for detection and a capacitive sensor is developed to measure the sponge's wetness. Sensor data is automatically transmitted back to the operator at the feeding end via a mobile phone. The system is characterized to work with sponges ranging from saturated with wetness to what is deemed as dry. 

  • 6. Alastalo, Ari
    et al.
    Mattila, Tomi
    Leppäniemi, Jakkoo
    Suhonen, Mika
    Kololuomo, Terho
    Schaller, Andreas
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Rusu, Alexandru
    Ayöz, Suat
    Stolichnov, Igor
    Siitonen, Simo
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Siden, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lehnert, Tobias
    Adam, Jens
    Veith, Michael
    Merkulov, Alexey
    Damaschek, Yvonne
    Steiger, Jurgen
    Cederberg, Markus
    Konecny, Miroslav
    Printable WORM and FRAM memories and their applications2010In: Large area, organic & printed electronics (LOPE-C) 2010, 2010, p. 8-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform2012In: MDPI Electronics, ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 32-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a modified design of an RF Radio Frequency Electronic ArticleSurveillance (EAS) tag, used as a sensor platform, is manufactured and characterized. EAStags are passive devices consisting of a capacitor and coil, tuned to a resonance frequencyreadable by the detector equipment, in this case 8.2 MHz. They were originally used todetect whether merchandise was being moved through the detection gates at shop exits, inwhich case an alarm was triggered. If the capacitance is divided in two and a resistivesensor device inserted in between, the resonant Inductor-Capacitor (LC) circuit becomes anInductor-Capacitor-Capacitor-Resistor LCCR circuit and can be used as a sensor tag. Ahigh sensor resistance means that one capacitor is decoupled, leading to one resonancefrequency, while a low resistance will couple both capacitances into the circuit, resulting ina lower resonance frequency. Different types of resistive sensors exist that are able todetect properties such as pressure, moisture, light and temperature. The tag is manufacturedin Aluminum foil on a polyetylentereftalat (PET) substrate, resulting in a cost effectiveRF-platform for various resistive sensors. Two types of tags are designed andmanufactured, one with parallel plate capacitors and the other with interdigital capacitors.To test the tags, a resistive tilt sensor is mounted and the tags are characterized using anetwork analyzer. It is shown that for high resistance, the tags have a resonance frequencyof more than 10 MHz while for low values the frequency approaches 8.2 MHz.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Dewire AB, Sundsvall 85185, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Investigation of Humidity Sensor Effect in Silver Nanoparticle Ink Sensors Printed on Paper2014In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 14, no 3, p. Art. no. 6615915-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin inkjet-printed tracks of silver nanoparticles have previously been observed to show a non-reversible decrease in resistance when exposed to a high degree of relative humidity and thus providing sensor functionality with a memory effect. This paper provides a more in-depth explanation of the observed humidity sensor effect that originates from inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle sensors on a paper substrate. It is shown that the geometry of the sensor has a large effect on the sensor's initial resistance, and therefore also on the sensor's resistive dynamic range. The importance of the sensor geometry is believed to be due to the amount of solvent from the ink interacting with the coating of the paper substrate, which in turn enables the diffusion of salts from the paper coating into the ink and thus affecting the silver ink.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Haller, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Christine
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board2014In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 25, p. Art. no. 094002-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with inkjet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kunninmel, Gokuldev
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Chemically programmed ink-jet printed resistive WORM memory array and readout circuit2014In: Materials Research Express, ISSN 2053-1591, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 035021-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an ink-jet printed write once read many (WORM) resistive memory fabricated on paper substrate is presented. The memory elements are programmed for different resistance states by printing triethylene glycol monoethyl ether on the substrate before the actual memory element is printed using silver nano particle ink. The resistance is thus able to be set to a broad range of values without changing the geometry of the elements. A memory card consisting of 16 elements is manufactured for which the elements are each programmed to one of four defined logic levels, providing a total of 4294 967 296 unique possible combinations. Using a readout circuit, originally developed for resistive sensors to avoid crosstalk between elements, a memory card reader is manufactured that is able to read the values of the memory card and transfer the data to a PC. Such printed memory cards can be used in various applications.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Skerved, Vincent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gyllner, Linnea
    Iniss Triab AB, S-16250 Vällingby.
    Soldering Surface Mount Components onto Inkjet Printed Conductors on Paper Substrate using Industrial Processes2016In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, E-ISSN 2156-3985, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 478-485, article id 7422029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes mounting of standard surface mount component packages on a paper substrate using an industrial solder process with a low-temperature solder. The use of paper as a substrate for printed flexible electronics is becoming more and more widespread as an alternative to the more commonly used plastic substrates, such as polyethylene and polyimide. Paper has the benefits of being environmentally friendly, recyclable, and renewable, as well as inexpensive. It is shown that it is possible to mount standard surface mount device components on paper substrates using low-temperature solder in an industrial soldering process. The contact resistances obtained are mostly low, although the yield of functioning contacts is low. The reason is cracking of the substrate coating layer that goes through the printed silver tracks. It was observed that the cracks appear mostly close to the contact pads, the most likely cause is thermal mismatch between the coating layer and solder and also thermal expansion of the photo paper resin coating. The smallest component package size, 0201, resulted in the highest yield of >80% with decreasing yield for larger package sizes.

  • 12.
    Dancila, Dragos
    et al.
    Angstrom Laboratory, Division of Solid-State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Moossaavi, Reza
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    Angstrom Laboratory, Division of Solid-State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Rydberg, Anders
    Angstrom Laboratory, Division of Solid-State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Antennas on Paper Using Ink-Jet Printing of Nano-Silver Particles for Wireless Sensor Networks in Train Environment2016In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 754-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the design, manufacturing, and measurements of antennas on paper, realized using ink-jet printing of conductive inks based on nano-silver particles (nSPs). The extraction of the substrate characteristics such as the dielectric constant and dielectric loss is performed using a printed ring resonator technique. The characterization of the nSPs conductive inks assesses different parameters as sintering time and temperature. Two antennas are realized corresponding to the most common needs for wireless sensor networks in Trains Environment. The first one is a patch antenna characterized by a broadside radiation pattern and suited for operation on metallic structures. The second one is a quasi-yagi antenna, with an end fire radiation pattern and higher directivity, without requiring a metallic ground plane. Both antennas present a good matching (S11 < -20 dB and S11 < -30 dB, respectively) and acceptable efficiency (55% and 45%, respectively) for the paper substrate used at the center frequency of 2.4 GHz, corresponding to the first channel of the IEEE 802.15.4 band.

  • 13.
    Du, Yijun
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.
    Wu, Xiaopo
    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Wang, Gang
    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.
    Design of Sharp Roll-Off Band Notch with Fragment-Type Pattern Etched on UWB Antenna2018In: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, ISSN 1536-1225, E-ISSN 1548-5757, Vol. 17, no 12, p. 2404-2408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragment-type etch patterns are proposed and designed on ultra-wideband planar antenna to acquire sharp roll-off band notch. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is applied to achieve the optimization searching of the best fragment-type etch pattern by setting multiple objectives to acquire the exact notched band and challenge the roll-off criterion (ROC) of band notch. Efficiency of the design can be improved by properly presetting slits on the patch radiator. For demonstration, designs with different slit presetting are implemented and tested. With single slit preset, band notch of ROC=0.72 at the WLAN band ranging from 5.15 GHz to 5.85GHz is acquired. 

  • 14.
    Du, Yijun
    et al.
    Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Xiaopo
    Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Wang, Gang
    Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China; Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Design of ultra-wideband antenna with high-selectivity band notches using fragment-type etch pattern2019In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By specifying objective functions defining the two bands to be notched with high roll-off criteria (ROCs), optimization searching for the best fragment-type etch pattern on ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna is implemented by using multi-objective optimization. The optimization with too many objective functions requires special treatment to improve the searching efficiency. In this design, two slits are preset on appropriate positions on different sides of the UWB radiator to constrain the decision space for etch pattern searching and yield two initial notched bands to speed up the optimization. For demonstration, a UWB patch antenna is designed with dual-band notches of ROC = 0.63 at WiMAX band and ROC = 0.65 at WLAN band. Both the simulation and measurement results indicate that there is significant improvement of the selectivity of the dual-band notches.

  • 15.
    Gao, Jinlan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Siden, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Printed electromagnetic coupler with an embedded moisture sensor for ordinary passive RFID tags2011In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1767-1769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter presents a printed UHF RFID sensor solution that indicates if a passive RFID tag has been exposed to a certain degree of moisture. The printed sensor operates as a write-once-read-many (WORM) resistive memory device as it permanently changes its resistance from about 10 to 10 after exposure to moisture or water. A printed coupling loop with an embedded WORM sensor is horizontally placed just above the surface of an ordinary UHF RFID tag. Electromagnetic coupling is used to modulate the properties of the tag antenna by changing its input impedance and introducing ohmic losses in proportion to the embedded sensor values. The passive RFID tag can change state from readable to unreadable when the WORM bit is set, i.e., is put in a low-resistance state. The proposed concept verifies that commercial RFID tags can be used as sensor tags by simply adding an electromagnetically coupled sensor as a sticker or by similar means, without the need for ohmic contacts between the sensor and the original RFID tag. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 16.
    Gao, Jinlan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    An Analytical Model for Electro-magnetically Coupled UHF RFID Sensor Tags2013In: 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RFID (RFID), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 66-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analytical model for electromagnetically coupled UHF RFID sensor tags where a coupling loop with an embedded sensor is attached to an ordinary UHF RFID tag with a small gap. Electromagnetic coupling is used, in this case, to modulate the properties of the tag antenna in proportion to the values of the embedded sensor. The antenna together with the coupling loop are represented as an equivalent circuit and the analysis of the sensor tag becomes a circuit-level calculation after extracting parameters from full-wave simulations for, respectively, the separated dipole antenna and coupling loop. The results calculated from the equivalent circuit model are compared with the results from full-wave simulations and show good agreement. The presented model can thus be used for analyzing and predicting the behavior of electromagnetically coupled sensor tags. Based on the analysis with the presented model, the methods for optimizing the sensory performance of this kind of RFID sensor tags are also presented in this paper.

  • 17.
    Gao, Jinlan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Characterization of UHF RFID Sensor Tags with Electromagnetically Coupled Passive Sensors2013In: Proceeding of European Conference on Smart Objects, Systems and Technologies (Smart-SysTech 2013), 2013, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Gao, Jinlan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    On the Influence of Edge Roughness in High-Speed RFID Antenna Manufacturing Processes2013In: Proceeding of the 34th Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS 2013), 2013, p. 571-576Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High speed manufacturing processes are commonly associated with high mechanical tolerances. For RFID antennas, mechanical manufacturing tolerances imply uncertainties in the antennas outer dimensions as well as in the surface- and line-roughness of the antennas geometry. Rough edges can for example be caused by high speed dry patterning processes. This work investigates the impact that rough patterns along the edges of an antenna structure have on UHF RFID tags' communication capabilities. The work characterizes the negative influence that edge roughness of different levels has on standard RFID dipoles. Results show that, as expected, the performance degradation for an RFID tag antenna increases with increased edge roughness amplitude. The results also show that the performance degradation due to edge roughness is almost identical for the investigated antennas' different line widths when the roughness level is normalized to its specific antenna line width, i.e., an antenna with a wider line width is more robust and can withstand a higher degree of edge roughness.

  • 19.
    Gao, Jinlan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Printed Temperature Sensors for Passive RFID Tags2010In: Proceeding of 27th conference in Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS2010 Xian), 2010, p. 835-838Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gao, Jinlan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Sensible Solutions, Sundsvall SE-851 70, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science. Sensible Solutions, Sundsvall SE-851 70, Sweden .
    Printed Humidity Sensor with Memory Functionality for Passive RFID tags2013In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 1824-1834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a printed UHF RFID sensor solution that indicates whether a passive RFID tag has been exposed to a certain degree of humidity. The printed sensor operates as a Write Once Read Many (WORM) resistive memory as it permanently changes its resistance from about 2 kÙ to less than 50 Ù after exposure to humidity or water. The change of the sensor resistance is used to modulate the properties of a UHF RFID tag antenna by changing antenna input impedance and also introducing or removing ohmic losses in the antenna structure. The final result is reflected in the change of the minimum transmit power required to power-up the RFID tag. Both the sensor and the tag antenna are printed horizontally on a paper substrate. Different geometric combinations of sensor and antenna structures are investigated. Typical applications include non-invasive methods for detecting wetness or humidity levels in hidden locations such as within construction structures. The sensor setup can also serve to provide information as to whether a package sent over a supply chain has exceeded a certain level of humidity during its route.

  • 21.
    Jiangxiao, Han
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China (USTC).
    Wang, Gang
    University of Science and Technology of China (USTC).
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fragment-type UHF RFID tag embedded in QR barcode label2015In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 313-315Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Jonsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Investigation of antennas for RFID tags on paperbased products2001Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Jonsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wang, Gang
    High-Directivity Fractal-Vee Dipoles2002In: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, AP-S International Symposium (Digest), IEEE conference proceedings, 2002, Vol. 4, p. 558-561Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    On the behavior of printed RFID tag antennas, using conductive paint2003In: Antenn 03. Nordic Antenna Symposium, 13-15 May 2003 , Kalmar, Sweden, 2003, p. 371-374Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Schön, Thomas
    Atlas Ind Print & Motala AB, Motala.
    Soldering surface mount components on screen printed Ag patterns on paper and Polyimide substrates for hybrid printed electronics2018In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 015003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of printed electronics on flexible substrates is increasing rapidly, where the main benefit is large area and low cost. However, the functionality and performance of printed circuits cannot compete with standard silicon based microprocessors or integrated circuits, though the functionality and performance of printed circuits are increasing. Therefore, in this work we investigate the possibilities of using Sn42/Bi57.6/Ag0.4 low-temperature solder paste together with a reflow solder oven and hot air solder iron to mount regular SMD components on screen-printed silver tracks. It was found that it is possible to solder standard Si SMD pack-ages onto screen-printed Ag ink tracks on paper substrate, however, the component bonding strength to Polyimide were not satisfactory. The resistance of the solder joints was found to be no more than 240 mΩ. The bond strength was found to be higher using the manual hot air sol-der iron than the reflow solder oven. Bending tests show that the bonding strength is higher for the hot air soldered components. Reference samples on FR-4 based copper PCB show a bond strength ~10 times higher but we conclude that it is possible to solder regular Si SMD components onto Ag-printed conductors on paper substrate with good results. The process could be used to fabricate hybrid printed electronics on a standard solder process line.

  • 26.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Flexible Circuits and Materials for Large-Area UHF RFID Reader Antenna Systems2018In: IOP Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 015005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RF electronics commonly incorporate PCB-materials with low loss tangents, which limits its use for large-area applications due to its high cost. This work verifies one alternative solution how non-conventional flexible circuit materials can be used to manufacture large functional surfaces for RF-based applications. Laminated Al foils are used for conducting layers and a flexible foam material is used for substrate. An RFID reader system has been developed to demonstrate the functionality, comprising of eight microstrip antenna elements arranged in a SP4T switching structure covering an area of 1.2 m × 0.6 m. Each antenna element is individually addressable with aid of distributed digital and analogue multiplexer circuitry and it is shown how these components can be soldered directly onto the Al conductors. The constructed system shows good RF performance, both with regards to the materials and to the interconnections with the distributed multiplexer circuitry. It can perform far-field RFID tag reading above its surface without dead zones and the system characterization implies that the concept can be further expanded to cover geometrical areas up to 1000 square meters.

  • 27.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    UHF RFID Shelf Reader Antennas for Object Classification and Distance Estimation of Non-Tagged RFID Objects2017In: 2017 Ieee International Conference On Microwaves, Antennas, Communications And Electronic Systems (Comcas), IEEE, 2017, p. 289-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RFID readers serve the obvious role of extracting information from RFID tagged objects. Objects without RFID tags or objects with tags that for some reason are unreadable will not be noted at all when positioned within an RFID reader antenna's interrogation zone. In this paper, we investigate how UHF RFID reader systems for smart shelf applications could also be used for classification and distance estimation of non RFID tagged objects, if the reader modules provide access to antenna S-parameters. The investigation is performed with an inset fed microstrip antenna where objects of different materials are positioned at different heights above the antenna. It is shown how objects are detected and classified in terms of their materialistic properties through S-parameter analysis and how the distance from the antenna to the object could be estimated.

  • 28.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Schön, Thomas
    Atlas Industrial Print i Motala AB.
    A Paper-Based Screen Printed HF RFID Reader Antenna System2018In: IEEE Journal of Radio Frequency Identification, ISSN 2469-729X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screen printing is a stencil process where conductive inks are patterned onto substrates through a fine mesh of threads. Nowadays, screen printing can be used to print RFID antenna structures onto flexible and ultra-low-cost substrates such as pa-per. In this manuscript, we present an HF RFID reader antenna system, operating at 13.56 MHz, using screen printed Ag particle ink as conductor and using HP photo paper as substrate. The proposed antenna system comprises four loop antenna elements, matched to 50 Ω, and one I2C addressed SP4T multiplexer circuitry, controlled through an exterior embedded system. The geometries, designs and characterizations of the antenna system are described in the manuscript in details. Measurement results show that the antenna system has low power reflections and a suitable Q factor. It has a maximum 11.1 cm RFID tag read range at an antenna system input power of 33 dBm. 2D RFID tag positioning can be enabled by utilizing the RFID tag interrogation zones formed by the four loop antenna elements. In addition, a parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of loop antenna element DC resistance on the antenna element performance. It can be concluded that the proposed method can be used to create low-cost and large-area HF RFID reader antenna systems.

  • 29.
    Neubauer, Björn
    et al.
    Sensible Solutions Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olofsson, Christopher
    Sensible Solutions Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    A new thermally activated battery cell-based forest fire detection and monitoring system2012In: WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Southampton: WIT Press, 2012, p. 113-124Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of forest wildfires at early stages can significantly improve the success of fire fighting and thus it contributes to the damage and cost reduction. Surface deployed sensor networks linked to global nets are often regarded as technically simple options to achieve forest fire detection and progress monitoring. Straightforward solutions with sensor nodes continuously supplying telemetric information demand heavy duty power supplies and periodic service. They are relatively expensive and commonly not environmentally friendly. We have suggested and currently develop an early warning forest fire detection system based on inexpensive, dormant fire-activated detecting sensors and a number of monitoring nodes in a network configuration. Small deploy-and-forget type sensors contain a radio transmitter with recorded identity number, together with an inactive power element. When activated by high temperature of a developing wildfire, this element produces enough power to support the transmitter, broadcasting the unique identity code until the sensor is completely burnt. Monitoring nodes of such system stand by for sensor activation and forward the alarm information along the monitoring nodes network. Implementation of anti-collision transmission protocols in the sensors allows the monitoring nodes to keep track of fire development and progress. Monitoring nodes and nodes linking the forest fire detection and monitoring net to public networks can be made using conventional technology and utilizing existing communication networks. Thus significant efforts have been directed to the design of the primary sensors, designing them to be cost efficient and minimizing their environmental impact. Cellulose-based materials are widely used in the sensor construction to decrease its environmental impact and cost. The core of the sensor power element is made of laminated and screen-printed cellulose- based substrates. The power element is activated by a small amount of water, trapped in crystal hydrate salts in storage and released by elevated temperatures of the fire. These salt-based sensors can be manufactured in a rollto- roll manner, making them cost effective. Absence of any liquids or gels in the sensor construction will guarantee a good shelf time. © 2012 WIT Press.

  • 30.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Printed write once and read many sensor memories in smart packaging applications2011In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1759-1767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A horizontal printed Write Once Read Many (WORM) resistive memory has been developed for use in wireless sensortags targeting single event detection in smart packaging applications. The WORM memory can be programmed using a 1.5 V printedbattery. An alternative programming method is to use chemical sintering which allows the development of exposure-time triggeredsingle event tags that can be accessed wirelessly. The new WORM memory has very low losses in the ON-state which allows directintegration into antenna structures.A sensor tag that utilizes the WORM memory functionality and the well established Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS)communication standard has been outlined. Both active and fully passive sensor tag solutions have been proposed.The role of printed electronics in smart packaging applications has been reviewed and discussed. Important enabling factors forthe future development have been highlighted, such as the need for hierarchical design and test tools, better printed interconnecttechnologies as well as better components that allow communication with existing information and communication technology (ICT)standards. This is illustrated and underlined by the presented smart packaging concept demonstrators.

  • 31.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Moisture Sensor System2004Patent (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 32.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, C
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Geyer, U
    Printing of UHF modulators on embedded silicon in semi-passive RFID tag2008In: Proceedings Smart Systems Integration 2008: European Conference & Exhibition on integration issues of miniaturized systems - MEMS, MOEMS, ICs and electronic components, VDE Verlag GmbH, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Sensible Solutions Sweden AB, Storgatan 90, 851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Sensible Solutions Sweden AB, Storgatan 90, 851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    An incontinence alarm solution utilizing RFID based sensor technology2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications, RFID-TA 2011, Sitges: IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 359-363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work addresses the challenge of measuring urine volume in diapers primarily targeting geriatric care applications. There are number of incontinence alarm innovations suggested and described in patents and scientific reports. However, there are hardly any reports of such systems in permanent use in the hospital care market. One reason might be the challenging system requirements of such applications. According to our own experiences and requirements reported in the literature those are truly demanding. We need meter long communication range, passive sensor functionality, robust and safe measurement, unobtrusive sensor device design (patient) and a convenient reader and user interface (care personal). The list of specifications can be added to, a very low price adding only a small fraction to the over all diaper cost. Finally the system should improve the comfort of the patient and increase diaper management efficiency, reducing the costs of the care provider. The recent progress and usage of RFID technology have reduced the cost levels for inlays and readers. Thus, standard RFID inlays may be a candidate providing the targeted functionality in a smart diaper. In this work we evaluate the possibility to use the RFID antenna as the sensor element when detecting when a diaper has reached a certain degree of urine saturation. The evaluation has been done in a laboratory setup, with real test persons providing authentic readout scenarios. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sensoranordning med RFID-enheter2008Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a sensor arrangement (100) suitable for determining a condition, for example moisture, comprising a first RFID-unit 5 (110) and a second RFID-unit (120) being subjected to said condition. The sensor arrangement is characterized in that the second RFID-unit (120) is at least partly provided with a degradation means (130) having such properties that, when subjected to said condition, the second RFID-unit (120) is functionally degraded to a greater extent than the first RFID-unit (110). The 10 invention also relates to a sensor arrangement product (199) comprising at least one sensor arrangement.

  • 35.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Koptoiug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of a printed patch antenna for robust microwave RFID tags2007In: IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, ISSN 1751-8725, E-ISSN 1751-8733, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 776-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antennas in RFID tags have often been designed in a single layer with copper as conductor and plastic foils as substrate. There is currently a large interest in roll to roll production of RFID tags and silver based inks have been developed for use in printed RFID antennas. Silver ink based single layer antennas works well and is providing 70% to 80% of the reading range compared to copper solutions. However, more advanced antennas are needed to provide less sensitivity to the environment of RFID tags .i.e. need for placing tags on metal or near water. In this work we present a study of multilayered antennas so called patch antennas, for 2.45 GHz RFID tags. The advantage of the patch antenna is that it can be applied to any kind of material, reflecting or lossy material, and still provide good antenna function. However, the patch antenna efficiency is strongly dependent on the material used. For low cost RFID tags in logistics there is a need to manufacture the antenna as a part of the packaging process. In the current work we have investigated the possibility to manufacture printed patch antennas of common packaging materials.

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Characterization of moisture sensor based on printed Carbon-Zinc energy cell2005In: Polytronic 2005: 5th International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics - Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, p. 82-85, article id 1596492Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a simple printed moisture sensor fabricated using electronic inks on a multilayer paper structure. The sensor is based on a Carbon-Zinc type energy cell and provides power to a readout electronic circuit when activated by moisture. The sensors are based on a number of our filed patents according to which the sensor is used for both event detection and as a power source for the processing electronics. Typical applications are moisture and leakage detection in buildings, water pipe lines, smart packages and health care systems such as smart incontinence sensors. As the detector is triggered, it powers up an electronic circuit (polymer based or silicon based) that starts communication with the alarm server. In the simplest systems a sound or a light alarm is started to alert the user. In this work we present a characterization of some critical parameters of the sensor such as power driving capability, linearity, internal memory effects and saturation. In addition, we examine a specific application, when sensor is used as defrosting alarm for surveillance of frozen articles during transport.

  • 37.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    System integration of electronic functions in smart packaging applications2012In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, Vol. 2, no 10, p. 1723-1734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system integration scheme relevant for smart packaging applications is presented. Recent advances in printed electronics, radio frequency identification tag production, and standardization of communication protocols are factors that increase the design freedom for new applications. As in all new technology fields, the first products are expected to appear in the high-cost segment attracting early adopters in the form of niche products. A reasonable assumption is that these products will come from hybridization of different types of technologies. Such a scenario is likely since no technology solution available can provide all features that these types of applications demand. There is a need of standard solutions for hybridization of silicon devices and printed (or foil-type) components. Conductive ink technology is a powerful tool for hybridization and customization of large-area electronics, providing 3-D integration and large-area customization. However, high-performance communication and advanced processing demand the use of silicon. Smart hybridization solutions allow combination of the best from both worlds. This paper analyzes the requirements on hybridization technologies suitable for smart packaging applications and provides design examples on integration of intrusion surveillance solutions for cellulose-based packaging applications. It shows that even though the current hybridization technologies are far from optimal, they can provide a considerable design freedom and system performance. © 2011-2012 IEEE.

  • 38.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hjelm, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Comparative robustness study of planar antennas2007In: IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, ISSN 1751-8725, E-ISSN 1751-8733, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 674-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to produce a planar dipole-like antenna with a reduced conductive area without any loss in either robustness or performance? The objective is to reduce the amount of expensive conductor to be used when applying a meshing technique to the printing of antennas. In this context, robustness means that the characteristics are maintained when the antenna is damaged, for example if it is scratched. This is particularly important for radio frequency identification tags in logistic systems. A general antenna robustness evaluation methodology, based on numerical simulations of a large number of randomly damaged antennas, is used for the antenna comparisons. The antenna performance degradation, based on the return loss (S11) at 868MHz, is monitored for some basic planar antennas. Finally, we show that it is possible to produce robust low-cost antennas using wire replacements for the solid planar antennas and thus, provided that the robustness requirement is moderate, replace the solid antenna with a thin conductor analogue.

  • 39.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Deformed Bow-tie antenna2003In: Antenn 03. Nordic Antenna Symposium, 13-15 May 2003 , Kalmar, Sweden, 2003, p. 183-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antennas in some military applications can be expected to suffer from physical damage of the antenna structure itself. Examples are intelligent munitions when rammed into the gun barrel and vehicle mounted conformal antennas harmed by various types of mechanical impact. Another example is extremely low cost antenna applications. A Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system consists of a more or less advanced reader and a very simple tag that can be fastened onto a variety of surfaces. The tag incorporates a transceiver and can carry one or more sensing devices and report findings back to the reader. To keep costs down, low-cost standardized antennas will be used even when the tag is deployed in harsh environments. For the kind of antennas described above, a predictable graceful degradation of performance is appealing. A partial damage of the antenna must not lead to a system breakdown. An essential part of the antenna design must be to ensure robust communication even when the antenna is partially damaged. What performance can be expected from an antenna when part of its structure has been removed? In this paper this issue is examined for a bow-tie antenna when part of its structure has been removed. The structural deformation has been inflicted by removing stripes of the outer part of one of the antenna arms. The investigation was undertaken by simulations in a commercial Finite Integration (FI) program and by verifying measurements.

  • 40. Olsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hjelm, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Robustness of printed patch antenna2007In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 2709-2717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the question of robustness of damaged microstrip antennas, the damage being either penetrating, caused by fragment impact, or floating, caused by manufacturing imperfections. A simple analytic expression is derived to facilitate the prediction of robustness. To verify this expression a Monte Carlo method, based on a general 3D electromagnetic solver, is used to evaluate the robustness of the antennas. The simulations are verified by measurements and supplementary simulations in an alternative electromagnetic solver, using the finite difference time domain method (FDTD). The agreement between the simulated results and the analytic expression is found to be good in a qualitative comparison.

  • 41.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Robustness comparison of bow-tie and dipole antennas2005In: IEE Proceedings - Microwaves Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 1350-2417, E-ISSN 1359-706X, Vol. 151, no 6, p. 525-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the application of a computer intensive methodology to evaluate antenna susceptibility to random physical damage for a dipole and a bow-tie antenna. For each randomly generated damage pattern antenna parameters are simulated and a statistical comparison is performed. Computer intensive statistical methods like the Bootstrap, used here for postprocessing, make fewer initial assumptions than classical statistical methods when modelling a problem, and are robust against small deflections from these assumptions. The bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) Bootstrap method is used for confidence interval estimates. The dipole antenna is found to be more robust to numbers of small (similar to 100th of a wavelength) circular holes penetrating the structure than the bow-tie antenna.

  • 42.
    Siden, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Line Width Limitations of Flexographic- Screen- and Inkjet printed RFID Antennas2007In: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, AP-S International Symposium (Digest), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 1745-1748Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Characterization and design of printed RFID solutions2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    On the Design, Characterization and Optimization of RFID Tag Antennas2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remotely read electronic identification tags are establishing as the standard method of identifying objects in transport logistcs. They are referred to as RFID tags and with successful research and development they are likely to one day replace all of todays barcodes, found on a wide variety of items and objects. As RFID systems consist of many different parts spanning over just as many academic subjects, this thesis investigates some of the main issues regarding RFID tag antennas. Large focus is put on performance and cost optimization of relatively simple one‐layer antennas, suitable for mass production in commercial printing presses using electrically conductive ink. Examples of specially designed antennas include ones that can operate upon metallic objects and antennas that can be physicall bent. It is also shown how RFID tag antennas that will be widely exposed to the human eye can include a commercial value by letting heir geometric design originate from group insignias and company logos. The thesis also presents a solution of how pairs of ordinary low cost RFID tags can be used as remotely read moisture sensors.

  • 45.
    Sidén, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fein, M
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    On the Efficiency of Printed RFID Antennas: (skriven för IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Sidén, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fein, Michael
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Printed Antennas with Variable Conductive Ink Layer Thickness2007In: IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, ISSN 1751-8725, E-ISSN 1751-8733, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 401-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the complex tasks in mass production of RF electronics is printing the communication antenna using electrically conductive ink. For example, this is very common for radio- frequency identification (RFID) tags. Electrical properties of the ink are mostly determined by conductive (e.g. silver) particles mixed into the ink solution and the way they `connect' in the cured ink. It is also desirable to minimise the amount of ink used per antenna, because high-conducting metals like silver used in the ink are rather expensive. Metal-based inks have limited conductivity, so the thicker the cured ink layer will be the better the antenna radiation efficiency can be achieved, but also the higher will be the costs. In the paper, the authors report on the investigations of the possibility of minimising the amount of ink used per antenna. This can be achieved by printing thicker ink layers, where antenna structures are known to have high current density. Two common antenna structures and a dedicated antenna for passive RFID are used in the investigation. The main result of the paper is that radiation efficiency depends primarily on the total amount of ink used for printing the antenna, rather than on the variations of the layer thickness within the antenna structure

  • 47.
    Sidén, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fein, Michael
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Logos as RFID Tag Antennas2008In: International Journal on Wireless and Optical Communications RFID special issue, ISSN 0219-7995, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Sidén, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Neubauer, Björn
    Microstrip Antennas for Remote Moisture Sensing using Passive RFID2009In: APMC: 2009 ASIA PACIFIC MICROWAVE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-5, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 2375-2378Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents how materials with a highability of absorbing moisture can be used with microstripantennas and passive RFID chips for constructing remotely readmoisture sensors. The concept is based on pairs of microstripantennas, applied on the same piece of PCB and each equippedwith one RFID chip, where one antenna is covered by themoisture absorbent material and the other is left open. In ahumid or wet environment the moisture concentration is higherin the absorbent material than in the surrounding environmentwhich causes degradation to the embedded antenna both interms of dielectric losses and change of input impedance. Thelevel of relative humidity or the amount of water in theabsorbent material is determined for a passive RFID system bycomparing the difference in RFID reader output power requiredto power up respectively the open and embedded tag. While ithas previously been shown how this can be accomplished withsimple one-layer antennas we here look into using microstripantennas to get around the problem with high influence frombackground material. Typical applications include moisturedetection in buildings, especially from leaking water pipeconnections hidden beyond walls or simply to measure the levelof relative humidity at hidden locations.

  • 49.
    Sidén, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    On the Impact of EdgeRoughness to Narrowband and Wideband Flat Dipole Antennas2013In: Proceedings of the International IEEE Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Sidén, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gulliksson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Electric and Electromagnetic Coupled Sensor Components for Passive RFID2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems, COMCAS 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work discuss the possibilities of integrating passive sensor components to passive UHF RFID tags. The sensor system works by degrading a tag's communication performance in proportion to a sensed quantity. Two approaches are studied, sensors directly integrated to tag antenna structures and sensors electromagnetically coupled to tag antennas. The em coupled sensors provide the possibility to produce small sensor components as easily applied add-ons to ordinary commercial RFID tags.

12 1 - 50 of 75
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