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  • 1.
    Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Umeå universitet.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Poly-victimization of Bullying, Sexual Harassment and Violence in Youth - A Latent Class Analysis2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Violence in a broad sense among youth is common and there is some evidence that there are groups of youth who are victims of more than one form of violence. More knowledge is needed in terms of patterning of subgroups of poly-victimization. The aim was to explore if there are distinct subgroups of youth with particular patterns of violence victimization.

    Method: Survey data from a Swedish sample (n = 1,569) of 14-16-year-olds were used (females 48.4%). Measures were physical violence, threat of physical violence, bullying, sexual harassment, and cyber bullying and harassment in the past six months as well as lifetime physical violence. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify subgroups of youth with particular violence victimization patterns. Model fit assessment was based on model parsimony, theoretical justification and fit indices criteria (the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion).

    Result: A three-latent-class model was selected: 1. Poly-victims with high probabilities of being victimized by a multitude of different types of violence (girls 47.6%). 2. Overall low probabilities of violence victimization (girls 47.5%). 3. High probabilities of victimization of sexual harassment off- and online as well as bullying online (girls 65.6%).

    Discussion: Three distinct subgroups of violence victimization in youth was evident in the data. There was a greater representation of girls in the purely sexualized violence sub-group. Further research and preventive programs should acknowledge that young people who are victims of one type of violence are likely also to be victims of other types of violence.

  • 2.
    Reinikainen, Lasse
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Umeå universitet.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Curating an exhibition in a university setting.: An autoethnographic study of an autoethnographic work2016In: Academic autoethnographies: Inside teaching in higher education / [ed] Pillay, D., Naicker, I. and Pithouse-Morgan, K., Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2016, p. 69-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Determinants of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: The Role of Sexual Harassment and Implications for Preventive Interventions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is considered the worldwide leading cause of illness and disability in young people and an urgent public health issue. Within the field of public health it is of interest to deepen the understanding of determinants of depressive symptoms (DS) that are possible to address on a political or an organizational level. Also, it is of great importance to find methods to prevent depression in adolescents. To address these issues, the present thesis had two Aims: I) To study determinants of DS in adolescents, and II) to, by means of a non-randomized pragmatic trial evaluation, investigate the effectiveness a cognitive-behavioral intervention (DISA) in a real-world setting in relation to determinants of DS in adolescent girls. This was addressed by asking a) Which determinants on individual, psychosocial and structural levels are associated with DS in adolescents? (Paper I); b) What are the directional pathways between sexual harassment (SH) and DS? (Paper II); c) Which features characterize students who were assigned to a cognitive-behavioral intervention regarding levels of DS, psychosocial aspects and socioeconomic status of the respondents as well as of schools? (Paper III); d) Does DISA have an effect on DS in girls aged 14-16? (Paper IV); and e) Are there differences between the DISA participants and non-participants in the effects of psychosocial and structural determinants on DS? (Paper IV). Method: Data was collected in January 2010, 2011, and 2012, by means of a self-administered, electronic questionnaire in school. Students aged 14-16 in all nine public and one independent high school in a municipality in northern Sweden participated in the study (~1,000-1,200 students depending on the wave). All studies had DS as the single outcome variable. Individual level determinants were self-esteem and self-efficacy. Psychosocial determinants were parental/peer/teacher support; school demands; sexual harassment; and bullying. Structural determinants were family material affluence; parental foreign background, parental employment status; disrupted family, and personal relative affluence. Logistic regression was employed for research question a) (Paper I). Structural equation (SEM) cross-lag models were modeled for research question b) (Paper II). The Mann-Whitney U statistic was employed for research question c) (Paper III). SEM was used for research questions d-e) (Paper IV). Results: Determinants on individual, psychosocial and structural levels were independently associated with depressive symptoms in both genders. Self-efficacy, low teacher support, bullying victimization, and low personal relative affluence was associated with elevated levels of DS in both genders (Paper I). In girls, low parental support, high school demands, and sexual harassment victimization (SH) were also associated with elevated levels of DS. Among boys, parental migrant background was also associated with DS. Among girls, both the targeting of girls with elevated DS, and the consequence of SH explained the relationship between DS and SH victimization over time. In boys, only the predating of DS explained the association between DS and SH (Paper II). Only girls were assigned to DISA during 2011 and DISA participants reported higher levels of DS and lower levels of self-esteem than the non-participants at pre-intervention, which indicates that DISA was used as a targeted intervention for girls with elevated symptoms. Also, DISA participants reported higher levels of SH victimization, less peer support, and lower personal relative affluence (Paper III). In contrast to the non-participants, DISA participants did not increase their mean scoring on DS at an eight months follow-up. However, SEM analyses showed that the effect of DISA participation on DS at follow-up was negligible (Paper IV). Conclusions: This study showed that SH victimization was an important determinant for DS in girls followed by personal relative affluence. Among boys, personal relative affluence and parental migrant background were the most important factors. SH victimization had mental health consequences in girls only. DISA was implemented as a targeted intervention rather than as selective or universal one, and did not have an effect on DS in this group of girls. Implications for further research and health promotion practice in the school setting are discussed.

  • 4.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and depressive symptoms in adolescence: a longitudinal cross-lagged study in a Swedish sample2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual harassment is commonly considered unwanted sexual attention and a form of gender-based violence that can take physical, verbal and visual forms and it is assumed to cause later depression in adolescents. There is a dearth of research explicitly testing this assumption and the directional pathway remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use a feminist theoretical framework to test competing models in respect of the direction of the relationships between dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and dimensions of depressive symptoms from ages14 to 16 in adolescents. The study also aimed to investigate gender differences inthese pathways. Cross-lagged models were conducted using a three-wave (2010, 2011 and 2012) longitudinal study of 2330 students (51 % females) from Sweden, adjusted for social background. Girls subjected to sexual harassment in grade seven continued to experience sexual harassment the following2 years. There was weaker evidence of repeated experience of sexual harassment among boys. Depressive symptoms were stable over time in both genders. Sexual name-calling was the dimension that had the strongest associations to all dimensions of depressive symptoms irrespective of gender. In girls, name-calling was associated with later somatic symptoms and negative affect, while anhedonia (reduced ability to experience pleasure) preceded later name-calling. Physical sexual harassment had a reciprocal relationship to somatic symptoms in girls. In boys, name-calling was preceded by all dimensions of depressive symptoms. It is an urgent matter to prevent sexual harassment victimization, as it is most likely to both cause depressive symptoms or a reciprocal cycle of victimization and depression symptoms in girls as well as boys.

  • 5.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Flickors psykiska ohälsa i skolan2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Peer sexual harassment and mental health in school: Does targeting individual resilience mean that we are avoiding social change?2015In: Being Young in a Neoliberal Time: Transnational Perspectives on Challenges and Possibilities for Resistance and Social Change / [ed] Katja Gillander Gådin and Claudia Mitchell, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2015, p. 65-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Online Sexual Victimisation in Youth: Predictors and Cross-Sectional Associations with Depressive Symptoms2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1018-1023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim was to analyze (i) the prevalence of online unwanted sexual solicitation (USS) victimization, (ii) predictors of online USS and (iii) the associations between online USS and depressive symptoms in Swedish pupils in grades 7–9.

    Methods

    An electronic questionnaire was disseminated in 2011 in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Total n = 1193 (boys n = 566; girls n= 627). Logistic regression models were fitted to test the cross-sectional associations between predictors of online USS and depressive symptoms, respectively.

    Results

    One third of girls and every fifth boy reported online USS victimization. In boys, predictors associated with online USS were offline bullying and sexual harassment victimization. Only offline sexual harassment victimization was associated with online USS in girls. Girls victimized by online USS had about twice the likelihood to report depressive symptoms compared to non-victimized girls. There were no associations between online USS and depressive symptoms in boys. While offline bullying was associated with depressive symptoms in both genders, offline sexual harassment victimization increased the likelihood to report depressive symptoms in girls only.

    Conclusions

    Online USS was common among Swedish youth, particularly among girls. Schools, parents and internet safety educators should look at co-occurrence of different forms of victimization as offline victimization was a predictor of online USS. Online USS was associated with depressive symptoms in girls and may hence be a factor driving gender inequity in mental health in youth.

  • 8.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Online Sexual Victimization in Youth: Predictors of Victimization and Associations with Depressive Symptoms in a Swedish Sample2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Umeå universitet.
    Almqvist, Ylva B
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A non-randomised pragmatic trial of a school-based group cognitive-behavioural programme for preventing depression in girls2017In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 76, no 1, article id 1396146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the DISA-programme in preventing depressive symptoms (DS) in adolescent girls, as implemented in a real-world school setting, accounting for baseline socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and to investigate whether the effects of these baseline variables on DS differed between intervention participants and non-participants. In this non-randomised pragmatic trial, an electronic questionnaire was disseminated in 2011 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) in schools in one municipality in northern Sweden. Pupils (total n=275; intervention participants identified in the questionnaire: n=53; non-partici-pants: n=222) were 14–15 years old at baseline. The groups were compared by means of SEM. DISA could not predict differences in DS at follow-up in this real-life setting. In the overall sample, sexual harassment victimisation (SH) at baseline was associated with DS at follow-up and the estimate for SH increased in the DISA-participants compared to the overall sample.

  • 10.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Umeå universitet.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A Latent Class Analysis of Violence Poly-victimization in Youth2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 483-484Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Violence among youth is common and has been linked to poor mental health outcomes. There is some evidence that there are groups of youth who are victims of more than one form of violence but more knowledge is needed in terms of patterning of subgroups of multiple violence victimization. Aim: To explore if there are distinct subgroups of youth with particular patterns of violence victimization. Method: Survey data from a Swedish sample (n = 1,569) of youth 14-16 years old were used (females 48.4%). Using a broad definition of violence, respondents indicated if they had experienced physical violence, threat of physical violence, bullying, sexual harassment, cyber bullying, online sexual victimization, and other adverse sexual experience in the past six months as well as lifetime physical violence victimization. Distinct subgroups of youth within the data set with particular patterns of violence victimization were identified using Latent Class Analysis (LCA). Model fit was assessed using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), with smaller values indicating better model fit. Results: Preliminary results show three distinct subgroups: 1. Sexualized violence off- and online (girls 66.6%), 2. Bullying only (girls 47.5%) and 3. Multi-victimization including threat of physical violence, violence in the past six months and lifetime, sexual harassment on- and offline, bullying on- and offline as well as other adverse sexual experience (girls 47.6%). Conclusions: Three distinct subgroups of violence victimization in a sample of 14-16 year old youth was evident in the data. There was a greater representation of girls in the sexualized violence sub-group. Further research as well as preventive programs should acknowledge that many young people are victims of several types of violence. Future research should also investigate the implications of multi-victimization on mental health outcomes.

  • 11.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Depressive symptoms and the associations with individual, psychosocial, and structural determinants in Swedish adolescents2012In: Health, ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 881-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depressive symptoms in adolescents are an in-creasing public health issue in Sweden and in most Western countries. Aim: To explore how individual, psychosocial, and structural deter-minants are associated with depressive symp-toms in Swedish adolescents. Methods: A web- based questionnaire was answered by 1193 13- to 16-year-old boys (n = 566) and girls (n = 627). Stepwise logistic regressions were employed to analyse the association between depressive sym- ptoms and various determinants at the individ-ual level (self-efficacy), the psychosocial level (parental, peer, and teacher support, school de-mands, sexual harassment, and bullying) and the structural level (family affluence, having less money than friends, and parental foreign back-ground). Results: Determinants at the individual, psychosocial, and structural levels were inde-pendently associated with high levels of depres-sive symptoms in both boys and girls. The full model explained a high proportion of the vari-ance in depressive symptoms in both genders; 34.1% in boys and 36.8% in girls. The psycho-social level contributed the most to explaining the variance in depressive symptoms in boys. In girls, when harassment variables were separated from psychosocial variables, the harassment var- iables contributed as much to the full model as the rest of the psychosocial variables combined. Conclusions: Addressing psychosocial determi-nants provides the greatest benefits for prevent-ing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Ac-knowledging the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms for girls and having less money than their friends for boys and girls are particularly important.

  • 12.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention?: Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden2015In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 74, p. 29805-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce.

    Objective. To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention.

    Design. Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15.

    Results. Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma.

    Conclusions. The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed.

  • 13.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Young, Robert
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Causal pathways of sexual harassment and depressive symptoms in adolescence2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Young, Robert
    MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Dimensions of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Study in a Swedish Sample2016In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 858-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual harassment is commonly considered unwanted sexual attention and a form of gender-based violence that can take physical, verbal and visual forms and it is assumed to cause later depression in adolescents. There is a dearth of research explicitly testing this assumption and the directional pathway remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use a feminist theoretical framework to test competing models in respect of the direction of the relationships between dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and dimensions of depressive symptoms from ages 14 to 16 in adolescents. The study also aimed to investigate gender differences in these pathways. Cross-lagged models were conducted using a three-wave (2010, 2011 and 2012) longitudinal study of 2330 students (51 % females) from Sweden, adjusted for social background. Girls subjected to sexual harassment in grade seven continued to experience sexual harassment the following 2 years. There was weaker evidence of repeated experience of sexual harassment among boys. Depressive symptoms were stable over time in both genders. Sexual name-calling was the dimension that had the strongest associations to all dimensions of depressive symptoms irrespective of gender. In girls, name-calling was associated with later somatic symptoms and negative affect, while anhedonia (reduced ability to experience pleasure) preceded later name-calling. Physical sexual harassment had a reciprocal relationship to somatic symptoms in girls. In boys, name-calling was preceded by all dimensions of depressive symptoms. It is an urgent matter to prevent sexual harassment victimization, as it is most likely to both cause depressive symptoms or a reciprocal cycle of victimization and depression symptoms in girls as well as boys.

1 - 14 of 14
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