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  • 1. Ali Khan, A.
    et al.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaakinen, M.
    Pouta, A.
    Hartikainen, A-L
    Järvelin, M-R
    Does in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids influence birthweight, head circumference and birth length?: A systematic review of current evidence in humans2011In: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, E-ISSN 1365-3016, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 20-36Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are the mainstay treatment for stimulating lung maturation in threatened preterm delivery. Animal studies suggest that in utero exposure to glucocorticoids leads to a reduction in birth size. Smaller birthweight has been associated with higher risk of many chronic diseases. Therefore, the authors undertook a systematic review of human studies examining the association between synthetic glucocorticoid treatment and birth size. Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane, Google scholar and Institute of Life Science databases were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2009 investigating the association between synthetic glucocorticoids and birthweight, head circumference, birth length and ponderal index. All studies controlling for gestational age were examined. Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. Nine out of 17 studies reported a reduction in birthweight (range 12-332 g), five of nine a reduction of head circumference (range 0.31-1.02 cm) and two of four a reduction of 0.8 cm in birth length. Despite methodological inconsistencies and limitations that impede clear conclusions, the evidence suggests an association between in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids and reduced birth size.

  • 2.
    Buxton, Jessica L.
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Med, Sect Investigat Med, London, England.
    Das, Shikta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Environm & Hlth, MRC,Publ Hlth England,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Environm & Hlth, MRC,Publ Hlth England,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Kaakinen, Marika
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Environm & Hlth, MRC,Publ Hlth England,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Alves, Alexessander Couto
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Environm & Hlth, MRC,Publ Hlth England,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Sebert, Sylvain
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Millwood, Iona Y.
    Univ Oxford, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.
    Laitinen, Jaana
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    O'Reilly, Paul F.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, MRC, Social Genet & Dev Psychiat Ctr, London, England.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Children & Young People & Families, Oulu, Finland.
    Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Med, Sect Investigat Med, London, England.
    Multiple Measures of Adiposity Are Associated with Mean Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 19662014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. Art. no. e99133-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and adiposity have produced conflicting results, and the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and telomere length throughout life remains unclear. We therefore tested association of adult LTL measured in 5,598 participants with: i) childhood growth measures (BMI and age at adiposity rebound (AR)); ii) change in BMI from childhood to adulthood and iii) adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body adiposity index (BAI). Childhood BMI at AR was positively associated with LTL at 31 years in women (P = 0.041). Adult BMI and WHR in both men (P = 0.025 and P = 0.049, respectively) and women (P = 0.029 and P = 0.008, respectively), and BAI in women (P = 0.021) were inversely associated with LTL at 31 years. An increase in standardised BMI between early childhood and adulthood was associated with shorter adult LTL in women (P = 0.008). We show that LTL is inversely associated with multiple measures of adiposity in both men and women. Additionally, BMI increase in women from childhood to adulthood is associated with shorter telomeres at age 31, potentially indicating accelerated biological ageing.

  • 3.
    Chen, Qi
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sjölander, Arvid
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Långström, Niklas
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Serlachius, Eva
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    D'Onofrio, Brian M.
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States .
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study using a sibling-comparison design2014In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study via linkage of Swedish national and regional registers to investigate maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (underweight: BMI < 18.5; overweight: 25 BMI < 30; obesity: BMI epsilon 30) in relation to offspring ADHD. We followed 673 632 individuals born in Sweden between 1992 and 2000, with prospectively collected information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, until they received an ADHD diagnosis or ADHD medication, death, emigration or 31 December 2009. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Stratified Cox proportional hazards models were applied to data on full siblings to control for unmeasured familial confounding. Results At the population level, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with increased risk of offspring ADHD (HRoverweight = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.18-1.27, P = 0.01; HRobesity = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.57-1.73, P = 0.01), after adjustment for measured covariates. In full sibling comparisons, however, previously observed associations no longer remained (HRoverweight = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.83-1.16, P = 0.82; HRobesity = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.85-1.56, P = 0.38). Conclusions The results suggested that the association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and offspring ADHD could be ascribed to unmeasured familial confounding.

  • 4.
    Fabian, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Waldenström, Ulla
    Women with non-Swedish speaking background and their children: a longitudinal study of uptake of care and maternal and child health2008In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 97, no 12, p. 1721-1728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study uptake of care at the antenatal and child health clinic (CHC), and maternal and child health up to 5 years after the birth, as reported by mothers with a non-Swedish speaking background (NSB).

    Methods: A sample of 300 women with a NSB, 175 originated from a poor country and 125 originated from a rich country, were compared with a reference group of 2761 women with a Swedish speaking background. Four postal questionnaires were completed: during pregnancy, and 2 months, 1 year and 5 years after the birth.

    Results: Mothers with a NSB from a poor country of origin did not differ from the reference group of mothers with a Swedish speaking background regarding number of clinic visits, but they had a lower attendance rate at antenatal and postnatal education classes. Depressive symptoms, parental stress and poor self-rated health were more common in these women, and they reported more psychological and behavioral problems in their 5-year olds. Women with a rich country origin did not differ from the reference group regarding maternal and child health, but had a lower uptake of all out-patient care, except parental classes after the birth.

    Conclusion: Women originating from a poor country seem to be under great stress during pregnancy and the child's first years.

  • 5.
    Fernandes, C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Grayton, H.
    MRC Social Genetic Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Poston, L.
    Division of Women's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Samuelsson, A. -M
    Division of Women's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Taylor, P. D.
    Division of Women's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Collier, D. A.
    MRC Social Genetic Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Prenatal exposure to maternal obesity leads to hyperactivity in offspring2012In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 17, no 12, p. 1159-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Forouzanfar, Mohammad H
    et al.
    Alexander, Lily
    Anderson, H Ross
    Bachman, Victoria F
    Biryukov, Stan
    Brauer, Michael
    Burnett, Richard
    Casey, Daniel
    Coates, Matthew M
    Cohen, Aaron
    Delwiche, Kristen
    Estep, Kara
    Frostad, Joseph J
    Astha, K C
    Kyu, Hmwe H
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Ng, Marie
    Slepak, Erica Leigh
    Thomas, Bernadette A
    Wagner, Joseph
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abera, Semaw F
    Aboyans, Victor
    Abraham, Biju
    Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal
    Abubakar, Ibrahim
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
    Aburto, Tania C
    Achoki, Tom
    Adelekan, Ademola
    Adofo, Koranteng
    Adou, Arsène K
    Adsuar, José C
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Agardh, Emilie E
    Al Khabouri, Mazin J
    Al Lami, Faris H
    Alam, Sayed Saidul
    Alasfoor, Deena
    Albittar, Mohammed I
    Alegretti, Miguel A
    Aleman, Alicia V
    Alemu, Zewdie A
    Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael
    Alhabib, Samia
    Ali, Raghib
    Ali, Mohammed K
    Alla, François
    Allebeck, Peter
    Allen, Peter J
    Alsharif, Ubai
    Alvarez, Elena
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Amankwaa, Adansi A
    Amare, Azmeraw T
    Ameh, Emmanuel A
    Ameli, Omid
    Amini, Heresh
    Ammar, Walid
    Anderson, Benjamin O
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
    Anwari, Palwasha
    Argeseanu Cunningham, Solveig
    Arnlöv, Johan
    Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic
    Artaman, Al
    Asghar, Rana J
    Assadi, Reza
    Atkins, Lydia S
    Atkinson, Charles
    Avila, Marco A
    Awuah, Baffour
    Badawi, Alaa
    Bahit, Maria C
    Bakfalouni, Talal
    Balakrishnan, Kalpana
    Balalla, Shivanthi
    Balu, Ravi Kumar
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Barber, Ryan M
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
    Barquera, Simon
    Barregard, Lars
    Barrero, Lope H
    Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh
    Basto-Abreu, Ana C
    Basu, Arindam
    Basu, Sanjay
    Basulaiman, Mohammed O
    Batis Ruvalcaba, Carolina
    Beardsley, Justin
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Bekele, Tolesa
    Bell, Michelle L
    Benjet, Corina
    Bennett, Derrick A
    Benzian, Habib
    Bernabé, Eduardo
    Beyene, Tariku J
    Bhala, Neeraj
    Bhalla, Ashish
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
    Bikbov, Boris
    Bin Abdulhak, Aref A
    Blore, Jed D
    Blyth, Fiona M
    Bohensky, Megan A
    Bora Başara, Berrak
    Borges, Guilherme
    Bornstein, Natan M
    Bose, Dipan
    Boufous, Soufiane
    Bourne, Rupert R
    Brainin, Michael
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Breitborde, Nicholas J
    Brenner, Hermann
    Briggs, Adam D M
    Broday, David M
    Brooks, Peter M
    Bruce, Nigel G
    Brugha, Traolach S
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Buchbinder, Rachelle
    Bui, Linh N
    Bukhman, Gene
    Bulloch, Andrew G
    Burch, Michael
    Burney, Peter G J
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael R
    Campuzano, Julio C
    Cantoral, Alejandra J
    Caravanos, Jack
    Cárdenas, Rosario
    Cardis, Elisabeth
    Carpenter, David O
    Caso, Valeria
    Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A
    Castro, Ruben E
    Catalá-López, Ferrán
    Cavalleri, Fiorella
    Çavlin, Alanur
    Chadha, Vineet K
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Charlson, Fiona J
    Chen, Honglei
    Chen, Wanqing
    Chen, Zhengming
    Chiang, Peggy P
    Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Christophi, Costas A
    Chuang, Ting-Wu
    Chugh, Sumeet S
    Cirillo, Massimo
    Claßen, Thomas K D
    Colistro, Valentina
    Colomar, Mercedes
    Colquhoun, Samantha M
    Contreras, Alejandra G
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Cooperrider, Kimberly
    Cooper, Leslie T
    Coresh, Josef
    Courville, Karen J
    Criqui, Michael H
    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia
    Damsere-Derry, James
    Danawi, Hadi
    Dandona, Lalit
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Dargan, Paul I
    Davis, Adrian
    Davitoiu, Dragos V
    Dayama, Anand
    de Castro, E Filipa
    De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa
    De Leo, Diego
    de Lima, Graça
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja
    Dellavalle, Robert P
    Deribe, Kebede
    Derrett, Sarah
    Des Jarlais, Don C
    Dessalegn, Muluken
    deVeber, Gabrielle A
    Devries, Karen M
    Dharmaratne, Samath D
    Dherani, Mukesh K
    Dicker, Daniel
    Ding, Eric L
    Dokova, Klara
    Dorsey, E Ray
    Driscoll, Tim R
    Duan, Leilei
    Durrani, Adnan M
    Ebel, Beth E
    Ellenbogen, Richard G
    Elshrek, Yousef M
    Endres, Matthias
    Ermakov, Sergey P
    Erskine, Holly E
    Eshrati, Babak
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Fahimi, Saman
    Faraon, Emerito Jose A
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Fay, Derek F J
    Feigin, Valery L
    Feigl, Andrea B
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Ferrari, Alize J
    Ferri, Cleusa P
    Flaxman, Abraham D
    Fleming, Thomas D
    Foigt, Nataliya
    Foreman, Kyle J
    Paleo, Urbano Fra
    Franklin, Richard C
    Gabbe, Belinda
    Gaffikin, Lynne
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Gamkrelidze, Amiran
    Gankpé, Fortuné G
    Gansevoort, Ron T
    García-Guerra, Francisco A
    Gasana, Evariste
    Geleijnse, Johanna M
    Gessner, Bradford D
    Gething, Pete
    Gibney, Katherine B
    Gillum, Richard F
    Ginawi, Ibrahim A M
    Giroud, Maurice
    Giussani, Giorgia
    Goenka, Shifalika
    Goginashvili, Ketevan
    Gomez Dantes, Hector
    Gona, Philimon
    Gonzalez de Cosio, Teresita
    González-Castell, Dinorah
    Gotay, Carolyn C
    Goto, Atsushi
    Gouda, Hebe N
    Guerrant, Richard L
    Gugnani, Harish C
    Guillemin, Francis
    Gunnell, David
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Gutiérrez, Reyna A
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Hagan, Holly
    Hagstromer, Maria
    Halasa, Yara A
    Hamadeh, Randah R
    Hammami, Mouhanad
    Hankey, Graeme J
    Hao, Yuantao
    Harb, Hilda L
    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Hay, Simon I
    Hedayati, Mohammad T
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana B
    Hernandez, Lucia
    Heuton, Kyle R
    Heydarpour, Pouria
    Hijar, Martha
    Hoek, Hans W
    Hoffman, Howard J
    Hornberger, John C
    Hosgood, H Dean
    Hoy, Damian G
    Hsairi, Mohamed
    Hu, Guoqing
    Hu, Howard
    Huang, Cheng
    Huang, John J
    Hubbell, Bryan J
    Huiart, Laetitia
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Iannarone, Marissa L
    Iburg, Kim M
    Idrisov, Bulat T
    Ikeda, Nayu
    Innos, Kaire
    Inoue, Manami
    Islami, Farhad
    Ismayilova, Samaya
    Jacobsen, Kathryn H
    Jansen, Henrica A
    Jarvis, Deborah L
    Jassal, Simerjot K
    Jauregui, Alejandra
    Jayaraman, Sudha
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Jensen, Paul N
    Jha, Vivekanand
    Jiang, Fan
    Jiang, Guohong
    Jiang, Ying
    Jonas, Jost B
    Juel, Knud
    Kan, Haidong
    Kany Roseline, Sidibe S
    Karam, Nadim E
    Karch, André
    Karema, Corine K
    Karthikeyan, Ganesan
    Kaul, Anil
    Kawakami, Norito
    Kazi, Dhruv S
    Kemp, Andrew H
    Kengne, Andre P
    Keren, Andre
    Khader, Yousef S
    Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan
    Khan, Ejaz A
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khatibzadeh, Shahab
    Khonelidze, Irma
    Kieling, Christian
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Sungroul
    Kim, Yunjin
    Kimokoti, Ruth W
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Kinge, Jonas M
    Kissela, Brett M
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Knibbs, Luke D
    Knudsen, Ann Kristin
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Kose, M Rifat
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Kraemer, Alexander
    Kravchenko, Michael
    Krishnaswami, Sanjay
    Kromhout, Hans
    Ku, Tiffany
    Kuate Defo, Barthelemy
    Kucuk Bicer, Burcu
    Kuipers, Ernst J
    Kulkarni, Chanda
    Kulkarni, Veena S
    Kumar, G Anil
    Kwan, Gene F
    Lai, Taavi
    Lakshmana Balaji, Arjun
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Lallukka, Tea
    Lam, Hilton
    Lan, Qing
    Lansingh, Van C
    Larson, Heidi J
    Larsson, Anders
    Laryea, Dennis O
    Lavados, Pablo M
    Lawrynowicz, Alicia E
    Leasher, Janet L
    Lee, Jong-Tae
    Leigh, James
    Leung, Ricky
    Levi, Miriam
    Li, Yichong
    Li, Yongmei
    Liang, Juan
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Lim, Stephen S
    Lindsay, M Patrice
    Lipshultz, Steven E
    Liu, Shiwei
    Liu, Yang
    Lloyd, Belinda K
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    London, Stephanie J
    Lopez, Nancy
    Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie
    Lotufo, Paulo A
    Lozano, Rafael
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Ma, Jixiang
    Ma, Stefan
    Machado, Vasco M P
    MacIntyre, Michael F
    Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos
    Mahdi, Abbas A
    Majdan, Marek
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Mangalam, Srikanth
    Mapoma, Christopher C
    Marape, Marape
    Marcenes, Wagner
    Margolis, David J
    Margono, Christopher
    Marks, Guy B
    Martin, Randall V
    Marzan, Melvin B
    Mashal, Mohammad T
    Masiye, Felix
    Mason-Jones, Amanda J
    Matsushita, Kunihiro
    Matzopoulos, Richard
    Mayosi, Bongani M
    Mazorodze, Tasara T
    McKay, Abigail C
    McKee, Martin
    McLain, Abigail
    Meaney, Peter A
    Medina, Catalina
    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
    Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola
    Mekonnen, Wubegzier
    Melaku, Yohannes A
    Meltzer, Michele
    Memish, Ziad A
    Mendoza, Walter
    Mensah, George A
    Meretoja, Atte
    Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary
    Micha, Renata
    Miller, Ted R
    Mills, Edward J
    Misganaw, Awoke
    Mishra, Santosh
    Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah
    Mohammad, Karzan A
    Mokdad, Ali H
    Mola, Glen L
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    Montañez Hernandez, Julio C
    Montico, Marcella
    Moore, Ami R
    Morawska, Lidia
    Mori, Rintaro
    Moschandreas, Joanna
    Moturi, Wilkister N
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Mueller, Ulrich O
    Mukaigawara, Mitsuru
    Mullany, Erin C
    Murthy, Kinnari S
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Nahas, Ziad
    Naheed, Aliya
    Naidoo, Kovin S
    Naldi, Luigi
    Nand, Devina
    Nangia, Vinay
    Narayan, K M Venkat
    Nash, Denis
    Neal, Bruce
    Nejjari, Chakib
    Neupane, Sudan P
    Newton, Charles R
    Ngalesoni, Frida N
    Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu
    Nguyen, Grant
    Nguyen, Nhung T
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
    Nisar, Muhammad I
    Nogueira, José R
    Nolla, Joan M
    Nolte, Sandra
    Norheim, Ole F
    Norman, Rosana E
    Norrving, Bo
    Nyakarahuka, Luke
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Ohkubo, Takayoshi
    Olusanya, Bolajoko O
    Omer, Saad B
    Opio, John Nelson
    Orozco, Ricardo
    Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S
    Pain, Amanda W
    Pandian, Jeyaraj D
    Panelo, Carlo Irwin A
    Papachristou, Christina
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Parry, Charles D
    Paternina Caicedo, Angel J
    Patten, Scott B
    Paul, Vinod K
    Pavlin, Boris I
    Pearce, Neil
    Pedraza, Lilia S
    Pedroza, Andrea
    Pejin Stokic, Ljiljana
    Pekericli, Ayfer
    Pereira, David M
    Perez-Padilla, Rogelio
    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando
    Perico, Norberto
    Perry, Samuel A L
    Pervaiz, Aslam
    Pesudovs, Konrad
    Peterson, Carrie B
    Petzold, Max
    Phillips, Michael R
    Phua, Hwee Pin
    Plass, Dietrich
    Poenaru, Dan
    Polanczyk, Guilherme V
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Pond, Constance D
    Pope, C Arden
    Pope, Daniel
    Popova, Svetlana
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Powles, John
    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
    Prasad, Noela M
    Qato, Dima M
    Quezada, Amado D
    Quistberg, D Alex A
    Racapé, Lionel
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Rahman, Sajjad Ur
    Raju, Murugesan
    Rakovac, Ivo
    Rana, Saleem M
    Rao, Mayuree
    Razavi, Homie
    Reddy, K Srinath
    Refaat, Amany H
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    Ribeiro, Antonio L
    Riccio, Patricia M
    Richardson, Lee
    Riederer, Anne
    Robinson, Margaret
    Roca, Anna
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rojas-Rueda, David
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Ronfani, Luca
    Room, Robin
    Roy, Nobhojit
    Ruhago, George M
    Rushton, Lesley
    Sabin, Nsanzimana
    Sacco, Ralph L
    Saha, Sukanta
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Salomon, Joshua A
    Salvo, Deborah
    Sampson, Uchechukwu K
    Sanabria, Juan R
    Sanchez, Luz Maria
    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G
    Sanchez-Riera, Lidia
    Sandar, Logan
    Santos, Itamar S
    Sapkota, Amir
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Saunders, James E
    Sawhney, Monika
    Saylan, Mete I
    Scarborough, Peter
    Schmidt, Jürgen C
    Schneider, Ione J C
    Schöttker, Ben
    Schwebel, David C
    Scott, James G
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G
    Serdar, Berrin
    Servan-Mori, Edson E
    Shaddick, Gavin
    Shahraz, Saeid
    Levy, Teresa Shamah
    Shangguan, Siyi
    She, Jun
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Shin, Hwashin H
    Shinohara, Yukito
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shishani, Kawkab
    Shiue, Ivy
    Sigfusdottir, Inga D
    Silberberg, Donald H
    Simard, Edgar P
    Sindi, Shireen
    Singh, Abhishek
    Singh, Gitanjali M
    Singh, Jasvinder A
    Skirbekk, Vegard
    Sliwa, Karen
    Soljak, Michael
    Soneji, Samir
    Søreide, Kjetil
    Soshnikov, Sergey
    Sposato, Luciano A
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T
    Stapelberg, Nicolas J C
    Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
    Steckling, Nadine
    Stein, Dan J
    Stein, Murray B
    Stephens, Natalie
    Stöckl, Heidi
    Straif, Kurt
    Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos
    Sturua, Lela
    Sunguya, Bruno F
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Swaroop, Mamta
    Sykes, Bryan L
    Tabb, Karen M
    Takahashi, Ken
    Talongwa, Roberto T
    Tandon, Nikhil
    Tanne, David
    Tanner, Marcel
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    Te Ao, Braden J
    Teixeira, Carolina M
    Téllez Rojo, Martha M
    Terkawi, Abdullah S
    Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis
    Thackway, Sarah V
    Thomson, Blake
    Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L
    Thrift, Amanda G
    Thurston, George D
    Tillmann, Taavi
    Tobollik, Myriam
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Towbin, Jeffrey A
    Toyoshima, Hideaki
    Traebert, Jefferson
    Tran, Bach X
    Trasande, Leonardo
    Trillini, Matias
    Trujillo, Ulises
    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala
    Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis
    Tuzcu, Emin Murat
    Uchendu, Uche S
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N
    Uzun, Selen B
    van de Vijver, Steven
    Van Dingenen, Rita
    van Gool, Coen H
    van Os, Jim
    Varakin, Yuri Y
    Vasankari, Tommi J
    Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N
    Vavilala, Monica S
    Veerman, Lennert J
    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
    Venketasubramanian, N
    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi
    Villalpando, Salvador
    Violante, Francesco S
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Wagner, Gregory R
    Waller, Stephen G
    Wallin, Mitchell T
    Wan, Xia
    Wang, Haidong
    Wang, JianLi
    Wang, Linhong
    Wang, Wenzhi
    Wang, Yanping
    Warouw, Tati S
    Watts, Charlotte H
    Weichenthal, Scott
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Weintraub, Robert G
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wessells, K Ryan
    Westerman, Ronny
    Whiteford, Harvey A
    Wilkinson, James D
    Williams, Hywel C
    Williams, Thomas N
    Woldeyohannes, Solomon M
    Wolfe, Charles D A
    Wong, John Q
    Woolf, Anthony D
    Wright, Jonathan L
    Wurtz, Brittany
    Xu, Gelin
    Yan, Lijing L
    Yang, Gonghuan
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Yenesew, Muluken
    Yentür, Gökalp K
    Yip, Paul
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Younis, Mustafa Z
    Younoussi, Zourkaleini
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zaki, Maysaa E
    Zhao, Yong
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Zhu, Jun
    Zhu, Shankuan
    Zou, Xiaonong
    Zunt, Joseph R
    Lopez, Alan D
    Vos, Theo
    Murray, Christopher J
    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.2015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, no 10010, p. 2287-2323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

    METHODS: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.

    FINDINGS: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.

    INTERPRETATION: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • 7.
    Forrester, Gillian S.
    et al.
    Univ Westminster, Fac Sci & Technol, Dept Psychol, London W1W 6UW, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Fac Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England.
    Slip of the tongue: Implications for evolution and language development2015In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 141, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prevailing theory regarding the evolution of language implicates a gestural stage prior to the emergence of speech. In support of a transition of human language from a gestural to a vocal system, articulation of the hands and the tongue are underpinned by overlapping left hemisphere dominant neural regions. Behavioral studies demonstrate that human adults perform sympathetic mouth actions in imitative synchrony with manual actions. Additionally, right-handedness for precision manual actions in children has been correlated with the typical development of language, while a lack of hand bias has been associated with psychopathology. It therefore stands to reason that sympathetic mouth actions during fine precision motor action of the hands may be lateralized. We employed a fine-grained behavioral coding paradigm to provide the first investigation of tongue protrusions in typically developing 4-year old children. Tongue protrusions were investigated across a range of cognitive tasks that required varying degrees of manual action: precision motor action, gross motor action and no motor actions. The rate of tongue protrusions was influenced by the motor requirements of the task and tongue protrusions were significantly right-biased for only precision manual motor action (p < .001). From an evolutionary perspective, tongue protrusions can drive new investigations regarding how an early human communication system transitioned from hand to mouth. From a developmental perspective, the present study may serve to reveal patterns of tongue protrusions during the motor development of typically developing children. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundervold, Astri
    University of Bergen.
    Taanila, Anja
    University of Oulu.
    Heiervang, Einar
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen.
    Loo, Sandra
    University of California Los Angeles.
    Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Imperial College London.
    Smalley, Susan
    Univiersity of California Los Angeles.
    Moilanen, Irma
    University of Oulu.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Independent contributions of cognitive functioning and social risk factors to symptoms of ADHD in two Nordic population-based cohorts2009In: Developmental Neuropsychology, ISSN 8756-5641, E-ISSN 1532-6942, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 721-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined independent contributions of executive functioning   (EF), state regulation (SR), and social risk factors to symptom   dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in two   cohorts, which included 221 Norwegian children and 294 Finnish   adolescents. Independent contributions of EF and SR were shown in the   Norwegian cohort and EF contributed independently in the Finnish   cohort. When controlling for each symptom dimension, cognitive   functioning and social risk factors were differentially associated with   inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. The results show   the need to include both social risk factors and cognitive functioning   to obtain a better understanding of ADHD symptoms.

  • 9.
    Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Cognitive functioning and family risk factors in relation to symptom behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tillman, Carin M.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents2012In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and ODD behaviors. Method: A sample of 120 adolescents from the general population was assessed on various cognitive tasks. ADHD and ODD behaviors were measured through parental and teacher ratings based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) criteria. Parents and adolescents provided information regarding measures of family risk factors. Results: The results show that only cognitive functioning was associated with ADHD behaviors, and family risk factors were, independent of cognitive functioning, associated with ODD behaviors. Conclusion: These results suggest that cognitive performance bears a specific significance for ADHD behaviors, whereas family risk factors have specific importance for ODD behaviors.

  • 10. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators,
    et al.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.2015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, no 9995, p. 743-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013.

    METHODS: Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries.

    FINDINGS: Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1·6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537·6 million in 1990 to 764·8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21·1% in 1990 to 31·2% in 2013.

    INTERPRETATION: Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • 11.
    Hansson, Mats G
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Kihlbom, Ulrik
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Tuvemo, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Olsen, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Ethics takes time, but not that long2007In: BMC Medical Ethics, ISSN 1472-6939, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Time and communication are important aspects of the medical consultation.Physician behavior in real-life pediatric consultations in relation to ethical practice, such as informedconsent (provision of information, understanding), respect for integrity and patient autonomy(decision-making), has not been subjected to thorough empirical investigation. Such investigationsare important tools in developing sound ethical praxis.

    Methods: 21 consultations for inguinal hernia were video recorded and observers independentlyassessed global impressions of provision of information, understanding, respect for integrity, andparticipation in decision making. The consultations were analyzed for the occurrence of specificphysician verbal and nonverbal behaviors and length of time in minutes.

    Results: All of the consultations took less than 20 minutes, the majority consisting of 10 minutesor less. Despite this narrow time frame, we found strong and consistent association betweenincreasing time and higher ratings on all components of ethical practice: information, (β = .43),understanding (β = .52), respect for integrity (β = .60), and decision making (β = .43). Positivenonverbal behaviors by physicians during the consultation were associated particularly with respectfor integrity (β =.36). Positive behaviors by physicians during the physical examination were relatedto respect for children's integrity.

    Conclusion: Time was of essence for the ethical encounter. Further, verbal and nonverbal positivebehaviors by the physicians also contributed to higher ratings of ethical aspects. These results canhelp to improve quality of ethical practice in pediatric settings and are of relevance for teaching andpolicy makers.

  • 12.
    Hansson, Mats G
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Kihlbom, Ulrik
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Tuvemo, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Concern for privacy in relation to age during physical examination of children: an exploratory study2009In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 8, p. 1349-1354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether physicians behave differently regarding ethics and respect for privacy depending on children's age. We explored whether physician behaviours contributed to child uneasiness. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study of 21 children (0-12 years; 18 boys; mean age 3.2) undergoing evaluation for inguinal hernia. Specific physician-initiated verbal and nonverbal behaviours were coded from digital video discs of the consultations. RESULTS: Physician intrusiveness (i.e. approaching the child suddenly or in an uninvited way) during the physical examination was related to concurrent child uneasiness (r = 0.42, p < 0.06) and lasted through the postexamination phase of the consultation (r = 0.52, p < 0.01). Child mood during the examination strongly predicted postexamination mood (r = 0.69, p < 0.0001). Neither the total number of physician-initiated positive behaviours or privacy-related behaviours was associated with child age. Negative physician behaviours were strongly related to negative mood in the child (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001) at the close of the consultation. CONCLUSION: Although physicians were more likely to provide information to older than younger children, their behaviours regarding privacy did not differ by child age. We found that intrusiveness was rather common and related to child uneasiness that has implications for the ethical practice and a child's willingness to be examined.

  • 13. Ikram, M. Arfan
    et al.
    Fornage, Myriam
    Smith, Albert V.
    Seshadri, Sudha
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    Debette, Stephanie
    Vrooman, Henri A.
    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur
    Ropele, Stefan
    Taal, H. Rob
    Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.
    Coker, Laura H.
    Longstreth, W. T., Jr.
    Niessen, Wiro J.
    DeStefano, Anita L.
    Beiser, Alexa
    Zijdenbos, Alex P.
    Struchalin, Maksim
    Jack, Clifford R., Jr.
    Rivadeneira, Fernando
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Knopman, David S.
    Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa
    Pennell, Craig E.
    Thiering, Elisabeth
    Steegers, Eric A. P.
    Hakonarson, Hakon
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Palmer, Lyle J.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    Grant, Struan F. A.
    St Pourcain, Beate
    Timpson, Nicholas J.
    Smith, George Davey
    Sovio, Ulla
    Nalls, Mike A.
    Au, Rhoda
    Hofman, Albert
    Gudnason, Haukur
    van der Lugt, Aad
    Harris, Tamara B.
    Meeks, William M.
    Vernooij, Meike W.
    van Buchem, Mark A.
    Catellier, Diane
    Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Windham, B. Gwen
    Wolf, Philip A.
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Mosley, Thomas H., Jr.
    Schmidt, Helena
    Launer, Lenore J.
    Breteler, Monique M. B.
    DeCarli, Charles
    Adair, Linda S.
    Ang, Wei
    Atalay, Mustafa
    vanBeijsterveldt, Toos
    Bergen, Nienke
    Benke, Kelly
    Berry, Diane
    Coin, Lachlan
    Davis, Oliver S. P.
    Elliott, Paul
    Flexeder, Claudia
    Frayling, Tim
    Gaillard, Romy
    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria
    Goh, Liang-Kee
    Haworth, Claire M. A.
    Hadley, Dexter
    Hedebrand, Johannes
    Hinney, Anke
    Hirschhorn, Joel N.
    Holloway, John W.
    Holst, Claus
    Hottenga, Jouke Jan
    Horikoshi, Momoko
    Huikari, Ville
    Hypponen, Elina
    Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.
    Kirin, Mirna
    Kowgier, Matthew
    Lakka, Hanna-Maaria
    Lange, Leslie A.
    Lawlor, Debbie A.
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Lewin, Alex
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Lindi, Virpi
    Maggi, Reedik
    Marsh, Julie
    Middeldorp, Christel
    Millwood, Iona
    Murray, Jeffrey C.
    Nivard, Michel
    Nohr, Ellen Aagaard
    Ntalla, Ioanna
    Oken, Emily
    Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope
    Pararajasingham, Jennifer
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salem, Rany M.
    Sebert, Sylvain
    Siitonen, Niina
    Strachan, David P.
    Teo, Yik-Ying
    Valcarcel, Beatriz
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Zeggini, Eleftheria
    Boomsma, Dorret I.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Gillman, Matthew
    Hocher, Berthold
    Lakka, Timo A.
    Mohlke, Karen L.
    Dedoussis, George V.
    Ong, Ken K.
    Pearson, Ewan R.
    Price, Thomas S.
    Power, Chris
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Saw, Seang-Mei
    Scherag, Andre
    Simell, Olli
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Wilson, James F.
    Common variants at 6q22 and 17q21 are associated with intracranial volume2012In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 539-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During aging, intracranial volume remains unchanged and represents maximally attained brain size, while various interacting biological phenomena lead to brain volume loss. Consequently, intracranial volume and brain volume in late life reflect different genetic influences. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 8,175 community-dwelling elderly persons did not reveal any associations at genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)) for brain volume. In contrast, intracranial volume was significantly associated with two loci: rs4273712 (P = 3.4 x 10(-11)), a known height-associated locus on chromosome 6q22, and rs9915547 (P = 1.5 x 10(-12)), localized to the inversion on chromosome 17q21. We replicated the associations of these loci with intracranial volume in a separate sample of 1,752 elderly persons (P = 1.1 x 10(-3) for 6q22 and 1.2 x 10(-3) for 17q21). Furthermore, we also found suggestive associations of the 17q21 locus with head circumference in 10,768 children (mean age of 14.5 months). Our data identify two loci associated with head size, with the inversion at 17q21 also likely to be involved in attaining maximal brain size.

  • 14.
    Kantomaa, M. T.
    et al.
    LIKES, Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, FI-40720 Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Stamatakis, E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Kankaanpää, A.
    LIKES, Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, FI-40720 Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kaakinen, M.
    Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Taanila, A.
    Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Ahonen, T.
    Primary Health Care Unit, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Järvelin, M. -R
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Tammelin, T.
    LIKES, Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, FI-40720 Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement2013In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 5, p. 1917-1922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratoryfitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motorfunctioninchildhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  • 15. Kelley, M
    et al.
    Rubens, C
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (6 of 7): erhical considerations2010In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 10, p. 6-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Khalife, Natasha
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Glover, Vivette
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Inst Reprod & Dev Biol, London, England.
    Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa
    Univ Oulu, Inst Clin Med, Oulu, Finland.
    Taanila, Anja
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Clin Child Psychiat, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Placental Size Is Associated with Mental Health in Children and Adolescents2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, p. Art. no. e40534-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of the placenta in fetal programming has been recognized as a highly significant, yet often neglected area of study. We investigated placental size in relation to psychopathology, in particular attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, in children at 8 years of age, and later as adolescents at 16 years. Methodology/Principal Findings: Prospective data were obtained from The Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC) 1986. Placental weight, surface area and birth weight were measured according to standard procedures, within 30 minutes after birth. ADHD symptoms, probable psychiatric disturbance, antisocial disorder and neurotic disorder were assessed at 8 years (n = 8101), and ADHD symptoms were assessed again at 16 years (n = 6607), by teachers and parents respectively. We used logistic regression analyses to investigate the association between placental size and mental health outcomes, and controlled for gestational age, birth weight, socio-demographic factors and medical factors, during gestation. There were significant positive associations between placental size (weight, surface area and placental-to-birth-weight ratio) and mental health problems in boys at 8 and 16 years of age. Increased placental weight was linked with overall probable psychiatric disturbance (at 8y, OR = 1.14 [95% CI = 1.04-1.25]), antisocial behavior (at 8 y, OR = 1.14 [95% CI = 1.03-1.27]) and ADHD symptoms (inattention-hyperactivity at 16y, OR = 1.19 [95% CI = 1.02-1.38]). No significant associations were detected among girls. Conclusions/Significance: Compensatory placental growth may occur in response to prenatal insults. Such overgrowth may affect fetal development, including brain development, and ultimately contribute to psychopathology.

  • 17.
    Khalife, Natasha
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Glover, Vivette
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Inst Reprod & Dev Biol, London, England.
    Taanila, Anja
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Univ Oulu, Clin Child Psychiat, Inst Clin Med, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Prenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment and Later Mental Health in Children and Adolescents2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, p. Art. no. e81394-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Animal studies demonstrate a clear link between prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GC) and altered offspring brain development. We aim to examine whether prenatal GC exposure programs long-term mental health in humans. Methods: Using propensity-score-matching, children prenatally exposed to synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC), n=37, and controls, n=185, were balanced on important confounders related to sGC treatment - gestational age and pre-pregnancy BMI. We also used mixed-effects modeling to analyse the entire cohort - matching each sGC case, n=37, to all possible controls, n=6079, on gestational age and sex. We obtained data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 at four waves - pregnancy, birth, 8 and 16 years. Data on pregnancy and birth outcomes came from medical records. Mental health was assessed at 8 years by teachers with the Rutter B2 scale, and at 16 years by parents with the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior (SWAN) scale and adolescents by the Youth Self-Report (YSR) scale. Results: Prenatal sGC treatment was consistently associated with adverse mental health in childhood and adolescence, as shown by both the propensity-score method and mixed-effects model. Using the propensity-score-matched subsample, linear multiple regression showed prenatal sGC was significantly linked with general psychiatric disturbance (B=8.34 [95% CI: .23-16.45]) and inattention (B=.97 [95% CI:. 16-1.80]) at 8 years after control for relevant confounders. Similar findings were obtained at 16 years, but did not reach statistical significance. Mediation by birthweight/placental weight was not detected. Conclusions: This study is the first to prospectively investigate the long-term associations between prenatal exposure to sGC treatment and mental health in children and adolescents. We report an association between prenatal exposure to sGC and child mental health, supportive of the idea that sGC has a programming effect on the fetal brain.

  • 18.
    Khalife, Natasha
    et al.
    Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Kantomaa, Marko
    Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Glover, Vivette
    Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Tammelin, Tuija
    LIKES - Research Center for Sports and Health Sciences, Finland.
    Laitinen, Jaana
    Finnish Institute for Occupational Health, Finland .
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Clinic of Child Psychiatry, University and University Hospital of Oulu, Finland .
    Hurtig, Tuula
    Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland .
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Are Risk Factors for Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Adolescence2014In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 425-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To prospectively investigate the association and directionality between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and obesity from childhood to adolescence in the general population. We examined whether obesogenic behaviors, namely, physical inactivity and binge eating, underlie the potential ADHD symptom obesity association. We explored whether childhood conduct disorder (CD) symptoms are related to adolescent obesity/physical inactivity. Method: At 7 to 8 years (n = 8,106), teachers reported ADHD and CD symptoms, and parents reported body mass index (BMI) and physically active play. At 16 years (n = 6,934), parents reported ADHD symptoms; adolescents reported physical activity (transformed to metabolic equivalent of task [MET] hours per week) and binge eating; BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR) were measured via clinical examination. Obesity was defined using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs for BMI and the 95th percentile cut-off for WHR. Results: Childhood ADHD symptoms significantly predicted adolescent obesity, rather than the opposite. Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 8 years were associated with indices of obesity at 16 years (obese BMI: odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-3.33; 95th percentile WHR: OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.78), adjusted for gender, baseline BMI, physical activity, family structure change, and maternal education. Child CD symptoms associated with indices of adolescent obesity. Reduced physically active play in childhood predicted adolescent inattention (OR = 1.61,95% CI = 1.16-2.24). Childhood ADHD and CD symptoms were linked with physical inactivity in adolescence (inattention-hyperactivity; OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.20-2.13), but not binge eating. Physical inactivity mediated the associations. Conclusions: Children with ADHD or CD symptoms are at increased risk for becoming obese and physically inactive adolescents. Physical activity may be beneficial for both behavior problems and obesity.

  • 19.
    Khan, Anokhi Ali
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Med Res Council,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sebert, Sylvain
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Med Res Council,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Kaakinen, Marika
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Cauchi, Stephane
    Univ Lille 2, Inst Pasteur, Inst Biol Lille, Ctr Natl Rech Sci,Unites Mixte Rech 8199, F-59800 Lille, France.
    Froguel, Philippe
    Univ Lille 2, Inst Pasteur, Inst Biol Lille, Ctr Natl Rech Sci,Unites Mixte Rech 8199, F-59800 Lille, France.
    Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa
    Univ Oulu, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynecol, Oulu, Finland.
    Pouta, Anneli
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Med Res Council,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    The Interplay of Variants Near LEKR and CCNL1 and Social Stress in Relation to Birth Size2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 6, p. Art. no. e38216-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We previously identified via a genome wide association study variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and in the ADCY5 genes lead to lower birthweight. Here, we study the impact of these variants and social stress during pregnancy, defined as social adversity and neighborhood disparity, on infant birth size. We aimed to determine whether the addition of genetic variance magnified the observed associations. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 5369). Social adversity was defined by young maternal age (<20 years), low maternal education (<11 years), and/or single marital status. Neighborhood social disparity was assessed by discrepancy between neighborhoods relative to personal socio-economic status. These variables are indicative of social and socioeconomic stress, but also of biological risk. The adjusted multiple regression analysis showed smaller birth size in both infants of mothers who experienced social adversity (birthweight by -40.4 g, 95% CI -61.4, -19.5; birth length -0.14 cm, 95% CI -0.23, -0.05; head circumference -0.09 cm 95% CI -0.15, -0.02) and neighborhood disparity (birthweight -28.8 g, 95% CI -47.7, -10.0; birth length -0.12 cm, 95% CI -0.20, -0.05). The birthweight-lowering risk allele (SNP rs900400 near LEKR and CCNL1) magnified this association in an additive manner. However, likely due to sample size restriction, this association was not significant for the SNP rs9883204 in ADCY5. Birth size difference due to social stress was greater in the presence of birthweight-lowering alleles. Conclusions/Significance: Social adversity, neighborhood disparity, and genetic variants have independent associations with infant birth size in the mutually adjusted analyses. If the newborn carried a risk allele rs900400 near LEKR/CCNL1, the impact of stress on birth size was stronger. These observations give support to the hypothesis that individuals with genetic or other biological risk are more vulnerable to environmental influences. Our study indicates the need for further research to understand the mechanisms by which genes impact individual vulnerability to environmental insults.

  • 20.
    Kyu, Hmwe H
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Pinho, Christine
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Wagner, Joseph A
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Brown, Jonathan C
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Charlson, Fiona J
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Coffeng, Luc Edgar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Erskine, Holly E
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Ferrari, Alize J
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Fleming, Thomas D
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Graetz, Nicholas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Guinovart, Caterina
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Haagsma, Juanita
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Higashi, Hideki
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Larson, Heidi J
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Lim, Stephen S
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Mokdad, Ali H
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Odell, Shaun V
    Univ Washington, Med Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Roth, Gregory A
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Serina, Peter T
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Stanaway, Jeffrey D
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Misganaw, Awoke
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Whiteford, Harvey A
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Wolock, Timothy M
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Wulf Hanson, Sarah
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Cairo Univ, Dept Neurol, Cairo, Egypt.
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Site, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Abu-Raddad, Laith J
    Weill Cornell Med Coll Qatar, Infect Dis Epidemiol Grp, Doha, Qatar.
    AlBuhairan, Fadia S
    King Saud bin Abdulaziz Univ Hlth Sci, King Abdullah Specialized Childrens Hosp, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Amare, Azmeraw T
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines.
    Artaman, Al
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland 1, New Zealand.
    Barrero, Lope H
    Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Sch Engn, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia.
    Benjet, Corina
    Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon de la Fuente, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Bensenor, Isabela M
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
    Aga Khan Univ, Med Ctr, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Bikbov, Boris
    AI Evdokimov Moscow State Univ Med & Dent, Moscow, Russia.
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Int Neurotrama Res Org, Vienna, Austria.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A
    Inst Nacl Salud, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia.
    Catalá-López, Ferrán
    Ottawa Hosp Res Inst, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Southampton, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, England.
    Crump, John A
    Univ Otago, Dunedin Sch Med, Ctr Int Hlth, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India.
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    Univ New S Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Dellavalle, Robert P
    Univ Colorado, Sch Med, Aurora, CO USA.
    Dharmaratne, Samath D
    Univ Peradeniya, Fac Med, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Faraon, Emerito Jose A
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines.
    Feigin, Valery L
    Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Fürst, Thomas
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.
    Geleijnse, Johanna M
    Wageningen Univ, Div Human Nutr, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Gessner, Bradford D
    Agence Med Prevent, Paris, France.
    Gibney, Katherine B
    Monash Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia.
    Goto, Atsushi
    Tokyo Womens Med Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Tokyo, Japan.
    Gunnell, David
    Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, Bristol, England.
    Hankey, Graeme J
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Med & Pharmacol, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.
    Hay, Roderick J
    Int Fdn Dermatol, London, England.
    Hornberger, John C
    Cedar Associates, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Hosgood, H Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha 410083, Peoples R China.
    Jacobsen, Kathryn H
    George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA.
    Jayaraman, Sudha P
    Virginia Commonwealth Univ, Dept Surg, Richmond, VA 23284 USA.
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Ctr Chron Dis Control, New Delhi, India.
    Jonas, Jost B
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany.
    Karch, André
    Helmholtz Ctr Infect Res, Epidemiol & Stat Methods Res Grp, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Kim, Sungroul
    Soonchunhyang Univ, Seoul, South Korea.
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
    Kuate Defo, Barthelemy
    Univ Montreal, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Kucuk Bicer, Burcu
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey.
    Kumar, G Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leasher, Janet L
    Nova SE Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA.
    Leung, Ricky
    SUNY Albany, Rensselaer, NY USA.
    Li, Yongmei
    Genentech Inc, San Francisco, CA 94080 USA.
    Lipshultz, Steven E
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Detroit, MI USA.
    Lopez, Alan D
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Lotufo, Paulo A
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ Hosp Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Lyons, Ronan A
    Swansea Univ, Farr Inst, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.
    Majdan, Marek
    Trnava Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Trnava, Slovakia.
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Mashal, Taufiq
    Minist Publ Hlth, Kabul, Afghanistan.
    Mason-Jones, Amanda J
    Univ York, Dept Hlth Sci, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England.
    Melaku, Yohannes Adama
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Memish, Ziad A
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund, Lima, Peru.
    Miller, Ted R
    Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA.
    Mock, Charles N
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Murray, Joseph
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychiat, Cambridge, England.
    Nolte, Sandra
    Charite, Ctr Internal Med & Dermatol, Dept Psychosomat Med, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea.
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Ctr Hlth Start Initiat, Ikoyi, Nigeria.
    Ortblad, Katrina F
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Kosin Univ, Coll Med, Dept Med Humanities & Social Med, Busan, South Korea.
    Paternina Caicedo, Angel J
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia.
    Patten, Scott B
    Univ Calgary, Dept Community Hlth Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Patton, George C
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Pereira, David M
    Univ Porto, Fac Farm, Dept Quim, REQUIMTE LAQV,Lab Farmacognosia, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal.
    Perico, Norberto
    Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, Ist Ricovero & Cura Carattere Sci, Bergamo, Italy.
    Piel, Frédéric B
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, S Parks Rd, Oxford, England.
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Publ Hlth, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Popova, Svetlana
    Univ Toronto, Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada.
    Quistberg, D Alex
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, Ist Ricovero & Cura Carattere Sci, Ctr Anna Maria Astori, Bergamo, Italy.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rojas-Rueda, David
    Barcelona Inst Global Hlth ISGlobal, Ctr Res Environm Epidemiol, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Univ Ulm, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, D-89069 Ulm, Germany.
    Rothstein, David H
    Women & Childrens Hosp Buffalo, Dept Pediat Surg, Buffalo, NY USA.
    Sanabria, Juan
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.
    Santos, Itamar S
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Schwebel, David C
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Shaheen, Amira
    An Najah Natl Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Nablus, Israel.
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Shiue, Ivy
    Northumbria Univ, Hlth & Life Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Skirbekk, Vegard
    Columbia Univ, New York, NY USA.
    Sliwa, Karen
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Hatter Inst Cardiovasc Res Africa, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa.
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T
    Int Med Univ, Dept Community Med, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia.
    Stein, Dan J
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa.
    Steiner, Timothy J
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Div Brain Sci, London, England.
    Stovner, Lars Jacob
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Sykes, Bryan L
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Criminol Law & Soc, Irvine, CA USA.
    Tabb, Karen M
    Univ Illinois, Sch Social Work, Champaign, IL USA.
    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
    Univ Virginia, Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA.
    Thomson, Alan J
    Adapt Knowledge Management, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Towbin, Jeffrey Allen
    Bonheur Childrens Hosp, Memphis, TN USA.
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland.
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore.
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Natl Res Univ Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weintraub, Robert G
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, German Natl Cohort, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up, Wiesbaden, Germany.
    Wilkinson, James D
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Detroit, MI USA.
    Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Wolfe, Charles D A
    Kings Coll London, Div Hlth & Social Care Res, London WC2R 2LS, England.
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA.
    Yip, Paul
    Univ Hong Kong, Social Work & Social Adm Dept, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Korea Univ, Coll Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul 136705, South Korea.
    Younis, Mustafa Z
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA.
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China.
    El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa
    Mansoura Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Murray, Christopher J L
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 Fifth Ave,Ste 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
    Global and National Burden of Diseases and Injuries Among Children and Adolescents Between 1990 and 2013: Findings From the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study.2016In: JAMA pediatrics, ISSN 2168-6203, E-ISSN 2168-6211, Vol. 170, no 3, p. 267-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among younger children (aged <5 years), older children (aged 5-9 years), and adolescents (aged 10-19 years) between 1990 and 2013 in 188 countries from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study.

    EVIDENCE REVIEW: Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies, maternal and child death surveillance, and other sources covering 14 244 site-years (ie, years of cause of death data by geography) from 1980 through 2013 were used to estimate cause-specific mortality. Data from 35 620 epidemiological sources were used to estimate the prevalence of the diseases and sequelae in the GBD 2013 study. Cause-specific mortality for most causes was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model strategy. For some infectious diseases (eg, HIV infection/AIDS, measles, hepatitis B) where the disease process is complex or the cause of death data were insufficient or unavailable, we used natural history models. For most nonfatal health outcomes, DisMod-MR 2.0, a Bayesian metaregression tool, was used to meta-analyze the epidemiological data to generate prevalence estimates.

    FINDINGS: Of the 7.7 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 7.4-8.1) million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013, 6.28 million occurred among younger children, 0.48 million among older children, and 0.97 million among adolescents. In 2013, the leading causes of death were lower respiratory tract infections among younger children (905 059 deaths; 95% UI, 810 304-998 125), diarrheal diseases among older children (38 325 deaths; 95% UI, 30 365-47 678), and road injuries among adolescents (115 186 deaths; 95% UI, 105 185-124 870). Iron deficiency anemia was the leading cause of years lived with disability among children and adolescents, affecting 619 (95% UI, 618-621) million in 2013. Large between-country variations exist in mortality from leading causes among children and adolescents. Countries with rapid declines in all-cause mortality between 1990 and 2013 also experienced large declines in most leading causes of death, whereas countries with the slowest declines had stagnant or increasing trends in the leading causes of death. In 2013, Nigeria had a 12% global share of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections and a 38% global share of deaths from malaria. India had 33% of the world's deaths from neonatal encephalopathy. Half of the world's diarrheal deaths among children and adolescents occurred in just 5 countries: India, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Ethiopia.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Understanding the levels and trends of the leading causes of death and disability among children and adolescents is critical to guide investment and inform policies. Monitoring these trends over time is also key to understanding where interventions are having an impact. Proven interventions exist to prevent or treat the leading causes of unnecessary death and disability among children and adolescents. The findings presented here show that these are underused and give guidance to policy makers in countries where more attention is needed.

  • 21. Linnet, K.M.
    et al.
    Dalsgaard, S.
    Obel, C.
    Wisborg, K.
    Henriksen, T.B.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Kotimaa, A.
    Moilanen, I.
    Thomsen, P.H.
    Olsen, J.
    Järvelin, M.R.
    Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy and risk of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders: A review of current evidence.2003In: American Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0002-953X, E-ISSN 1535-7228, Vol. 160, no 6, p. 1028-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Newton, J. N.
    et al.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Briggs, A. D. M.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Murray, C. J. L.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Dicker, D.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Foreman, K. J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Wang, H.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Naghavi, M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Forouzanfar, M. H.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Ohno, S. L.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Barber, R. M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Vos, T.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Stanaway, J. D.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Schmidt, J. C.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Hughes, A. J.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Fay, D. F. J.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Ecob, R.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Gresser, C.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    McKee, M.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Hlth Serv Res & Policy, London WC1, England.
    Rutter, H.
    Univ Oxford, London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Oxford, England.
    Abubakar, I.
    MRC Clin Trials Unit, London, England.
    Ali, R.
    INDOX Canc Res Network, Oxford, England.
    Anderson, H. R.
    Publ Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Banerjee, A.
    Univ Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, England.
    Bennett, D. A.
    Univ Oxford, Clin Trials Serv Unit, Oxford, England.
    Bernabé, E.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Dent, London WC2R 2LS, England.
    Bhui, K. S.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Wolfson Inst Prevent Med, Barts & London Sch Med, London, England.
    Biryukov, S. M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Bourne, R. R.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, Vis & Eye Res Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Brayne, C. E. G.
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge Inst Publ Hlth, Cambridge, England.
    Bruce, N. G.
    Univ Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England.
    Brugha, T. S.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Burch, M.
    Great Ormond St Hosp Sick Children, London WC1N 3JH, England.
    Capewell, S.
    Univ Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England.
    Casey, D.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Chowdhury, R.
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Coates, M. M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Cooper, C.
    Univ Southampton, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, England.
    Critchley, J. A.
    Dargan, P. I.
    Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, London, England.
    Dherani, M. K.
    Univ Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England.
    Elliott, P.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England.
    Ezzati, M.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, MRC PHE Ctr Populat Hlth, London, England.
    Fenton, K. A.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Fraser, M. S.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Fürst, T.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.
    Greaves, F.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Green, M. A.
    Univ Sheffield, Sch Hlth & Related Res ScHARR, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Gunnell, D. J.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Hannigan, B. M.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Hay, R. J.
    Int Fdn Dermatol, London, England.
    Hay, S. I.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Hemingway, H.
    Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England.
    Larson, H. J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Looker, K. J.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Lunevicius, R.
    Univ Liverpool, Aintree Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England.
    Lyons, R. A.
    Swansea Univ, Coll Med, Farr Inst, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.
    Marcenes, W.
    Queen Mary Univ London, London, England.
    Mason-Jones, A. J.
    Univ York, Dept Hlth Sci, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England.
    Matthews, F. E.
    Newcastle Univ, Inst Hlth & Soc, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Moller, H.
    Kings Coll London, Canc Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, London, England.
    Murdoch, M. E.
    West Hertfordshire Hosp NHS Trust, Watford, Herts, England.
    Newton, C. R.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Pearce, N.
    Univ Oxford, London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Oxford, England.
    Piel, F. B.
    Pope, D.
    Univ Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England.
    Rahimi, K.
    Univ Oxford, George Inst Global Hlth, Oxford, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England.
    Scarborough, P.
    Univ Oxford, British Heart Fdn Ctr Populat Approaches NCD Prev, Oxford, England.
    Schumacher, A. E.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA USA.
    Shiue, I.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Smeeth, L.
    Univ Oxford, London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Oxford, England.
    Tedstone, A.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Valabhji, J.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England.
    Williams, H. C.
    Univ Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England.
    Wolfe, C. D. A.
    Kings Coll London, London WC2R 2LS, England.
    Woolf, A. D.
    Royal Cornwall Hosp, Treliske, Cornwall, England.
    Davis, A. C. J.
    London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England.
    Changes in health in England, with analysis by English regions and areas of deprivation, 1990-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20132015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, no 10010, p. 2257-2274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), knowledge about health and its determinants has been integrated into a comparable framework to inform health policy. Outputs of this analysis are relevant to current policy questions in England and elsewhere, particularly on health inequalities. We use GBD 2013 data on mortality and causes of death, and disease and injury incidence and prevalence to analyse the burden of disease and injury in England as a whole, in English regions, and within each English region by deprivation quintile. We also assess disease and injury burden in England attributable to potentially preventable risk factors. England and the English regions are compared with the remaining constituent countries of the UK and with comparable countries in the European Union (EU) and beyond. Methods We extracted data from the GBD 2013 to compare mortality, causes of death, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with a disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in England, the UK, and 18 other countries (the first 15 EU members [apart from the UK] and Australia, Canada, Norway, and the USA [EU15+]). We extended elements of the analysis to English regions, and subregional areas defined by deprivation quintile (deprivation areas). We used data split by the nine English regions (corresponding to the European boundaries of the Nomenclature for Territorial Statistics level 1 [NUTS 1] regions), and by quintile groups within each English region according to deprivation, thereby making 45 regional deprivation areas. Deprivation quintiles were defined by area of residence ranked at national level by Index of Multiple Deprivation score, 2010. Burden due to various risk factors is described for England using new GBD methodology to estimate independent and overlapping attributable risk for five tiers of behavioural, metabolic, and environmental risk factors. We present results for 306 causes and 2337 sequelae, and 79 risks or risk clusters. Findings Between 1990 and 2013, life expectancy from birth in England increased by 5·4 years (95% uncertainty interval 5·0-5·8) from 75·9 years (75·9-76·0) to 81·3 years (80·9-81·7); gains were greater for men than for women. Rates of age-standardised YLLs reduced by 41·1% (38·3-43·6), whereas DALYs were reduced by 23·8% (20·9-27·1), and YLDs by 1·4% (0·1-2·8). For these measures, England ranked better than the UK and the EU15+ means. Between 1990 and 2013, the range in life expectancy among 45 regional deprivation areas remained 8·2 years for men and decreased from 7·2 years in 1990 to 6·9 years in 2013 for women. In 2013, the leading cause of YLLs was ischaemic heart disease, and the leading cause of DALYs was low back and neck pain. Known risk factors accounted for 39·6% (37·7-41·7) of DALYs; leading behavioural risk factors were suboptimal diet (10·8% [9·1-12·7]) and tobacco (10·7% [9·4-12·0]). Interpretation Health in England is improving although substantial opportunities exist for further reductions in the burden of preventable disease. The gap in mortality rates between men and women has reduced, but marked health inequalities between the least deprived and most deprived areas remain. Declines in mortality have not been matched by similar declines in morbidity, resulting in people living longer with diseases. Health policies must therefore address the causes of ill health as well as those of premature mortality. Systematic action locally and nationally is needed to reduce risk exposures, support healthy behaviours, alleviate the severity of chronic disabling disorders, and mitigate the effects of socioeconomic deprivation. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Public Health England. © 2015 Newton et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.

  • 23.
    Nordström, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    University and University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Hurtig, Tuula
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Rodriguez, alina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Savolainen, Jukka
    University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
    Moilanen, Irma
    University and University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Taanila, Anja
    University and University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Comorbidity of disruptive behavioral disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Indicator of severity in problematic behavior?2013In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both characterized by certain patterns of misbehavior among adolescents. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine how the comorbidity of DBD and ADHD affects in misbehavior among adolescents. Methods: A total of 158 adolescents aged 16–18 years, from a subsample of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), were interviewed with the Finnish translation of the semi-structured Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children—Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) in order to obtain DBD, including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and ADHD diagnoses. The structure of the CD symptoms, obtained from the K-SADS-PL, was compared with the previously formed model about the development of the problematic behavior. The severity of the CD symptoms was compared with adolescents diagnosed with only DBD, only ADHD and with both DBD and ADHD. Also, the associations with other psychiatric disorders diagnosed at age 16 were evaluated. Results: The boys in the study sample were diagnosed with ADHD or with comorbid DBD and ADHD more often than girls. The severity of CD symptoms was statistically significantly associated with the comorbid DBD and ADHD group. The adolescents diagnosed with comorbid DBD and ADHD had an increased risk for anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Conclusions: The comorbidity of DBD and ADHD seems to indicate the severity of CD symptoms. Clinical implications: The comorbidity between DBD and ADHD should be considered in clinical practice because it could indicate more serious problematic behavior than pure disorders alone.

  • 24.
    Nordström, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Hurtig, Tuula
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Savolainen, Jukka
    University of Nebraska, Omaha, USA.
    Rautio, Arja
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Moilanen, Irma
    University and University Hospital of Oulu, Finland.
    Taanila, Anja
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    University and University Hospital of Oulu, Finland.
    Different Risk Factors Between Disruptive Behavior Disorders and ADHD in Northern Finland Birth Cohort 19862017In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine different risk factors between disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and ADHD or combined DBD and ADHD. Method: The study population was derived from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Psychiatric diagnoses were defined from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) interview. The study sample was divided into four groups—people with DBD (n = 44), with ADHD (n = 91), with both (n = 72), and without either (n = 250)—to evaluate the different risk factors behind these disorders. Results: After adjusting with possible confounding factors, female gender and paternal admittance to inpatient psychiatric care increased the odds that an adolescent was having DBD. Childhood hyperactivity symptoms increased the odds of having ADHD and childhood hyperactivity symptoms and scholastic impairment increased the odds of having both disorders. Conclusion: Our study indicates DBD and ADHD have clearly different risk factors, and the impact of the paternal factors on DBD should be noted more than has been before.

  • 25. Obel, C
    et al.
    Heiervang, E
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Heyerdahl, S
    Smedje, Hans
    Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Sourander, A
    Guethmundsson, OO
    Clench-Aas, J
    Christensen, E
    Heian, F
    Mathiesen, KS
    Magnusson, P
    Njarethvik, U
    Koskelainen, M
    Ronning, JA
    Stormark, KM
    Olsen, J
    The strengths and difficulties questionnaire in the Nordic countries2004In: European Child Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 13, no suppl 2, p. 1132-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been translated into the different Nordic languages between 1996 and 2003. During the past few years, SDQs have been completed for nearly 100,000 children and adolescents in population-based studies as well as in clinical samples. The largest studies have been performed in Norway and Denmark, and in these countries the diagnostic interview DAWBA has also been used in conjunction with the SDQ. AIMS: In addition to a brief overview of past and ongoing SDQ work in Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland, we present scale means and standard deviations from selected community studies with comparable age groups, including parental reports for 7, 9 and 11 year-old children and self-reports of 13 and 15 year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: The descriptive statistics suggest that the distributions of SDQ scores are very similar across the Nordic countries. Further collaborative efforts in establishing norms and evaluating the validity of the SDQ as a screening instrument are encouraged.

  • 26. Obel, C.
    et al.
    Olsen, J.
    Henriksen, T.B.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Järvelin, M.E.
    Moilannen, I.
    Linnet, K.M.
    Taanila, A.
    Ebeling, H.
    Heiervang, E.
    Gissler, M.
    Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for Hyperkinetic disorder?: Findings from a sibling design2011In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 338-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Studies have consistently shown that pregnancy smoking is associated with twice the risk of hyperactivity/inattention problems in the offspring. An association of this magnitude may indicate behavioural difficulties as one of the most important health effects related to smoking during pregnancy. However, social and genetic confounders may fully or partially account for these findings.

    Methods A cohort including all singletons born in Finland from 1 January 1987 through 31 December 2001 was followed until 1 January 2006 based on linkage of national registers. Data were available for 97% (N = 868 449) of the population. We followed singleton children of smoking and non-smoking mothers until they had an International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) or to the end of the observation period. We used sibling-matched Cox regression analyses to control for social and genetic confounding.

    Results We found a much smaller association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of HKD in children using the sibling-matched analysis [hazards ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.49] than was observed in the entire cohort (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.90-2.12).

    Conclusions Our findings suggest that the strong association found in previous studies may be due to time-stable familial factors, such as environmental and genetic factors. If smoking is a causal factor, the effect is small and less important than what the previous studies indicate.

  • 27. Obel, Carsten
    et al.
    Linnet, Karen Markussen
    Henriksen, Tine Brink
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Järvelin, Marjo Riita
    Kotimaa, Arto
    Moilanen, Irma
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Bilenberg, Niels
    Taanila, Anja
    Ye, Gan
    Olsen, Jørn
    Smoking during pregnancy and hyperactivity-inattention in the offspring—comparing results from three Nordic cohorts2009In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 698-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Prenatal exposure to smoking has been associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a number of epidemiological studies. However, mothers with the ADHD phenotype may ‘treat’ their problem by smoking and therefore be more likely to smoke even in a society where smoking is not acceptable. This will cause genetic confounding if ADHD has a heritable component, especially in populations with low prevalence rates of smoking since this reason for smoking is expected to be proportionally more frequent in a population with few ‘normal’ smokers. We compared the association in cohorts with different smoking frequencies.

    Methods A total of 20 936 women with singleton pregnancies were identified within three population-based pregnancy cohorts in Northern Finland (1985–1986) and in Denmark (1984–1987 and 1989–1991). We collected self-reported data on their pre-pregnancy and pregnancy smoking habits and followed the children to school age where teachers and parents rated hyperactivity and inattention symptoms.

    Results Children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, had an increased prevalence of a high hyperactivity-inattention score compared with children of nonsmokers in each of the cohorts after adjustment for confounders but we found no statistical significant difference between the associations across the cohorts.

    Conclusion The estimated association was not strongest in the population with the fewest smokers which does not support the hypothesis that the association is entirely due to genetic confounding.

  • 28. Pappa, Irene
    et al.
    St Pourcain, Beate
    Benke, Kelly
    Cavadino, Alana
    Hakulinen, Christian
    Nivard, Michel G
    Nolte, Ilja M
    Tiesler, Carla M T
    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
    Davies, Gareth E
    Evans, David M
    Geoffroy, Marie-Claude
    Grallert, Harald
    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M
    Hudziak, James J
    Kemp, John P
    Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
    McMahon, George
    Mileva-Seitz, Viara R
    Motazedi, Ehsan
    Power, Christine
    Raitakari, Olli T
    Ring, Susan M
    Rivadeneira, Fernando
    Rodriguez, Alina
    mperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Scheet, Paul A
    Seppälä, Ilkka
    Snieder, Harold
    Standl, Marie
    Thiering, Elisabeth
    Timpson, Nicholas J
    Veenstra, René
    Velders, Fleur P
    Whitehouse, Andrew J O
    Smith, George Davey
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Hypponen, Elina
    Lehtimäki, Terho
    Middeldorp, Christel M
    Oldehinkel, Albertine J
    Pennell, Craig E
    Boomsma, Dorret I
    Tiemeier, Henning
    A genome-wide approach to children's aggressive behavior: The EAGLE consortium.2016In: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, ISSN 1552-4841, E-ISSN 1552-485X, Vol. 171, no 5, p. 562-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in aggressive behavior emerge in early childhood and predict persisting behavioral problems and disorders. Studies of antisocial and severe aggression in adulthood indicate substantial underlying biology. However, little attention has been given to genome-wide approaches of aggressive behavior in children. We analyzed data from nine population-based studies and assessed aggressive behavior using well-validated parent-reported questionnaires. This is the largest sample exploring children's aggressive behavior to date (N = 18,988), with measures in two developmental stages (N = 15,668 early childhood and N = 16,311 middle childhood/early adolescence). First, we estimated the additive genetic variance of children's aggressive behavior based on genome-wide SNP information, using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Second, genetic associations within each study were assessed using a quasi-Poisson regression approach, capturing the highly right-skewed distribution of aggressive behavior. Third, we performed meta-analyses of genome-wide associations for both the total age-mixed sample and the two developmental stages. Finally, we performed a gene-based test using the summary statistics of the total sample. GCTA quantified variance tagged by common SNPs (10-54%). The meta-analysis of the total sample identified one region in chromosome 2 (2p12) at near genome-wide significance (top SNP rs11126630, P = 5.30 × 10(-8) ). The separate meta-analyses of the two developmental stages revealed suggestive evidence of association at the same locus. The gene-based analysis indicated association of variation within AVPR1A with aggressive behavior. We conclude that common variants at 2p12 show suggestive evidence for association with childhood aggression. Replication of these initial findings is needed, and further studies should clarify its biological meaning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 29.
    Patel, Swatee P.
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich, London, UK.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Little, Mark P
    Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Elliott, Paul
    Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Pekkanen, Juha
    National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland.
    Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa
    University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Pouta, Anneli
    National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland.
    Laitinen, Jaana
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Harju, Terttu
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Canoy, Dexter
    The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Associations between pre-pregnancy obesity and asthma symptoms in adolescents2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 809-814Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Pillas, Demetris
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom .
    Kaakinen, Marika
    Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland .
    Tzoulaki, Ioanna
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom .
    Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan
    Department of Primary care and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom .
    Fung, Erik
    Section of Cardiology, Heart and Vascular Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, United States .
    Tammelin, Tuija H
    LIKES - Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland .
    Blane, David
    Department of Primary care and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Millwood, Iona Y
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom .
    Hardy, Rebecca
    MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom .
    Sovio, Ulla
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Pouta, Anneli
    Department of Children, Young People, and Families, National Institute of Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland .
    Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway .
    Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa
    Department of Clinical Sciences/ Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland .
    Laitinen, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland .
    Vaara, Sarianna
    Department of Children, Young People, and Families, National Institute of Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland .
    Khan, Anokhi Ali
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom .
    Chong, Raymond
    Department of Physical Therapy, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, United States .
    Elliott, Paul
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom .
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom .
    Infant locomotive development and its association with adult blood pressure.2014In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 173, no 10, p. 1309-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    UNLABELLED: Evidence from animal models suggests that locomotion and blood pressure share common neurophysiological regulatory systems. As a result of this common regulation, we hypothesized that the development of locomotion in human infants would be associated with blood pressure levels in adulthood. The study sample comprised 4,347 individuals with measures of locomotive and non-locomotive neuromotor development in infancy and adult blood pressure levels within a longitudinal birth cohort study, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Later development in all three stages of locomotive development during infancy was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at age 31. For age of walking without support, 0.34 (95 % CI 0.07 to 0.60)-mm Hg higher SBP and 0.38 (95 % CI 0.15 to 0.62)-mm Hg higher DBP were estimated for each month of later achievement (P = 0.012 for SBP; P = 0.001 for DBP). No association was identified for non-locomotive neuromotor development.

    CONCLUSION: These results highlight the positive sequelae of advanced locomotive development during infancy, suggesting that the common regulatory systems between locomotion and blood pressure may influence the development of raised blood pressure over time.

  • 31.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20132015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 385, no 9963, p. 117-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries.

    Methods

    We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum to all-cause mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions.

    Findings

    Global life expectancy for both sexes increased from 65·3 years (UI 65·0–65·6) in 1990, to 71·5 years (UI 71·0–71·9) in 2013, while the number of deaths increased from 47·5 million (UI 46·8–48·2) to 54·9 million (UI 53·6–56·3) over the same interval. Global progress masked variation by age and sex: for children, average absolute differences between countries decreased but relative differences increased. For women aged 25–39 years and older than 75 years and for men aged 20–49 years and 65 years and older, both absolute and relative differences increased. Decomposition of global and regional life expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa. For most communicable causes of death both numbers of deaths and age-standardised death rates fell whereas for most non-communicable causes, demographic shifts have increased numbers of deaths but decreased age-standardised death rates. Global deaths from injury increased by 10·7%, from 4·3 million deaths in 1990 to 4·8 million in 2013; but age-standardised rates declined over the same period by 21%. For some causes of more than 100 000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections. Country-specific probabilities of death over three phases of life were substantially varied between and within regions.

    Interpretation

    For most countries, the general pattern of reductions in age-sex specific mortality has been associated with a progressive shift towards a larger share of the remaining deaths caused by non-communicable disease and injuries. Assessing epidemiological convergence across countries depends on whether an absolute or relative measure of inequality is used. Nevertheless, age-standardised death rates for seven substantial causes are increasing, suggesting the potential for reversals in some countries. Important gaps exist in the empirical data for cause of death estimates for some countries; for example, no national data for India are available for the past decade.

    Funding

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • 32.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Impact of prenatal risk factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: Potential for gene-environment interactions2008In: Psychiatry, ISSN 0033-2747, E-ISSN 1943-281X, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 516-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multifactorial disorder and both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in its etiology. Yet, the interaction between genes and environment is seldom studied directly. This article considers the plausibility of nicotine exposure during prenatal development as well as postnatal factors in the etiology of ADHD. The few existent studies show inconsistent results, but provide preliminary evidence suggesting that nicotine exposure together with genes in the dopaminergic system confer risk for ADHD. Factors affecting resilience during prenatal and postnatal development remain virtually unexplored. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  • 33.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Is prenatal exposure to maternal obesity linked to child mental health?2010In: Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity: Current Status, Consequences and Prevention / [ed] Debasis Bagchi, Elsevier , 2010, p. 157-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk for inattention and negative emotionality in children2010In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 134-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children.

    Methods:

    A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714). Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's ADHD symptoms, presence and duration of problems, and emotionality. Dichotomized outcomes examined difficulties of clinical relevance (top 15% of the distribution). Analyses adjusted for pregnancy (maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, life events, education, age, family structure), birth outcomes (birth weight, gestational age, infant sex) and concurrent variables (family structure, maternal depressive symptoms, parental ADHD symptoms, and child overweight) in an attempt to rule out confounding.

    Results:

    Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity predicted high inattention symptom scores and obesity was associated with a two-fold increase in risk of difficulties with emotion intensity and emotion regulation according to teacher reports. Means of maternal ratings were unrelated to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Presence and duration of problems were associated with both maternal over and underweight according to teachers.

    Conclusions:

    Despite discrepancies between maternal and teacher reports, these results provide further evidence that maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with child inattention symptoms and extend previous work by establishing a link between obesity and emotional difficulties. Maternal adiposity at the time of conception may be instrumental in programming child mental health, as prenatal brain development depends on maternal energy supply. Possible mechanisms include disturbed maternal metabolic function. If maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is a causal risk factor, the potential for prevention is great.

  • 35.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Predicting health behaviors and health outcomes during pregnancy: A biopsychosocial approach1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pregnancy is a major health event. The biomedical perspective alone is unable to predict complications,particularly for nulliparous women. This dissertation takes an integrative approach by using psychosocial,personality, and contextual factors as predictors of health behaviors and outcomes during pregnancy whiletaking biomedical factors into account. Nulliparous, Swedish women were studied longitudinally startingfrom their first prenatal health care visit to postpartum using a repeated measures design.

    Study I examined smoking and exercise at mid and late pregnancy. Independent of prepregnancybehavior, we found that healthy lifestyle behaviors were predicted by health awareness (moderated bypregnancy adjustment) and by perceived stress (moderated by social support and hostility). Hostility waspositively related to exercise and negatively to smoking. Study II indicated that women reported a widerange of symptoms during gestational week 28, however, only a small portion of these symptoms weredocumented in the medical record. Self-reported symptoms were moderately correlated to psychosocial andpersonality factors. Social support and biomedical factors accounted for the number of symptomsdocumented in the medical record to a similar extent as, and independent of, self-reports. Self-reportedsymptoms subsequently predicted various forms of medical care utilization, while documented symptomspredicted some delivery and neonatal outcomes. Study III examined the antecedents and consequences ofperceived health while holding medical risk factors constant. Social support, negative affect, and stresspredicted medically relevant symptoms, which in turn, and in conjunction with pregnancy adjustment,predicted perceived health. Perceived health accounted for subsequent medial care utilization, i.e. numberof visits to an obstetrician, which in turn was associated with emergency room visits. Stress predictedemergency room visits. The present research highlights the interplay between psychosocial, personality,contextual and biomedical factors as they relate to health behaviors and to understudied health outcomesduring pregnancy.

  • 36.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bohlin, G
    Uppsala University.
    Lindbark, G
    Uppsala University.
    Psychosocial predictors of smoking and exercise during pregnancy2000In: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, ISSN 0264-6838, E-ISSN 1469-672X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 203-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined health behaviours among nulliparous pregnant Swedish women. Structural equation modelling ( N = 350) was used to predict smoking and exercise at gestational weeks 20 and 32 from psychosocial factors measured in early and mid-pregnancy. Although women altered their lifestyle early in pregnancy, so that by gestational week 20 both smoking and exercise had declined, previous behaviours remained strong and consistent predictors of later behaviours. Hostility and health awareness predicted smoking at both weeks 20 and 32. Smoking at week 32 was also predicted by concurrent perceived stress. Exercise at week 20 was predicted by hostility, social support, stress, and whether or not the pregnancy was planned; and at week 32 only health awareness was significant. Social support had a significant indirect effect on each behaviour, which suggests that social support facilitated compliance with health professionals' recommendations. These results suggest that psychosocial factors previously associated with health outcomes also predict health behaviours throughout pregnancy.

  • 37.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Bohlin, G
    Lindmark, G
    Symptoms across pregnancy in relation to psychosocial and biomedical factors2001In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Are Maternal Smoking and Stress during Pregnancy Related to ADHD symptoms in Children?2005In: Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, Vol. 46, p. 246-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds. METHODS: Nulliparous Scandinavian women were consecutively recruited at their first prenatal health care visit and assessments of smoking and stress were collected at gestational weeks 10, 12, 20, 28, 32, and 36. Children were followed up at 7 years old. We obtained full data for 72% of the sample: ADHD symptoms were rated by 74% of mothers (n=290) and 96% of eligible teachers (n=208). Attrition analyses showed no differences on key variables between participants and non-participants at follow-up. RESULTS: Results of multiple regression analyses showed prenatal exposure to smoking (beta=.16, p<.01) and stress (beta=.18, p<.01) were independently associated with later symptoms of ADHD. Results of logistic regression analyses showed that fulfillment of the diagnostic criteria for ADHD was related to exposure to prenatal stress (beta=.68, p<.01) especially in boys. The results were not confounded by sociodemographic factors or birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that prenatal exposure to stress and smoking is independently associated with later symptoms of ADHD in human children, particularly for boys. Because stress and smoking are relatively common during pregnancy, and yet preventable, these results are of public health significance.

  • 39.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Pregnancy Adjustment, Stress, and Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study1999In: Proceedings of Society of Behavioral Medicine 20th Annual Scientific Sessions, 1999, p. S023-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of coping with an illness is well-documented. However, coping in the context of a health-event is an area that has received little research attention. Pregnancy is both physically and mentally challenging. This study examines emotional co

  • 40.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindmark, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    A longitudinal study of perceived health during pregnancy: Antecedents and outcomes1999In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 129-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived health was studied longitudinally in a sample of 364 nulliparous women. Psychosocial, contextual, and biomedical factors were taken into account to predict medically relevant versus benign symptoms which were then used to predict perceived heal

  • 41.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ginsberg, Ylva
    Fernholm, Angela
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    ADHD difficult to diagnose in adults. ASRS v1.1 Self-Report Scales valuable help--now translated to Swedish2007In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, no 18, p. 1398-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence shows that symptoms and difficulties related to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can continue into adulthood. ADHD is often complicated by the presence of comorbid conditions including mood and anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and antisocial disorders. We present a brief overview of ADHD in adulthood and the Swedish translation of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scales (ASRS). We describe the current use of the ASRS in screening studies and in clinical settings in Sweden.

  • 42.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Obel, Carsten
    Taanila, Anja
    Pietilainen, Katri
    Moilanen, Irma
    Henriksen, Tine
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Kotimaa, Arto
    Linnet, Karen
    Olson, Jorn
    Do inattention and hyperactivity symptoms equal scholastic impairment? evidence from three European cohorts2007In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 7, p. 327-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects many children, adolescents, and adults and is associated with a number of impairments. Poor academic performance is related to ADHD in clinical samples. However, it is unclear to what extent core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment are related in non-referred school-aged children. METHODS: Data come from three population-based cohorts from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland, which are part of the Nordic Network on ADHD. The combined sample size was 13,087 children who were studied at ages 7-8 or 10-12 years. Teachers rated children on inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and reported children's scholastic performance on basic skills. RESULTS: There was a significant association in all cohorts between core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment in reading, writing, and mathematics. Particularly, inattention was related to a two to tenfold increase in scholastic impairment. Prevalence of hyperactivity symptoms was similar across the three cohorts, but inattention was lowest among children from the Finnish cohort, after stratification on living conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results extend previous reports of scholastic impairment among children with clinically diagnosed ADHD to non-referred population samples from three European countries. Surveillance policies should be implemented in school systems to catch children in need of behavioral or scholastic support early.

  • 43.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Järvelin, M.R.
    Is prenatal alcohol exposure related to inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children?: Disentangling the effects of social adversity2009In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 1073-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting parallel analyses of three cohorts with varying alcohol consumption and attitudes towards alcohol use.Methods:  We compare three population-based pregnancy2013offspring cohorts within the Nordic Network on ADHD from Denmark and Finland. Prenatal data were gathered via self-report during pregnancy and birth outcomes were abstracted from medical charts. A total of 21,678 reports concerning inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children were available from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire or the Rutter Scale completed by parents and/or teachers.Results:  Drinking patterns differed cross-nationally. Women who had at least some social adversity (young, low education, or being single) were more likely to drink than those better off in the Finnish cohort, but the opposite was true for the Danish cohorts. Prenatal alcohol exposure was not related to risk for a high inattention-hyperactivity symptom score in children across cohorts after adjustment for covariates. In contrast, maternal smoking and social adversity during pregnancy were independently and consistently associated with an increase in risk of child symptoms.Conclusions:  Low doses of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were not related to child inattention/hyperactivity symptoms once social adversity and smoking were taken into account.

  • 44.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaakinen, M
    Moilanen, I
    Taanila, A
    McGough, JJ
    Loo, S
    Järvelin, R
    Mixed-handedness is linked to mental health problems in children and adolescents2010In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 125, no 2, p. E340-E348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Problems with language and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence are often strongly linked to low scholastic performance. Early recognition of children who are at increased risk is necessary. Our objective was to determine whether mixed-handedness, which is associated with atypical cerebral laterality, is associated with language, scholastic, and ADHD symptoms in childhood and adolescence.

    METHODS: Prospective data come from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, a longitudinal, population-based birth cohort with assessments when children were 7 to 8 and 16 years of age (N = 7871). Teacher, parent, and/or adolescent reports were used to assess language difficulties, scholastic performance, and mental health, including ADHD symptoms.

    RESULTS: Mixed-handed children, relative to right-handed, had approximately a twofold increase in odds of having difficulties with language and scholastic performance at the age of 8 years. Eight years later, as 16-year-olds, adolescents had twofold increase in odds concerning difficulties in school with language and with ADHD symptoms. Mixed-handed children were more likely to have scores indicating probable psychiatric disturbance, including ADHD symptoms. As adolescents, mixed-handed children with previous behavioral problems were at considerably higher risk for scoring within the range of probable ADHD-inattention or ADHD-combined case. Mixed-handedness was associated with greater symptom severity in children and adolescents (P = .01) concerning psychiatric disturbance and ADHD inattention but not ADHD hyperactivity.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that mixed-handed children have a greater likelihood of having language, scholastic, and mental health problems in childhood and that these persist into adolescence. Thus, these results suggest that mixed-handedness, particularly in the presence of difficulties, could aid in the recognition of children who are at risk for stable problems. Additional research is needed to understand the connections between neural substrates related to atypical cerebral asymmetry, mixed-handedness, and mental health problems including ADHD symptoms.

  • 45.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Miettunen, J
    Henriksen, TB
    Olsen, J
    Obel, C
    Taanila, A
    Ebeling, H
    Linnet, KM
    Moilanen, I
    Järvelin, MR
    Maternal adiposity prior to pregnancy is associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring: evidence from three prospective pregnancy cohorts2008In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 550-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We examine whether pregnancy weight (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or weight gain) is related to core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-age offspring. Design: Follow-up of prospective pregnancy cohorts from Sweden, Denmark and Finland within the Nordic Network on ADHD. Methods: Maternal pregnancy and delivery data were collected prospectively. Teachers rated inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in offspring. High scores were defined as at least one core symptom rated as 'severe' and two as 'present' (approximately 10% of children scored in this range). Logistic regression and latent class analyses were used to examine maternal pregnancy weight in relation to children's ADHD core symptoms. Results: Teacher rated 12 556 school-aged children. Gestational weight gain outside of the Institute of Medicine guidelines was not related to ADHD symptoms (below recommendations: odds ratio (OR): 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.14; above recommendations: OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.16). To examine various patterns of pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain, we used latent class analysis and found significant associations between classes that included pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and a high ADHD symptom score in offspring, ORs ranged between 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.75) and 1.89 (95% CI: 1.13, 3.15) adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, weight gain, pregnancy smoking, maternal age, maternal education, child gender, family structure and cohort country of origin. Children of women who were both overweight and gained a large amount of weight during gestation had a 2-fold risk of ADHD symptoms (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.19, 3.72) compared to normal-weight women. Conclusions: We show for the first time that pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with ADHD symptoms in children. Our results are of public health significance if the associations are causal and will then add ADHD symptoms in offspring to the list of deleterious outcomes related to overweight and obesity in the prenatal period.

  • 46.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tuvemo, Torsten
    Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Hansson, Mats G
    Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Parents' perspectives on research involving children.2006In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 73-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Waldenström, Ulla
    Fetal origins of non-right-handedness and child mental health2008In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 967-976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Environmental risk during fetal development for non-right-handedness, an index of brain asymmetry, and its relevance for child mental health is not fully understood. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed-up when children were five years old (N = 1714). Prenatal environmental risk exposures were the number of ultrasound examinations and maternal distress during pregnancy. Child mental health, including symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), language difficulties, and care-seeking for child behavior problems, was assessed via maternal and/or kindergarten teacher's ratings. Results: Prenatal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and critical life events were associated with increased risk of child non-right-handedness and mixed handedness, after adjustment for parity, maternal age, birth outcomes, infant sex, and parental handedness. No association was found between handedness and number of ultrasound examinations. Non-right and mixed-handedness, rather than left-handedness, were associated with increased risk of language difficulties and particularly with ADHD symptoms, after adjustment for current parental ADHD symptoms, current maternal depressive symptoms, birth outcomes, smoking during pregnancy, depressive symptoms and critical life events. Problems were significant enough to prompt mothers to seek care for children's behavioral problems, and parents were more likely to have received advice from the children's kindergarten teachers to seek care. Conclusions: This study suggests that mixed-handedness, i.e., reflecting atypical brain laterality, can be a marker of both severity of prenatal exposure to maternal distress and of increased risk of ADHD symptoms in childhood. Our results support the idea that the fetal environment plays a role in subsequent child mental health.

  • 48.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England.
    Wang, Yingbo
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England.
    Khan, Anohki Ali
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England.
    Gissler, Mika
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Cartwright, Rufus
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England.
    Exposure to antenatal corticosteroid therapy is associated with reduced size at birth: Evidence from Finnish Medical Birth Register of 278,508 births2015In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 61, p. 37-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Solmi, Francesca
    et al.
    Behavioural and Brain Science Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London, United Kingdom.
    Sonneville, Kendrin R
    Division of Adolescence Medicine, Boston's Children Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
    Easter, Abigail
    Behavioural and Brain Science Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London, United Kingdom.
    Horton, Nicholas J
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Amherst College, Amherst, MA, United States.
    Crosby, Ross D
    Department of Neuroscience, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, University of North Dakota, Fargo, ND, United States .
    Treasure, Janet
    Eating Disorder Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Field, Alison E
    Division of Adolescence Medicine, Boston's Children Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
    Micali, Nadia
    Behavioural and Brain Science Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London, United Kingdom.
    Prevalence of purging at age 16 and associations with negative outcomes among girls in three community-based cohorts.2015In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The comorbidity of purging behaviours, such as vomiting, inappropriate use of laxatives, diuretics or slimming medications, has been examined in literature. However, most studies do not include adolescents, individuals who purge in the absence of binge eating, or those purging at subclinical frequency. This study examines the prevalence of purging among 16-year-old girls across three countries and their association with substance use and psychological comorbidity.

    METHODS: Data were obtained by questionnaire in 3 population-based cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), United Kingdom, n = 1,608; Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), USA, n = 3,504; North Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC85/86), Finland, n = 2,306). Multivariate logistic regressions were employed to estimate associations between purging and outcomes. Four models were fit adjusting for binge eating and potential confounders of these associations.

    RESULTS: In ALSPAC, 9.7% of girls reported purging in the 12-months prior to assessment, 7.3% in GUTS, and 3.5% in NFBC. In all 3 cohorts, purging was associated with adverse outcomes such as binge drinking (ALSPAC: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.9; GUTS: OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.5-4.0; NFBC: OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.8), drug use (ALSPAC: OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8-4.7; GUTS: OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.8-7.3; NFBC: OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.6-6.6), depressive symptoms in ALSPAC (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.1) and GUTS(OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.2-6.3), and several psychopathology measures including clinical anxiety/depression in NFBC (OR = 11.2, 95% CI = 3.9, 31.7).

    CONCLUSIONS: Results show a higher prevalence of purging behaviours among girls in the United Kingdom compared to those in the United States and Finland. Our findings support evidence highlighting that purging in adolescence is associated with negative outcomes, independent of its frequency and binge eating.

  • 50.
    St Pourcain, Beate
    et al.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Oral & Dent Sci, Bristol BS1 2LY, Avon, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat,MRC,Publ Hlth England, London W2 1PG, England.
    Common variation near ​ROBO2 is associated with expressive vocabulary in infancy2014In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 5, article id A4831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twin studies suggest that expressive vocabulary at ~24 months is modestly heritable. However, the genes influencing this early linguistic phenotype are unknown. Here we conduct a genome-wide screen and follow-up study of expressive vocabulary in toddlers of European descent from up to four studies of the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology consortium, analysing an early (15–18 months, ‘one-word stage’, NTotal=8,889) and a later (24–30 months, ‘two-word stage’,NTotal=10,819) phase of language acquisition. For the early phase, one single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs7642482) at 3p12.3 near ​ROBO2, encoding a conserved axon-binding receptor, reaches the genome-wide significance level (P=1.3 × 10−8) in the combined sample. This association links language-related common genetic variation in the general population to a potential autism susceptibility locus and a linkage region for dyslexia, speech-sound disorder and reading. The contribution of common genetic influences is, although modest, supported by genome-wide complex trait analysis (meta-GCTA h215–18-months=0.13, meta-GCTA h224–30-months=0.14) and in concordance with additional twin analysis (5,733 pairs of European descent,h224-months=0.20).

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