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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Short communication: fruiting body production in two species of wood-decaying Basidiomycetes induced by pre-inoculation2016In: Mycological progress, ISSN 1617-416X, E-ISSN 1861-8952, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated pre-inoculation to induce fruiting body production in wood-decaying fungi, using two species that readily create basidiomata in the laboratory: Antrodia sinuosa and Junghuhnia luteoalba. A new method was implemented in which the substrate was modified by species-specific pre-inoculation. We found that the use of the pre-inoculated substrate reduced the length of time necessary for the production of fruiting bodies. Under these conditions, both species produced basidiomata in 1-2 weeks, whereas over 2 months was required on a non-modified substrate. Thus we conclude that the induction of fruiting body production by pre-inoculation is possible, and we discuss the effect of the substrate modification.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wood Fungi and Forest Fire2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This thesis focuses on wood fungi, and the effect of forest fire on this organism group. In many ways it is a study on adaptation to forest fire, in concurrence with adaptation to dry open habitats. In Paper I we study increased heat resistance in  mycelia from species prevalent in fire prone environments. Fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to different temperatures. Species prevalent in fire affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Based on this results the competitiveness was tested after temperature stress (paper II), three fire associated species, were tested against three non fire associated species. All fire associated species had a clear advantage after heat treatment, conquering a larger volume of wood than its competitor. In paper III we studied the effect of heat shock on decomposition rate, 18 species was tested. Species were cultivated and monitored for CO2 accumulation for 8 weeks and then heat shocked. All species including non fire associated species seemed to up-regulate decomposition after heat shock, this response was more pronounced in fire associated species. To look at the possible effect of forest fire on population structure (Paper IV), we developed 29 SNP/INDELs for Phlebiopsis. gigantea. We amplified the marker containing fragments in 132 individuals of P. gigantea in 6 populations, 3 which were found in areas affected by forest fire and 3 in unaffected areas. We found no genetic structure in accordance to forest fire. However we detected geographic structure, which stands in contrast to earlier studies. This might be due to the method, using SNP´s and number of individuals in the study. Finally we collected cross-sections of decayed logs to evaluate the number of fungal species domains that are likely to be hit when drilling a saw-dust sample in a log. We used these estimates to simulate how many species that will be found by a certain number of samples. We found that in 99% of the

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.2012In: Fungal Biology, ISSN 1878-6146, E-ISSN 1878-6162, Vol. 116, no 10, p. 1025-1031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Forest fire has for a long time been the major stand replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. For organisms to adopt to this phenomenon different strategies for protective measurements has evolved. This study focuses on the organism group of wood fungi, and one of several possibilities for adaptation to forest fire - increased heat resistance in the mycelia. 16 species of wood fungi where selected and sorted a priori according to their prevalence for fire affected substrate. These were isolated and re-inoculated on pine wood before testing. Experiments where done in a series where the mycelia was exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220°C for 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 min. A very clear difference was found, the group containing species with a prevalence for a fire affected substrate had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species with a more general ecology. This data suggests that increased heat resistance in mycelia could be a possible adaptation to forest fire. This in turn has major impacts on the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi. An increase in temperature could shift the population structure in a log, allowing minor non fruiting mycelia content to expand on the expense of earlier dominant colonizers. Furthermore this study has implications on how to control prescribed restoration burning events. When burning areas where the dead wood content is dominated by early decay stages, loss of species can be avoided by proper management.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of heat on interspecific competition in saprotrophic wood fungi2014In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 11, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some boreal wood fungi that are associated with forest fire or open dry habitats have an increased resistance to heat in comparison to species associated with a less specific distribution or species found in mesic forests. We hypothesize that extreme temperature-stress experienced during fires will favor species adapted to heat and, ultimately, the composition of species inhabiting logs in such habitats will change. Competitiveness after temperature stress was examined in three fire-associated species – Dichomitus squalens, Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Phlebiopsis gigantea – and three non fire-associated species – Ischnoderma benzoinum, Phellinus pini and Fomitopsis pinicola. There was a difference between the fire-associated species and the non fire-associated species with respect to competitive strength after heat stress. All fire-associated species had an advantage after heat treatment, colonizing a larger volume of wood than any non-fire-associated competitor. Our findings suggest that increased heat tolerance of mycelia can exert a competitive balance shift after forest fire. It shows that a system governed by forest fire will be dominance controlled under certain conditions. Furthermore, from a management perspective, during a prescribed burning, certain species already present in the ecosystem will be favored if the fire is not allowed to totally consume the substrates.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Increased CO2 evolution caused by heat treatment in wood-decaying fungi2017In: Mycological progress, ISSN 1617-416X, E-ISSN 1861-8952, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 513-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-decaying fungi are regarded as the main decomposers of woody debris in boreal forests. Given that fungal respiration makes a significant contribution to terrestrial carbon flows, it is important to understand how the wood-decaying fungal metabolism is regulated in relation to different environmental conditions and disturbances. In the present study, we investigated the effect of temperature stress on wood decomposition rate in 18 species of wood-decaying fungi, representing a broad range of species-habitat associations. Heat shock duration and temperature were calibrated to match the conditions of a forest fire. We found a general increase in fungal decay rate after heat shock; the response was more pronounced in species associated with fire-prone forests. The underlying mechanism is unclear, but possibly relates to an up-regulation at the cellular level in response to heat shock. Our results show that the decomposition rate of dead wood can be strongly affected by environmental triggers.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Increased decomposition, triggered by heat shock found in wood fungiManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fungi can be extremely heat resilient: several studies have shown that species can survive highly elevated temperatures relative to their growth optima. In this study we examine the effect of heat shock on subsequent decomposition rates. Sixteen species of wood fungi were tested over a period of 17 weeks. All strains were inoculated on to sterilized pine wood cylinders, placed in small bio chambers and tested twiice a week for CO2 accumulation. After 8 weeks all species were subjected to heat shock. We found that this triggered an increased decomposition rate in all species, this increase peaked 6 weeks after the shock. the peak was higher in wood fungi species that are associated with forest fires compared to specoes with no such association.

  • 7. Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Holm, Svante
    SNP development for P. gigantea; Method and resources. Primer noteManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phlebiopsis gigantea is an interesting species from many perspectives. It is common in many forests and can often be seen as an early colonizer on fresh wood after a clear cutting. After a forest fire it has been found to be abundant in newly burned forests, in some cases being the dominating species on the majority of logs and stumps (Olsson and Jonsson 2009; Eriksson et al. in prep.). In a study to test heat tolerance in species possibly favored by forest fire P. gigantea showed a remarkable resistance, allowing it not only to survive the forest fire but also to thrive in the microclimatic situation created by the event (Carlsson et al. in press). 

    It is used by forest agencies as a bio controller against Root rot (Rotstop©) from Heterobasidium annosum in parts of boreal fennoscandia, applied at 47 000 ha annually. The practice is that a solution of fungal spores is sprayed on to stumps of already logged trees to prevent the spread of the protagonist fungi. Spores from only one strain of P. gigantea have been used for preparation until the year of 2005 (Rishbeth 1959, Tohr 2003). The spread of genetic material from one individual could have consequences on the population structure of the species as well as other species present in the ecosystem. Stenlid et al. 2009 investigated the population structure in strains from 11 populations spread across the boreal zone from Finland to North America, using microsatellite markers.  And found that, so far very little effect from the use of the fungicide was detectable outside of the plots where Rotstop© was applied (Stenlid et al 2009).

    We aim to develop a set of snp markers for further use in a population study, looking at the effectors mentioned above. We will try to exclude the influence of fungicide usage to detect structures possibly created by forest fire.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Koch, Christin
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Testing the probability of finding major decomposing basidiomycetes in logs with T-RFLP - implications for field samplingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we examine the limitations and potential of T-RFLP for the accurate detection of fungal species in dead wood. We collected cross-sections of decayed logs to evaluate the number of fungal species domains that are likely to be hit when drilling a sawdust sample from a log. We used these estimates to simulate the number of species that would be found using a certain number of samples. We found that in 99% of the simulations, 4 or fewer species would be contained in a sample. Based on these results we tested the probability of detecting two species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes at three different DNA concentration ratios: 1:1, 1:5 and 1:20. An additional experiment was done with 3-5 species. It was possible to detect all species at ratios higher than 1:20 but lower than 1:5; in this range all peaks were easily detected. We were able to detect all species in the mixtures of 3-5 species, with extracts from both pure cultures and wood.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hållbart samhällsbyggande: statsvetenskapliga och biologiska perspektiv2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikten: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén, Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 72-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Strong clustering in a SNP study of Phlebiopsis gigantea in swedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population structures of wood decaying basidomycetes depend on several factors; one is dispersal pattern of spores, another is age structure including lifespan and also environmental impacts like forest fires. Phlebiopsis gigantea has been shown to be in the group of basidomycetes that have a well developed tolerance to heat, is long-distance wind dispersed and whose fruit body show up early in succession on fallen logs. In a study of 132 individuals from 3 pairs of locations, 350 km apart, in middle to northern Sweden we used 26 SNP-markers in 6 loci to make a genetic clustering study using STRUCTURE (v. 2.3.4.). The hypothesis; first, clustering should follow the geographic sampling locations with more gene flow between geographically close locations, second; that genetic distance between different clusters should be low due to the long distance dispersal of spores, third; as markers are random we don’t expect to find a correlation between locations affected by forest fires and locations not affected by forest fires. In the study we found 5 clusters (Pr[K= 1]) with moderate to high Fst values (0,0697-03939). Clusters had a poor geographical correlation to sampled populations indicating a complicated population structure. Out of 132 individuals 119 had a private genotype showing a large genetic variation over the total area and a low level of clones in the field.         

  • 11.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    One-pot synthesis of cellulose-templated copper nanoparticles with antibacterial properties2017In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 187, p. 170-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a facile in situ synthesis of spherical copper nanoparticles (NPs) templated by a gelled cellulose II matrix under alkaline aqueous reaction conditions. In under 20 min, the hybrid material could be obtained in a one-pot reaction. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed that the polycrystalline NPs of 200–500 nm were well distributed in the regenerated cellulose matrix. The average Cu crystallite size was of the order of 20 nm, as estimated from both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FE-SEM. XRD data also indicated that the composite contained up to approximately 20% Cu2O. In suspensions containing the hybrid material, growth of Escerichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains was inhibited by 80% and 95%, respectively, after 72 h. The synthesis procedure offers a general approach to designing various low-cost hybrid materials of almost any shape, and the concept could be extended to utilization areas such as catalysis, functional textiles, and food packaging as well as to electronic applications.

  • 12.
    Sandström, Jennie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wei, Yu-Lian
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wood-inhabiting fungi in rocky pine forests in the High Coast Region in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Escherichia coli Bacteria Develop Adaptive Resistance to Antibacterial ZnO Nanoparticles2018In: Advanced Biosystem, ISSN 2366-7478, Vol. 2, no 5, article id 1800019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibacterial agents based on nanoparticles (NPs) have many important applications, e.g., for the textile industry, surface disinfection, wound dressing, water treatment, and food preservation. Because of their prevalent use it is important to understand whether bacteria could develop resistance to such antibacterial NPs similarly to the resistance that bacteria are known to develop to antibiotics. Here, it is reported that Escherichia coli(E. coli) develops adaptive resistance to antibacterial ZnO NPs after several days' exposure to the NPs. But, in contrast to antibiotics‐resistance, the observed resistance to ZnO NPs is not stable—after several days without exposure to the NPs, the bacteria regain their sensitivity to the NPs' antibacterial properties. Based on the analyses it is suggested that the observed resistance is caused by changes in the shape of the bacteria and the expressions of membrane proteins. The findings provide insights into the response of bacteria to antibacterial NPs, which is important to elucidate for designing and evaluating the risk of applications based on antibacterial NPs.

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