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  • 1.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Treatment effects on forensic psychiatric patients measured with the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme2002In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1499-9013, E-ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Buchanan, A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Law and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park St, New Haven, CT 06519, United States .
    Nich, C.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Law and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park St, New Haven, CT 06519, United States .
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Babuscio, T.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Law and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park St, New Haven, CT 06519, United States .
    Easton, C. J.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Law and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park St, New Haven, CT 06519, United States .
    Risk factors of violence during a 4-week period in a psychiatric outpatient population2013In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 201, no 12, p. 1021-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical impact of structured risk assessment instruments has been limited by a lack of information regarding a) their short-term accuracy and b) the relationship between change as measured by the instrument and a change in the risk for harm. Data were collected every 4 weeks on a) variables designed to resemble the items of a structured risk assessment instrument, b) substance use, c) social circumstances and mental state, and d) violent behavior. Scores on the variables designed to resemble the items of a risk assessment instrument were associated with violence during the ensuing 4 weeks. However, an increase in a subject's score on these variables was not associated with violence. Instead, increasing cocaine use and increasing social conflict as described by the subject at interview were associated with violence during those weeks. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • 3.
    Carolan, Patrick L.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Jaspers-Fayer, Fern
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Asmaro, Deyar T.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Liotti, Mario
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Electrophysiology of blunted emotional bias in psychopathic personality2014In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diminished emotional capacity is a core characteristic of psychopathic personality. We examined behavioral and electrophysiological differences in attentional bias to emotional material in 34 healthy individuals rated high or low in psychopathic traits using the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (18 high-trait, 16 low-trait). While performing an emotional Stroop task, high-trait participants displayed reduced emotional modulation of the late positive potential (LPP, 400-600ms), and early anterior positivity (EAP, 200-300ms) amplitudes. Results suggest blunted bias to affective content in psychopathic personality, characterized by diminished early capture to emotional salience (EAP) and dampened cognitive emotional processing (LPP).

  • 4.
    Cox, J.
    et al.
    Texas A and M University, United States.
    Edens, J. F.
    Texas A and M University, United States.
    Magyar, M. S.
    Texas A and M University, United States.
    Lilienfeld, S. O.
    Emory University, United States.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Poythress, N. G.
    University of South Florida, United States.
    Using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory to identify subtypes of antisocial personality disorder2013In: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 125-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Poythress, Edens, et al. (2010) recently used cluster analysis to identify subtypes of antisocial and psychopathic offenders using a diverse collection of theoretically important clustering variables. Two predicted subtypes, primary and secondary psychopathy, were identified, in addition to non-psychopathic and (unexpectedly) "fearful" psychopathic offenders. The purpose of the present research was to determine whether these clusters could be replicated using a single self-report measure, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996). Method: Study 1: We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to predict cluster membership for the Poythress et al. subtypes based solely on the eight subscales of the PPI. Results: Study 1: Though overall classification accuracy with the original clusters was poor, PPI-derived subtypes differed from each other in theoretically consistent ways on several criterion measures. Method: Study 2: We used the PPI-based DFA to classify a separate sample of prison inmates from a prior PPI study (Edens et al., 2008). Results: Study 2: As predicted, inmates classified into the secondary psychopathy subgroup demonstrated the highest rates of aggressive misconduct whereas non-psychopathic were the least prone to engage in misconduct. Conclusion: The PPI may serve as a relatively simple method of identifying theoretically meaningful subtypes of psychopathic offenders.

  • 5.
    Douglas, K S
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Guy, Laura S
    Edens, John F
    Boer, Douglas R
    Hamilton, Jennine
    The personality assessment inventory as a proxy for the psychopathy checklist-revised - Testing the incremental validity and cross-sample robustness of the antisocial features scale2007In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 255-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Personality Assessment Inventory's (PAI's) ability to predict psychopathic personality features, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), was examined. To investigate whether the PAI Antisocial Features (ANT) Scale and subscales possessed incremental validity beyond other theoretically relevant PAI scales, optimized regression equations were derived in a sample of 281 Canadian federal offenders. ANT, or ANT-Antisocial Behavior (ANT-A), demonstrated unique variance in regression analyses predicting PCL-R total and Factor 2 (Lifestyle Impulsivity and Social Deviance) scores, but only the Dominance (DOM) Scale was retained in models predicting Factor I (Interpersonal and Affective Deficits). Attempts to cross-validate the regression equations derived from the first sample on a sample of 85 U.S. sex offenders resulted in considerable validity shrinkage, with the ANT Scale in isolation performing comparably to or better than the statistical models for PCL-R total and Factor 2 scores. Results offer limited evidence of convergent validity between the PAI and the PCL-R.

  • 6.
    Douglas, K S
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ogloff, J R P
    The impact of confidence on the accuracy of structured professional and actuarial violence risk judgments in a sample of forensic psychiatric patients2003In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 573-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some previous research indicates that confidence affects the accuracy of probabilistic clinical ratings of risk for violence among civil psychiatric inpatients. The current study investigated the impact of confidence on actuarial and structured professional risk assessments, in a forensic psychiatric population, using community violence as the outcome criteria. Raters completed the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme for a sample of 100 forensic psychiatric patients. Results showed that accuracy of both actuarial judgments (HCR-20 total scores) and structured professional judgments (of low, moderate, and high risk) were substantially more accurate when raters were more confident about their judgments. Findings suggest that confidence of ratings should be studied as a potentially important mediator of structured professional and actuarial risk judgments.

  • 7.
    Douglas, K S
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ogloff, J R P
    Hart, S D
    Evaluation of a model of violence risk assessment among forensic psychiatric patients2003In: Psychiatric Services, ISSN 1075-2730, E-ISSN 1557-9700, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 1372-1379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study tested the interrater reliability and criterion-related validity of structured violence risk judgments made by using one application of the structured professional judgment model of violence risk assessment, the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme, which assesses 20 key risk factors in three domains: historical, clinical, and risk management. Methods: The HCR-20 was completed for a sample of 100 forensic psychiatric patients who had been found not guilty by reason of a mental disorder and were subsequently released to the community. Violence in the community was determined from multiple file-based sources. Results: Interrater reliability of structured final risk judgments of low, moderate, or high violence risk made on the basis of the structured professional judgment model was acceptable (weighted kappa=.61). Structured final risk judgments were significantly predictive of postrelease community violence, yielding moderate to large effect sizes. Event history analyses showed that final risk judgments made with the structured professional judgment model added incremental validity to the HCR-20 used in an actuarial (numerical) sense. Conclusions: The findings support the structured professional judgment model of risk assessment as well as the HCR-20 specifically and suggest that clinical judgment, if made within a structured context, can contribute in meaningful ways to the assessment of violence risk.

  • 8.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Introduction to the Special Issue of the HCR-20 Version 32014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 91-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Vadstena Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Vadstena, Sweden .
    Interrater Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the HCR-20 Version 32014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3). Three sets of ratings were completed by experienced clinicians for 35 forensic psychiatric patients, for both HCR-20 Versions 2 and 3. Reliability analyses focused on ratings of the presence of Version 3 risk factors, presence of Version 3 risk factor sub-items, relevance ratings for Version 3 risk factors, and Version 3 summary risk ratings for future violence. Concurrent validity analyses focused on the correlational association between Versions 2 and 3 in terms of the number of risk factors present. Findings indicated that Versions 2 and 3 were strongly correlated (.69 -.90). Interrater reliability was consistently excellent for the presence of risk factors and for summary risk ratings. The majority of relevance and sub-item ratings were in the good to excellent range, although there was a minority of such ratings in the fair or poor categories. Findings support the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of HCR-20V3. Implications for use of HCR-20V3 by professionals and agencies are discussed. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 10.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Hart, S. D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada .
    Webster, C. D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Vadstena Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Vadstena, Sweden.
    Guy, L. S.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States .
    Wilson, C. M.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada .
    Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3): Development and Overview2014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries. This article explains (1) why a revision was necessary, (2) the steps we took in the revision process, (3) key changes between Version 2 and Version 3, and (4) an overview of HCR-20V3's risk factors and administration steps. Recommendations for evaluating Version 3 are provided. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 11.
    Douglas, Kevin S
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Herbozo, Sylvia
    Poythress, Norman G
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Edens, John F
    Psychopathy and Suicide: A Multi-Sample Investigation2006In: Psychological Services, ISSN 1541-1559, Vol. 3, p. 97-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that behavioral aspects of psychopathy are associated with suicidal behavior, whereas the affective and interpersonal aspects are not. The authors tested the robustness of this bifurcated association across 1,711 persons and 12 samples of adult and juvenile criminal offenders, forensic psychiatric patients, and civil psychiatric patients. The authors observed a small but significant partial correlation (.13) between the behavioral/impulsive lifestyle features of psychopathy and suicidality, but no effect for affective/interpersonal features. Several method and sample features (mental disorder; psychopathy and suicidality measurement format) significantly strengthened or weakened this association. The authors conclude that it is not possible to speak of "the" association between psychopathy and suicide, but that this relationship appears to be partially dependent on methodological (i.e., self-report vs. clinician-administered psychopathy measures) and sample composition (i.e., age; mental illness) factors. Recommendations for practice are provided, including that clinicians should not consider psychopathy a buffer against suicidal behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

  • 12.
    Douglas, Kevin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Skeem, J L
    Violence risk assessment - Getting specific about being dynamic2005In: Psychology, public policy and law, ISSN 1076-8971, E-ISSN 1939-1528, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 347-383Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial strides have been made in the field of violence risk assessment. Numerous robust risk factors have been identified and incorporated into structured violence risk assessment instruments. The concepts of violence prevention, management, and treatment have been infused into contemporary thinking on risk assessment. This conceptual development underscores the necessity of identifying, measuring, and monitoring changeable (dynamic) risk factors-the most promising targets for risk reduction efforts. However, empirical investigation of dynamic risk is virtually absent from the literature. In this article, the authors (a) differentiate risk status (interindividual risk level based largely on static risk factors) from risk state (intraindividual risk level determined largely by current status on dynamic risk factors), (b) analyze the relevance of contemporary risk assessment measures for capturing dynamic risk, and (c) distill potentially important dynamic risk factors from the literature in order to facilitate future research. Suggestions for theory development and research design are provided.

  • 13.
    Douglas, S Kevin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fransson, G
    Levander, S
    Reliability and validity evaluation of the psychopathy checklist: Screening version (PCL:SV) in Swedish correctional and forensic psychiatric samles2005In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 145-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the structural reliability, construct-related validity, and cultural validity generalization of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in a sample of more than 560 male and female Swedish forensic psychiatric treatment patients, forensic evaluation patients, and criminal offenders. Structural reliability was excellent for most indices. PCL:SV scores were higher for males than females for total and Part 1 scores (interpersonal/ affective features) but not for Part 2 (behavioral features). With some exceptions, PCL:SV scores were meaningfully related to aggression to others, a measure of risk for violence, substance use problems, personality disorder (positive), and psychosis (negative). Correlations between PCL:SV and aggression were larger for females than males, although the difference was smaller when personality disorder was held constant. The structural reliability and pattern of validity coefficients were comparable in these Swedish samples to other non-North American samples. Implications for the cross-cultural manifestation and correlates of psychopathy are discussed.

  • 14. Edens, JF
    et al.
    Douglas, Kevin S
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Assessment of interpersonal aggression and violence - Introduction to the special issue: Editorial2006In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 221-226Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Violence and interpersonal aggression are considered major public health problems throughout the world. Yet there is considerable variability in how these terms are operationalized, measured, and studied in the social sciences, which can lead to ambiguity and confusion in the field. In this introduction to the special issue, the authors highlight some of the difficulties inherent in studying interpersonal aggression and violence and briefly review the heterogeneous nature of the research conducted in this area. The authors conclude with a summary of the key findings of the articles that appear in this special issue.

  • 15.
    Fields, Sherecce
    et al.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Edens, John F.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Smith, Shannon Toney
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Rulseh, Allison
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Donnellan, M. Brent
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Ruiz, Mark A.
    Univ S Florida, Dept Mental Hlth Law & Policy, Tampa, FL 33620 USA.
    McDermott, Barbara E.
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Brief Form in Justice-Involved Samples2015In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 1211-1218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impulsivity is an important component If many forms of psychopathology. Though widely used as an index of this construct, the 30-item Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (HIS-11) has demonstrated questionable psychometric properties in several research reports. An 8-item shortened Version has recently been proposed, the Barran Impulsiveness Scale Brief (BIS-Brief) form, which was designed to overcome some of the limitations of the longer scale. In this report, we examine the internal structure and theoretically relevant external correlates of this new short form in large archival samples of individuals involved in the criminal justice system (prison inmates, substance abusers in mandatory treatment, and forensic inpatients). Confirmatory factor analysis of the BIS-Brief indicates adequate fit following a relatively minor modification. Correlations between the HIS-Brief and an array' of criterion measures other self-report scales, interview-based measures, and behavioral outcomes are consistent with predictions and show relatively little or no decrement in predictive validity when compared with the 30-item HIS-11. Our results suggest that the HIS-Brief is a promising brief measure of impulsivity that evinces good psychometric properties across a range of offender samples.

  • 16.
    Gatner, Dylan T.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Hart, Stephen D.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Comparing the lexical similarity of the triarchic model of psychopathy to contemporary models of psychopathy2017In: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) posits that psychopathic personality comprises three domains: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The present study aimed to clarify conceptual overlap between contemporary definitions of psychopathy, with particular emphasis given to the relevance of boldness (i.e., social dominance, venturesomeness, emotional resiliency)-a topic of recent debate. Method: Undergraduate students (N=439) compared the lexical similarity of triarchic domains with two contemporary models of psychopathy: the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP; Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2012) and the Five-Factor Model of psychopathy (FFM; Widiger & Lynam, 1998). Results: From a content validity perspective, meanness and disinhibition were lexically similar to both the CAPP and FFM psychopathy, whereas boldness was less strongly associated with these models. Meanness showed the strongest lexical similarity in comparison with past prototypicality ratings of the CAPP and FFM psychopathy. Conclusions: These findings bear implications for defining and comparing conceptualizations of psychopathy that underpin its assessment. 

  • 17.
    Gatner, Dylan T.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Hart, Stephen D.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada; Univ Bergen, Dept Psychol, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.
    Examining the Incremental and Interactive Effects of Boldness With Meanness and Disinhibition Within the Triarchic Model of Psychopathy2016In: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, ISSN 1949-2715, E-ISSN 1949-2723, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) comprises 3 phenotypic domains: Meanness, Disinhibition, and Boldness. Ongoing controversy surrounds the relevance of Boldness in the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy. In the current study, undergraduate students (N = 439) completed the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010) to examine the association between Boldness and a host of theoretically relevant external criteria. Boldness was generally unrelated to either prosocial or harmful criteria. Boldness rarely provided incremental value above or interacted with Meanness and Disinhibition with respect to external criteria. Curvilinear effects of Boldness rarely emerged. The findings suggest that Boldness might not be a central construct in the definition of psychopathic personality disorder. Implications for the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) psychopathic specifier are discussed.

  • 18.
    Guy, L. S.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Canada; Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada .
    Anthony, C.
    Department of Psychology, Sam Houston State University, United States.
    Edens, J. F.
    Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University, United States.
    Douglas, K. S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Canada; Department of Applied Criminology.
    Does psychopathy predict institutional misconduct among adults?: A meta-analytic investigation2005In: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 1056-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Narrative reviews have raised several questions regarding the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 2003) and related scales in institutional settings. In this meta-analysis, the authors coded 273 effect sizes to investigate the association between the Hare scales and a hierarchy of increasingly specific forms of institutional misconduct. Effect sizes for Total, Factor 1, and Factor 2 scores were quite heterogeneous overall and weakest for physically violent misconduct (r w = .17, .14, and .15, respectively). Moderator analyses suggested that physical violence effect sizes were smaller in U.S. prison samples (r w = .11) than in non-U.S. prison samples (r w = .23). Findings are discussed in terms of the utility of the Hare measures for decision-making in institutional and other contexts.

  • 19.
    Guy, Laura S.
    et al.
    Univ Massachusetts, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Worcester, MA 01655 USA.
    Kusaj, Cliff
    Calif Dept Correct & Rehabil, Board Parole Hearings, Sacramento, CA USA.
    Packer, Ira K.
    Univ Massachusetts, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Worcester, MA 01655 USA.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Influence of the HCR-20, LS/CMI, and PCL-R on Decisions About Parole Suitability Among Lifers2015In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 232-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 5,181 inmates indeterminately sentenced to life in California who were evaluated for parole suitability between January 2009 and November 2010, 11% were granted parole. After administration of the HCR-20, LS/CMI, and PCL-R, psychologists judged most inmates (78%) to be at low or moderate risk for future violence. This overall risk rating (ORR) was significantly associated with parole suitability decisions. Moderate to large associations were observed between the ORR and all risk indices. The HCR-20 Clinical and Risk Management scales demonstrated the strongest associations with parole suitability decisions. Among the LS/CMI scales, Procriminal Attitudes and Leisure/Recreation were most predictive of failure to obtain parole. PCL-R scores had little influence on parole suitability decisions beyond the HCR-20 and LS/CMI. Overall, findings suggest parole board members' decisions were consistent with empirically supported practice, in that individuals assessed to be at relatively low risk were far more likely to be granted parole than those assessed to be at moderate or high risk for future violence.

  • 20. Guy, LS
    et al.
    Poythress, NG
    Douglas, Kevin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Skeern, Jennifer L
    Edens, John F
    Correspondence between self-report and interview-based assessments of antisocial personality disorder2008In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD-the ASPD scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4; S. E. Hyler, 1994) and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. Morey, 1991, 2007)-as well as the ASPD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, J. B. W. Williams, & L. S. Benjamin, 1997). The measures were administered to 1,345 offenders in court-mandated residential substance abuse treatment programs and prisons. PDQ-4 and PAI scores related strongly to SCID-II symptom counts (rs =.67 and.51, respectively), indicating these measures convey useful clinical information about the severity of offenders' ASPD pathology. The dimensional association between the measures was relatively invariant across gender, race, and site, although differences in mean scores were observed. Levels of agreement of the SCID-II with the PDQ-4 (K =.31) and PAI (K =.32) in classifying participants as ASPD was limited. Alternative thresholds for both self-report measures were identified and cross-validated.

  • 21.
    Hendry, Melissa C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada .
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Winter, Elizabeth A.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Edens, John F.
    Department of Psychology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, United States .
    Construct Measurement Quality Improves Predictive Accuracy in Violence Risk Assessment: an Illustration Using the Personality Assessment Inventory2013In: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 477-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the risk assessment literature has focused on the predictive validity of risk assessment tools. However, these tools often comprise a list of risk factors that are themselves complex constructs, and focusing on the quality of measurement of individual risk factors may improve the predictive validity of the tools. The present study illustrates this concern using the Antisocial Features and Aggression scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 1991). In a sample of 1,545 prison inmates and offenders undergoing treatment for substance abuse (85% male), we evaluated (a) the factorial validity of the ANT and AGG scales, (b) the utility of original ANT and AGG scales and newly derived ANT and AGG scales for predicting antisocial outcomes (recidivism and institutional infractions), and (c) whether items with a stronger relationship to the underlying constructs (higher factor loadings) were in turn more strongly related to antisocial outcomes. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) indicated that ANT and AGG items were not structured optimally in these data in terms of correspondence to the subscale structure identified in the PAI manual. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on a random split-half of the sample to derive optimized alternative factor structures, and cross-validated in the second split-half using CFA. Four-factor models emerged for both the ANT and AGG scales, and, as predicted, the size of item factor loadings was associated with the strength with which items were associated with institutional infractions and community recidivism. This suggests that the quality by which a construct is measured is associated with its predictive strength. Implications for risk assessment are discussed. 

  • 22.
    Kelley, Shannon E.
    et al.
    Texas A&M Univ, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Balsis, Steve
    Texas A&M Univ, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Smith, Shannon Toney
    Texas A&M Univ, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Edens, John F.
    Texas A&M Univ, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Douglas, Kevin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Poythress, Norman G., Jr.
    Univ S Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 USA.
    A dimensional comparison of a self-report and a structured interview measure of conduct disorder2016In: Journal of Personality Disorders, ISSN 0885-579X, E-ISSN 1943-2763, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 232-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eligibility for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) requires evidence of antecedent conduct disorder (CD). Accurately identifying CD may be influenced by various factors, including assessment methodology. The present study used a two-parameter latent variable model to examine the relative performance of a self-report measure and a structured clinical interview in retrospectively detecting the CD spectrum among adult male offenders (N = 1,159). Self-report and clinical interview tended to converge regarding the rank order of severity indicated by CD symptom criteria. In addition, at relatively low levels of CD severity, self-report provided more information about the CD spectrum than did clinical interview. At relatively higher levels of CD severity, however, clinical interview provided more information about the CD spectrum than did self-report. Latent variable models offer a potential means of combining multiple assessment methods in a way that maximizes information gleaned by capitalizing on the contextual strengths of each approach.

  • 23.
    Lavoie, J. A. A.
    et al.
    Criminology Program, Wilfrid Laurier University, Brantford Campus, 73 George Street, Brantford, N3T 2Y3, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The Perceived Stress Scale: Evaluating Configural, Metric and Scalar Invariance across Mental Health Status and Gender2012In: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24: 385-396, 1983) and its derivatives are among the most commonly used self-report measures of subjective global stress. Several factorial models of the PSS have been proposed; however, which of these structures reliably measures individuals with mental illness remains unclear. Moreover, despite the detection of gender differences in perceived stress, factorial invariance between genders has not yet been tested with the PSS. Confirmatory factor analysis evaluating six prevailing factorial models of the PSS among a large sample of psychiatric patients and a matched community sample supported a two-factor model. Multiple group analysis established configural, metric and scalar invariance of this model across gender, but only configural invariance across samples differing by mental health status. Implications are that gender differences can be cautiously interpreted as true mean differences rather than artifacts of measurement bias; however, mean perceived stress factor scores should not be compared directly across psychiatric and non-psychiatric samples. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 24.
    Lavoie, J. A. A.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser UniversityBurnaby, BC, Canada .
    Guy, L. S.
    Simon Fraser UniversityBurnaby, BC, Canada .
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Canada .
    Violence risk assessment: Principles and models bridging prediction to management2012In: Violent and Sexual Offenders: Assessment, Treatment and Management / [ed] Ireland, J.L.; Birch, P, Taylor & Francis, 2012, Vol. 9780203722404, p. 3-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Magyar, Melissa S.
    et al.
    Texas A&M University, US.
    Lilienfeld, Scott O.
    Emory University, US.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Poythress, Jr., Norman G.
    University of South Florida, US.
    Skeem, Jennifer L.
    University of California, US.
    Using the Personality Assessment Inventory to Predict Male Offenders’ Conduct During and Progression Through Substance Abuse Treatment2012In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 216-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has supported the utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) to predict various negative outcomes among offender samples, yet few studies have specifically examined its association with behavior in treatment. In this study, the PAI was administered to 331 male offenders court ordered into substance abuse treatment. Several theoretically relevant PAI scales (e.g., Antisocial Features, Borderline Features) predicted various forms of problematic conduct (e.g., disruptive behavior, aggression) and subjective and objective ratings of treatment progress. Although there was relatively limited evidence for the superiority of any one predictor over the others, the Aggression (AGG) scale demonstrated incremental validity above and beyond other indicators for general noncompliance and aggressive behavior. Interpersonal scales also predicted select treatment behavior while sharing relatively little common variance with AGG. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing lower order and higher order dimensions on the PAI and other measures.

  • 26.
    Robbe, Michiel De Vries
    et al.
    Van der Hoeven Clin, Dept Res, NL-3500 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    de Vogel, Vivienne
    Van der Hoeven Clin, Dept Res, NL-3500 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Nijman, Henk L. I.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Psychol, Den Dolder, Netherlands.
    Changes in Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors for Violence During Inpatient Forensic Psychiatric Treatment: Predicting Reductions in Postdischarge Community Recidivism2015In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have rarely investigated the association between improvements on dynamic risk and protective factors for violence during forensic psychiatric treatment and reduced recidivism after discharge. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment progress in risk and protective factors on violent recidivism. For a sample of 108 discharged forensic psychiatric patients pre- and posttreatment assessments of risk (HCR-20) and protective factors (SAPROF) were compared. Changes were related to violent recidivism at different follow-up times after discharge. Improvements on risk and protective factors during treatment showed good predictive validity for abstention from violence for short-(1 year) as well as long-term (11 years) follow-up. This study demonstrates the sensitivity of the HCR-20 and the SAPROF to change and shows improvements on dynamic risk and protective factors are associated with lower violent recidivism long after treatment.

  • 27.
    Robbe, Michiel de Vries
    et al.
    Van der Hoeven Kliniek, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    de Vogel, Vivienne
    Van der Hoeven Kliniek, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Wever, Edwin C.
    Van der Hoeven Kliniek, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Douglas, Kevin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Canada.
    Nijman, Henk L. I.
    Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Risk and Protective Factors for Inpatient Aggression2016In: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1364-1385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic risk and protective factors serve to assess the violence risk level of (forensic) psychiatric patients and offer guidance to clinical interventions. Risk assessment scores on Historical Clinical Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) risk factors and Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF) protective factors at different treatment stages were compared with violent incidents during treatment for 399 multidisciplinary coded assessments on 185 male and female forensic psychiatric patients. At later stages of treatment, less risk factors and more protective factors were observed, and predictive validities were higher. The HCR-20 and SAPROF scores showed good overall predictive validity for inpatient violence. The combination of risk factors and protective factors was a good predictor of incidents of aggressive behavior for different groups of patients, such as patients with violent or sexual offending histories, patients with major mental illnesses or personality disorders, and patients with a high score on psychopathy. Implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  • 28. Ruiz, Marj A
    et al.
    Polythress, Norman G
    Lilienfeld, Scott O
    Douglas, Kevin S
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Factor Structure and Correlates of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in a Large Offender Sample2008In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 511-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined the psychometric properties, factor structure, and construct validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale ( DES) in a large offender sample (N = 1,515). Although the DES is widely used with community and clinical samples, minimal work has examined offender samples. Participants were administered self-report and interview measures, and a subsample was followed longitudinally to determine criminal and violent recidivism. The DES exhibited good psychometric properties, but an identified three-factor structure was of questionable replicability. Moreover, the DES factors displayed no evidence of differential correlates. DES total scores were correlated with trauma-related variables even after controlling for negative affectivity. Total scores were related to measures of antisocial behavior and aggression but did not predict recidivism. These findings support the reliability and construct validity of the DES in offenders but raise questions regarding the clinical utility of the DES factor scores above and beyond that of the total score.

  • 29.
    Shaffer, Cathrine
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Gatner, Dylan
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Gray, Andrew L.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Viljoen, Jodi L.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Tweed, Roger
    Kwantlen Polytechnic University, 12666 72 Avenue, Surrey, BC, United States.
    Bhatt, Gira
    Kwantlen Polytechnic University, 12666 72 Avenue, Surrey, BC, United States.
    Dooley, Stephen
    Kwantlen Polytechnic University, 12666 72 Avenue, Surrey, BC, United States.
    Gagnon, Nathalie
    Kwantlen Polytechnic University, 12666 72 Avenue, Surrey, BC, United States.
    Incremental and Predictive Validity of the Antisocial Process Screening Device in a Community Sample of Male and Female Ethnic Minority and Caucasian Youth2016In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1599-1612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) is a well-supported tool for assessing psychopathic features in youth. However, most research with the APSD has been derived from clinical and forensic samples comprised mainly of male Caucasian and African American adolescents. In this prospective study, the incremental and predictive validity of the self-report APSD for violent and non-violent offending was examined in an ethnically diverse community sample of male and female youth (N = 335) aged 12 to 14. High-school students from a moderate sized city in Western Canada completed the self-report APSD and then completed the Self-Report of Offending 6 months later. Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis indicated that APSD total and subscale scores were predictive of violent and non-violent offending at 6-month follow-up with moderate to large effect sizes. In addition, total scores on the APSD added incremental predictive utility above and beyond traditional criminogenic predictors of youth offending (i.e., prior offending, delinquent peer affiliation, poor school achievement, substance use, low parental monitoring). Although sex differences emerged in the predictive utility of the Impulsivity subscale of the APSD vis-à-vis violent offending, sex did not moderate the relationship between APSD total, Narcissism, or Callous/Unemotional scores and offending. In addition, the predictive utility of the APSD did not vary as a function of the youth’s ethnic background. These findings suggest that: (1) the self-report APSD may have utility for risk or threat assessment with normative school populations, (2) APSD findings from higher risk samples generalize to a lower risk sample of high-school youth, and (3) predictive utility of APSD total scores do not differ across male and female Caucasian and ethnic minority youth.

  • 30. Spain, S E
    et al.
    Douglas, K S
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Poythress, N G
    Epstein, M
    The relationship between psychopathic features, violence and treatment outcome: The comparison of three youth measures of psychopathic features2004In: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 85-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have compared self-report and clinician-administered measures of youth psychopathic features in juvenile-justice settings in terms of antisocial behavior and treatment indices. In a sample of 85 adjudicated delinquents, the predictive validities of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), the modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS), and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) were tested. Three indices of institutional antisocial behavior (physical aggression; verbal aggression; administrative infractions) and two indices of treatment progress (time to treatment level promotion; whether treatment levels were dropped) were used as external correlates. The self-report measures (mCPS more so than APSD) were more consistently and strongly related to antisocial behavior and to the days required to progress in treatment than the PCL:YV. The following issues are discussed: (i) implications of the potential impact of measurement format on the understanding and predictive validity of youth psychopathy features and measures; (ii) the differential predictive validity of self-report versus clinician-administered measures; and (iii) the potential practical utility of measures of psychopathic features in youth. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

  • 31.
    Strub, D. S.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada .
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Nicholls, T. L.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada .
    The Validity of Version 3 of the HCR-20 Violence Risk Assessment Scheme Amongst Offenders and Civil Psychiatric Patients2014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 148-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study presents an empirical evaluation of the performance of the third version of the HCR-20. This prospective research project was conducted using a sample of 106 offenders and psychiatric patients who were transitioning out of institutions and into the community. Results provided strong support for the bivariate associations between the ratings of the presence and relevance of risk factors, as well as summary risk ratings, and violence at 4 to 6 weeks and 6 to 8 months. Although relevance ratings did not add incrementally to presence ratings, summary risk ratings added incrementally to both. Findings were not moderated by either sub-sample or gender. Version 3 of the HCR-20 was highly correlated with Version 2. Associations with violence were comparable between instruments. Findings were supportive of these basic elements of Version 3. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 32.
    Wilson, Catherine M.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Mental Hlth Law & Policy Inst, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lyon, David R.
    Kwantlen Univ, Dept Criminol, Surrey, BC, Canada .
    Violence Against Teachers: Prevalence and Consequences2011In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 2353-2371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data collected from 731 teachers were used to examine the consequences of violence directed toward teachers while in the workplace. Analyses showed that the majority of respondents (n = 585, 80.0%) had experienced school-related violence-broadly defined-at one point in their careers. Serious violence (actual, attempted, or threatened physical violence) was less common, but still common enough to be of concern (n = 202, 27.6%). Violence predicted physical and emotional effects, as well as teaching-related functioning. In addition, a model with fear as a potential mediator revealed that both fear and violence were independently predictive of these negative outcomes. Finally, analyses showed that, in general, women reported higher levels of physical symptoms compared to men. We discuss the implications of violence against teachers in terms of personal consequences and the implications for mental health professionals working in an educational setting.

1 - 32 of 32
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