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  • 1.
    Begum, Afroza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rahman, AKM Fazlur
    Department of Epidemiology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Gävle.
    Parental socio-economic position and suicidal ideation among adolescents in Rural Bangladesh2018In: Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 2637-8027, no 4, article id 1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide and becoming a public health concern among adolescents. However, adolescent suicidal behaviour is a neglected public health issue, especially in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. Of great importance is the understanding of which factors might be related to this growing public problem. 

    Objective: To examine the relationship between parental socio-economic position and suicide ideation among adolescents in rural Bangladesh

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 2,476 adolescents, aged 14-19 years, selected randomly from a rural community of Bangladesh. An adapted version of the WHO/SUPRE-MISS questionnaire was used to collect data in the Raiganj sub-district, which is a surveillance area of the Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB).

    Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Comparisons of proportions between groups were carried out using the χ2 test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between parental co-variants and suicidal thoughts among adolescents. The significance level was set atp <0.05. All analyses were performed using SPSS 20.

    Results: The majority of parents had education only up to primary school (mothers 58.7% and fathers 49.5%). Most of them were farmers (53.3% of fathers) and housewives (96.5% of mothers). Monthly income and expenditure of the adolescent’s parents were mainly upto 10,000 taka only. Suicidal ideation is more common among adolescents of low income group parents 104 (5.5%) and who were not living with their parents 18 (8.2%). Adolescent’s suicidal ideation was found to be significantly associated with education, marital status and house ownership of their parents. Not being able to live with their parents was also a significant factor. Parents who received education up to SSC had odds ratio of 2.10 (1.21,3.64) and 1.92 (1.15, 3.23) for mothers and fathers respectively. Parent’s income or expenditure was not associated with adolescent’s suicidal ideation. Adolescent’s suicidal ideation of single parents had higher odds (OR 3.00, CI 1.75-5.19) in comparison to adolescents who had both parents. Adolescents whose parents owned a house and who weren’t living withtheir parents had odds ratios of 0.14 (0.05,0.35), and 1.80 (1.07,3.03) respectively. After adjusting for other covariates parents’ marital status and house ownership significantly associated with the adolescent suicide ideation.

    Conclusion: Parental socio-economic position was associated with suicidal ideation. Adolescent with single parents were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Low parental education and socio-economic status, marital status, house ownership, not living with parents at home as well as adolescent loneliness were the important factors for suicidal ideation.

  • 2.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Erling, Englund
    Research and Development Centre for the County Council of Västernorrland.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Risk behaviour, parental background, and wealth: a cluster analysis among Swedish boys and girls in the HBSC study2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 368-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To analyse how health risk behaviours (HRB) are clustered and associated with parental background and family wealth among Swedish boys and girls.

    Methods: Data were collected from Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC),a global cross-sectional survey for 1997/98, 2001/02, and 2005/06. A total of 11,972 boys and girls in grades 5, 7, and 9 participated in the study. The pupils were categorised in subgroups according to parental background: Swedish (80.0%), mixed (10.6%), and foreign (9.4%). Cluster analyses were used to identify HRB profiles. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between cluster allocation, parental background, and family affluence.

    Results: In total 11,232 pupils were identified and allocated to five cluster profiles, half of them in the cluster profile of low-risk behaviour. The most disadvantaged cluster was multiple HRB, which was characterised by high prevalence of smoking, drunkenness, low physical activity, and high soft-drink consumption. The cluster profile of multiple HRB was associated with both mixed background and foreign background in girls and with mixed background in boys.. The cluster profile of inadequate tooth brushing was associated with foreign background in both boys and girls. The cluster profiles of multiple HRB and inadequate tooth brushing were associated with low family affluence in girls.

    Conclusions: The cluster profiles of multiple HRB and inadequate tooth brushing were associated with parental foreign extraction in boys and girls and with low family affluence in girls. Prevention programmes based on identified clusters of HRB, including consideration of impact of socio-demographic indicators, are needed.

  • 3.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svanholm, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Authority officials' views on health promotion and power relations among new arrivals in northern Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 115-115Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svanholm, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How population density and type of the municipality in Sweden influences health promotion activities for newly arrivals2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 146-146Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svanholm, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Officials' reflections about health promotion and power relations among newly arrived migrants2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 474-475Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How Bullying Involvement is Associated with the Distribution of Parental Background and With Subjective Health Complaints Among Swedish Boys and Girls2013In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 775-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to analyze how bullying involvement is associated with the distribution of parental background and with subjective health complaints (SHC) among Swedish boys and girls. Data were collected from the World Health Organization, Health Behavior in School-aged Children (WHO/HBSC) survey, measurement years 1997/1998, 2001/2002 and 2005/2006. A total of 11,972 boys (50.6 %) and girls (49.4 %) in grades five, seven and nine participated in the study. The adolescents were categorized in subgroups according to parental background: Swedish (80.1 %), mixed (10.5 %) and foreign(9.7 %). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate remaining risk of SHC in the categories of bullying involvement. The frequencies of bullying involvement once or more were: none involved (74.8 %), victims (10.6 %), bullies (10.3 %) and bully/victims (4.4 %). Six out of ten involved in bullying were boys. Boys of foreign background were more involved as bullies compared to boys of mixed or Swedish background. Girls of foreign background were more involved in all three categories of bullying than girls of mixed or Swedish background. Increased risk of SHC was estimated among all adolescents involved in bullying, with highest OR in the category of bully/victims, OR 3.95 (CI 3.13–4.97) for the boys and OR 4.51 (CI 4.51–6.40) for the girls. The multivariate models were stable even after adjustment for socio-demographics. There are some associations between bullying involvement and parental background. Regardless of parental background, family affluence, family structure and gender, all adolescents involved in bullying are at increased risk of SHC.

  • 7.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How discrimination and participation are associated with psychosomatic problems among boys and girls in northern Sweden2012In: Health, ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 866-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Negative impact on health from school disturbance due to asymmetric power relations such as discrimination and offensive treatment are frequent problems among students. This study sought to analyze associations between occurrence of discrimination at school, participation and psychosomatic problems. Methods: Pupils in grades 6–9 in ten schools in a northern Swedish municipality participated in the study. The frequency of discrimination at school was measured by six items: sex; culture or ethnicity; disability; religion beliefs; sexual preferences; and any other form of discrimination. The Social and Civic Objectives Scale (SCOS) was used for an estimation of the level of participation. The pupils’ health was measured by the PsychoSomatic Problem (PSP) scale. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for estimation of increased risk of PSP. The formula Z=d/s (d)was used to test mediation. Results: Two thirds of the boys and three fourths of the girls reported occurrences of discrimination at schools (p = 0.001). Discrimination was a mediating factor between participation and PSP among boys and girls as the mediating formula Z=d/s (d) was > + 2 SD, –2.59 for boys and –39.27 for girls. Independent of each other, low participation and discrimination were associated with increased risk of PSP. Conclusion: Discrimination was a mediating factor between participation and PSP. The mediating effectwas stronger in girls than in boys. There is a need for school health promotion programsfocusing on participation in terms of democratic processes, communication and cooperation in the classroom.

  • 8.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Subjective health complaints among boys and girls in the Swedish HBSC study: focussing on parental foreign background2011In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 457-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The general aim of this study was to explore the associations between foreign extraction and subjective health complaints (SHC) among school-aged children in Sweden. Methods: Data were obtained from the global cross-sectional survey Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), 1997/1998, 2001/2002, and 2005/2006. A total of 11,972 pupils in grades 5, 7 and 9 participated in the survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate remaining risk of SHC among the subgroups of pupils. The analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic indicators, grade and measurement year. Results: Parental background: Swedish n = 9,585, mixed n = 1,263, and foreign n = 1,124. The results showed an increased risk of SHC among girls with a foreign background OR 1.27 (95% CI 1.04-1.55) compared with girls with a Swedish background and among girls in single-adult households OR 1.42 (95% CI 1.20-1.67) compared with girls in two-adult households. No such differences were shown among boys. Conclusions: A significantly increased risk of ill health remained in girls of foreign background after adjustment for socio-demographic indicators, grade and measurement year. © 2011 Swiss School of Public Health.

  • 9.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Melchiorre, M G
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, H
    University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindert, J
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany.
    Stankunas, M
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Torres-Gonzalez, F
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Soares, Joaquim J.F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Life-time abuse and mental health among older persons: a European study2017In: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, ISSN 1092-6771, E-ISSN 1545-083X, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 590-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the association of lifetime abuse and mental health among older persons, considering associated factors (e.g., demographics) through a cross-sectional design. We recruited 4,467 women and men ages 60–84 years from 7 European cities. Mental health was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial, and physical injuries) based on the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale and the UK survey of abuse/neglect of older people. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that country of residence, low educational level, and experienced financial strain increased the odds of probable cases of anxiety and depression. Female sex, white-collar profession, and financial support by social/other benefits/or partner income were associated with higher odds of anxiety, while older age and experience of lifetime injury were associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms. The findings of this study indicate that socioeconomic factors, as well as experienced lifetime severe physical abuse leading to injuries, are significant in perceived mental health of adults in later life.

  • 10.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging.
    Lindert, Jutta
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Barros, Henrique
    University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The prevalence of lifetime abuse among older adults in seven European countries2016In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 891-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the lifetime prevalence rate of abuse among older persons and to scrutinize the associated factors (e.g. demographics).

    Methods This cross-sectional population-based study had 4467 participants, aged 60–84, from seven European cities. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injuries) was measured based on The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, and the UK survey of abuse/neglect of older people.

    Results Over 34 % of participants reported experiencing lifetime psychological, 11.5 % physical, 18.5 % financial and 5 % sexual abuse and 4.3 % reported injuries. Lifetime psychological abuse was associated with country, younger age, education and alcohol consumption; physical abuse with country, age, not living in partnership; injuries with country, female sex, age, education, not living in partnership; financial abuse with country, age, not living in partnership, education, benefiting social/partner income, drinking alcohol; and sexual abuse with country, female sex and financial strain.

    Conclusions High lifetime prevalence rates confirm that elder abuse is a considerable public health problem warranting further longitudinal studies. Country of residence is an independent factor associated with all types of elder abuse which highlights the importance of national interventions alongside international collaborations.

    Keywords Determinant Elder abuse Financial Injuries Psychological Sexual

  • 11.
    Fraga, S
    et al.
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Soares, Joaquim J.F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiorre, MG
    Center for Socioeconomic Research on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, H
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, J
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Stankunas, M
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences; University of Griffith, Australia.
    Torres-Gonzales, F
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lifetime Abuse and Quality of Life among Older People2017In: Health & Social Work, ISSN 0360-7283, E-ISSN 1545-6854, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of lifetime abuse on quality of life (QoL) among older adults. By using a multinational study authors aimed to assess the subjective perception of QoL among people who have reported abuse during the course of their lifetime. The respondents (N = 4,467; 2,559 women) were between the ages of 60 and 84 years and living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Lifetime abuse was assessed by using a structured questionnaire that allowed to assess lifetime experiences of abuse. QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life–Old module. After adjustment for potential confounders, authors found that to have had any abusive experience decreased the score of sensory abilities. Psychological abuse was associated with lower autonomy and past, present, and future activities. Physical abuse with injuries significantly decreased social participation. Intimacy was also negatively associated with psychological abuse, physical abuse with injury, and sexual abuse. The results of this study provide evidence that older people exposed to abuse during their lifetime have a significant reduction in QoL, with several QoL domains being negatively affected.

  • 12.
    Hashemi, Esmatossadat
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Zangi, Mahdi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Tabriz, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mohammadi, Reza
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm.
    Population-based epidemiology of non-fatal injuries in Tehran, Iran2018In: Health Promotion Perspectives, ISSN 2228-6497, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 127-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Our aim in this survey was to explore descriptive epidemiology of injuries in Tehran in 2012 and to report the recalled estimates of injury incidence rates.

    Methods: A population survey was conducted in Tehran during 2012, within which a total of 8626 participants were enrolled. The cluster sampling was used to draw samples in 100 clusters with a pre-specified cluster size of 25 households per cluster. Data were collected on demographic features, accident and injury characteristics based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD10).

    Results: A total of 618 injuries per 3 months were reported, within which 597 cases (96.6%)were unintentional injuries. More than 82% of all injuries were those caused by exposure to inanimate mechanical forces, traffic accidents, falls and burns. Above 80% of the traffic injuries happened among men (P<0.001). About 43% of the unintentional injuries were mild injuries.After the age of 40, women, unlike men, had higher risks for being injured. The estimated annual incidence rate for all types of injuries was 284.8 per 1000 (95% CI: 275.4-294.4) and for unintentional injuries was 275.2 per 1000.

    Conclusion: Injuries are major health problems in Tehran with a highly reported incidence. The status is not substantially improved over the recent years which urges the need to be adequately and emergently addressed. As the incidence rate was estimated based on participant recalls, the real incidence rate may even be higher than those reported in the current study.

  • 13.
    Högh, Annie
    et al.
    National Institute of Occupational, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Karolinska Institutet.
    A systematic review of longitudinal studies of nonfatal workplace violence2005In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 291-313Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk factors and consequences of exposure to violence at work were examinedthrough a systematic review of longitudinal studies of workplace violence.Literature in different databases was screened and the articles were selected onthe basis of a set of inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies were included into thereview and they were evaluated according to a number of criteriarecommended for use in systematic reviews. Of the reviewed studies, 12 metmore than half of the evaluation criteria. The studies identified individual,situational, and structural risk factors of workplace violence. Five studiesdemonstrated that being subjected to violence at work have both acute andlong-term consequences for the exposed staff and the workplace. Two studiesalso found symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in victims. In view ofthe detrimental effects of violence, it is important that preventive measures aretaken and evaluated in future longitudinal studies.

  • 14.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Barros, H
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Torres Gonzales, F
    Departmental Section of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Melchiorre, MG
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging (INRCA), Ancona, Italy.
    Lindert, J
    Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Stankunas, M
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Psychological abuse among older persons in Europe: A cross-sectional study2013In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 16-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Elder abuse is an issue of great concern world-wide, not least in Europe. Older people are increasingly vulnerable to physical, psychological, financial maltreatment and sexual coercion. However, due to complexities of measurement, psychological abuse may be underestimated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of psychological abuse toward older persons within a 12 month period.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study design was cross-sectional and data were collected during January-July 2009 in the survey “Elder abuse: a multinational prevalence survey, ABUEL”. The participants were 4,467 randomly selected persons aged 60-84 years (2,559 women, 57.3 per cent) from seven EU countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden). The sample size was adapted to each city according to their population of women and men aged 60-84 years (albeit representative and proportional to sex-age). The participants answered a structured questionnaire either through a face-to-face interview or a mix of interview/self-response. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression methods.

    Findings – The prevalence of overall psychological abuse was 29.7 per cent in Sweden, followed by 27.1 per cent in Germany; 24.6 per cent in Lithuania and 21.9 per cent in Portugal. The lowest prevalence was reported in Greece, Spain and Italy with 13.2 per cent, 11.5 per cent and 10.4 per cent, respectively. Similar tendencies were observed concerning minor/severe abuse. The Northern countries (Germany, Lithuania, Sweden) compared to Southern countries (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain) reported a higher mean prevalence (across countries) of minor/severe abuse (26.3 per cent/11.5 per cent and 12.9 per cent/5.9 per cent, respectively). Most perpetrators (71.2 per cent) were spouses/partners and other relatives (e.g. children). The regression analysis indicated that being from Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain was associated with less risk of psychological abuse. Low social support, living in rented housing, alcohol use, frequent health care use, and high scores in anxiety and somatic complaints were associated with increased risk of psychological abuse.

    Social implications – Psychological abuse was more prevalent in Northern than Southern countries and factors such as low social support and high anxiety levels played an important role. Further studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of psychological abuse and risk factors among older persons in other EU countries. Particular attention should be paid to severe abuse. Such research may help policy makers and health planers/providers in tailoring interventions to tackle the ever growing problem of elder abuse.

    Originality/value – The paper reports data from the ABUEL Survey, which collected population based data on elderly abuse.

  • 15.
    Menckel, Ewa
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Carter, Ned
    Uppsala University.
    Viitasara, Eija
    National Institute for Working Life .
    Violence towards caregivers of persons with developmental disabilities.2000In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Violent and disruptive acts committed by persons with developmental disabilities are a potential work environment problem for caregivers. This study developed and tested an instrument for describing and analyzing violence among persons with developmental disabilities. METHODS: Personnel from four units of one facility recorded daily on a simple form all violent and disruptive acts occurring in a limited range of situations. RESULTS: Acts of violence were associated with a small minority of individuals, but grossly underreported and unrecognized in formal reporting systems. None of the nearly 3000 incidents recorded during the six-week study required sick leave. Violent and disruptive acts occurred most often when an individual was requested to do something he or she did not want to do, when the individual was denied the opportunity to do something they did want to do and when waiting or under-stimulated. Personnel used the data in discussing countermeasures that could be integrated with the care and treatment of the individual. CONCLUSION: Hitting, kicking, pinching etc. of personnel are a work environment problem due to their high frequency and effects upon employee morale. The instrument and procedures can be used to reduce incidents of violence, which would improve the working environment of employees and assist persons with developmental disabilities as they move from institutional environments.

  • 16.
    Menckel, Ewa
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Viitasara, Eija
    National Institute for Working Life and Karolinska Institutet.
    Threats and violence in Swedish care and welfare--magnitude of the problem and impact on municipal personnel.2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 376-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of threats and violence at work has received increasing attention in Sweden in recent years. Exposure is especially high among health-care personnel in social services. A nationwide survey of prevalence, work environment and risk situations was conducted. A questionnaire was sent to a stratified sample of 2800 local government employees in the care and welfare sector, working mainly with the elderly or persons with developmental impairments. Seven occupational groups, including supervisors, specialists and other categories of carers, were included, and represented a population of more than 170 000 employees. The response rate was 85%. The results indicated that as many as 51% of the population had been affected by threats/violence, either verbally or physically, over the previous year. Moreover, the results suggest that over 9% of the employees in the care sector experienced acts of violence or threats on a daily basis, and several times a month by 67%. The most vulnerable groups were assistant nurses and direct carers. Verbal threats appear more common (79%), but 66% appear to have experienced physical assaults. Stratified estimates suggest that feelings of anger (41%) and helplessness (31%), but also minor physical injuries (18%), are frequent reactions. Organizational change in the workplace and high workload entailed increased risk. Threats and violence in health-care settings are a major work-environment issue. Greater knowledge of consequences for organization, work situation and health of personnel is needed.

  • 17.
    Nyholm, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Samverkan i distansutbildning, från fristående kurser till examen i folkhälsovetenskap2017In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 340-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To promote equity in health is complex and requires not only multidisciplinary methods but also interdisciplinary studies to get a better insight and under-standing of today’s health problems. Distance learning makes it possible for students to be room-and-time-independent as well as local independent. In this article we present, a public health education leading to a Bachelor’s degree. The programme is a collaboration between two universities in Sweden, Halmstad University and Mid Sweden University in Sundsvall. The training is at it-distance and begins with basic courses at Halmstad Univer-sity with a specialization in health and lifestyle. Further, the students starts at the Mid Sweden University in Sundsvall with focus on project planning and project management to implement strategic actions for better health at the organizational and societal level. The programme ends with a Bachelor’s degree in Public Health.

  • 18.
    Rooth, Hetty
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Forinder, Ulla
    University of Gävle.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Piuva, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Trusted and doubted: Discourses of parenting training in two Swedish official inquiries, 1947 and 20082018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 20_suppl, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse discourses of parenting training in official inquires in Sweden that explicitly deal with the bringing up of children and parental education and how the representations of the problems and their solutions affect parental subject positions in the early welfare state and at the onset of the 21st century. Method: We carried out a discourse analysis of two public inquiries of 1947 and 2008, drawing on theories about governmentality and power regimes. Tools from political discourse analysis were used to investigate the objectives of political discourse practices. Results: Both inquiries referred to a context of change and new life demands as a problem. Concerning suggestions for solutions, there were discrepancies in parents’ estimated need of expert knowledge and in descriptions of parental capacity. In a discourse of trust and doubt, the parents in 1947 were positioned as trusted welfare partners and secure raisers of future generations, and in 2008, as doubted adults, feared to be faltering in their child-rearing tasks. Conclusions: The analysis revealed how governmental problem descriptions, reasoning about causes and suggestions of solutions influenced parents’ subject positions in a discourse of trust and doubt, and made way for governmental interventions with universal parenting training in the 21st century. 

  • 19. Soares, J
    et al.
    Macassa, G
    Grossi, G
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Psychosocial Correlates of Hopelessness Among Men2008In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 50-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fraga, S
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal .
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stankunas, M
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania .
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiore, GB
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy .
    Barros, H
    Medical School - Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    The chronicity and severity of abuse among older persons by country: A European study2014In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate chronicity (frequency) in different abuse types (e.g. psychological) and overall abuse (all abuse types) by severity (minor, severe, total) in seven European cities, and scrutinize factors associated with high chronicity levels (frequency on the median and higher) in psychological and overall abuse by severity. Design/methodology/approach: The study design was cross-sectional. The sample consisted of 4,467 randomly selected women/men (2,559 women) aged 60-84 years from seven European cities, and data were analysed with bivariate and multivariate methods. Findings: Chronicity varied across country and by abuse type. For instance, Germany had the highest chronicity means in physical and sexual abuse; Greece in physical, injury, sexual and overall abuse; Lithuania in physical, injury, financial and overall abuse; Portugal in physical abuse; Spain in physical, sexual and financial abuse; and Sweden in psychological, injury, financial and overall abuse. In general, Italy had the lowest chronicity means. The main perpetrators were people close to the respondents and women (in some cases). Research limitations/implications: The independent relationship (regressions) between chronicity/severity of abuse, country and other variables (e.g. depression) was examined only for psychological and overall abuse. More research into this issue with other types of abuse (e.g. sexual) is warranted. Originality/value: The paper reports data from the ABUEL survey, which gathered population-based data on elderly abuse.

  • 21.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Department of Public Health Science, Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Network of Biomedical Research on Mental Health Centers, University of Granada, Spain.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto, Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Quality of life among persons aged 60-84 years in Europe: The role of psychological abuse and socio-demographic, social and health factors2013In: Journal of Biosafety and Health Education, ISSN 2332-0893, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Elder abuse and its effects are a serious public health issue. However, little is known about therelation between psychological abuse, other factors (e.g. social support) and quality of life (QoL) by domain. This studyaddressed differences in QoL by domain between psychologically abused and non-abused. While considering otherfactors such as social support.

    Methods: The respondents were 4,467 (2,559 women) randomly selected persons aged 60-84 years living in7 European cities. The mean response across countries was 45.2%. The cross-sectional data were analyzed withbivariate/multivariate methods.

    Results: Abused respondents contrasted to non-abused scored lower in QoL (autonomy, 67.42 ± 21.26 vs. 72.39± 19.58; intimacy, 55.31 ± 31.15 vs. 67.21 ± 28.55; past/present/future activities, 62.79 ± 19.62 vs. 68.05 ± 18.09;social participation, 65.03 ± 19.84 vs. 68.21 ± 19.77). Regressions showed that abuse was negatively associated withautonomy, intimacy and past/present/future activities, and positively with the social participation. All QoL dimensionswere negatively associated with country and depressive/anxiety symptoms, and positively with social support. Further,variables such as age, sex and somatic symptoms were negatively associated with some of the QoL dimensions andothers such as family structure, education, health care use and drinking positively. The regression model “explained”32.8% of the variation in autonomy, 45.6% in intimacy, 44.8% in past/present/future activities and 41.5% in socialparticipation.

    Conclusions: Abuse was linked to lower QoL in most domains, but other factors such as depressive symptomsalso carried a negative impact. Social support and to some extent family structure had a “protective” effect on QoL.Abuse, health indicators (e.g. depressive symptoms) and social support should be considered in addressing the QoL ofolder persons. However, QoL was influenced by many factors, which could not be firmly disentangled due to the crosssectionalapproach, calling for longitudinal research to address causality.

  • 22. Soares, Joaquim J.F
    et al.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Quality of life among lifetime victimized men.2007In: Violence and Victims, ISSN 0886-6708, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 289-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of life was compared for lifetime victimized (n = 353) and nonvictimized men (n = 167) for demographic and quality of life variables by a cross-sectional design. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared to nonvictims had a lower quality of life, were younger, more often had upper secondary school education, and were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, on student allowances, on unemployment, financially strained, and smokers. The regressions revealed that unemployment, financial strain, smoking, depression, and home/public abuse were associated with reduced quality of life among victimized men. Being a blue-collar/low/intermediate white-collar worker and social support were related to increased quality of life. This study may have provided new insights into the experiences of quality of life of victimized men.

  • 23.
    Soares, Joaquim J.F.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging , I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, Henrique
    University of Porto, Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The relationship between the chronicity and severity of abuse, socio-economics, psychosocial factors and mental health2015In: International journal of healthcare, insurance and equity, ISSN 2145-3168, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abuse and mental health of older persons are sources of great concern. However, there are limited data on the relation between the chronicity (frequency of abuse) by severity (minor, severe) of abuse (e.g. psychological, physical) and mental health (e.g. depression). Women/men aged 60–84 years from seven European cities (n=4,467) participated in this study, and data were analysed with bivariate/multivariate methods. High chronicity (frequency, median/above) of psychological and physical abuse independently of severity was related to depression and anxiety; financial and overall abuse to anxiety; and minor financial abuse and overall abuse to depression. Regressions showed that some factors (e.g. being from Greece) were associated with a lower depression/anxiety “risk” and others (e.g. low social support) with high risk. Low chronicity (frequency, below median) of psychological abuse was associated with a lower anxiety risk. The management of depression/anxiety, particularly anxiety, among elders should also consider the roles of abuse and social support.

  • 24.
    Soares, Joaquim Jorge Fernandes
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiorre, GM
    Stankunas, M
    Lindert, J
    Barros, H
    Ioannidi, E
    Gonzalez-Torres, F
    The impact of psychological abuse on somatic symptoms: A study of older persons aged 60-84 years2014In: Journal of Adult Protection, ISSN 1466-8203, E-ISSN 2042-8669, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 213-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to examine differences in the experience of somatic symptoms by domain (exhaustion, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, heart distress) between psychologically abused and non-abused older persons, and to scrutinize associations between abuse and somatic symptoms while considering other factors (e.g. social support).Design/methodology/approach– The design was cross-sectional. The participants were 4,467 women/men aged 60-84 years living in seven European cities. The data were analysed using bivariate/multivariate methods.Findings– Psychologically abused participants scored higher on all somatic symptom domains than non-abused, and thus were more affected by the symptoms. The regressions confirmed a positive association between psychological abuse and most somatic symptom domains, but other factors (e.g. depression, anxiety) were more salient. Demographics/socio-economics were positively (e.g. marriage/cohabitation) or negatively (e.g. education) associated with somatic symptoms depending on the domain. Social support and family structure "protected" the experience of somatic symptoms.Research limitations/implications– The research focused on psychological abuse. It did not incorporate other abuse types calling for further research on the effects of other abuse types on somatic symptoms. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that psychological abuse is linked to somatic symptoms, but the role of other factors (e.g. depression, anxiety, social support) is also important.Practical implications– Improvements in the older person's situation regarding somatic symptoms need to consider psychological abuse, co-morbidities, social support and living conditions.Originality/value– The paper reports data from the ABUEL Survey, which collected population-based data on elder abuse.

  • 25. Soares, Joaquim
    et al.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Miranda, Jamilette
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Health among lifetime victimized men2007In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 351-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We examined differences in demographics/socio-economics, lifestyles and mental/ physical health between victimized/non-victimized men, and identified/quantified factors associated with mental/physical health.

    Study design. The study design was cross-sectional.

    Methods. The men were assessed in various areas (e.g., depression) by means of a questionnaire.

    Results. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared with non-victims were younger. They also had higher intermediate education levels, were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, were on student allowances and financially strained, smoked more, had a lower BMI, and reported headaches, depression, tension and cognitive difficulties more frequently. The regression analyses showed that financial strain rather than violence was a more important factor for illhealth. Only headaches and cognitive difficulties were associated with violence.

    Conclusions. Quite an number of men were in a poor physical/mental state, but there were few differences between victims/non-victims. Financial strain was determined to be a more important factor for ill-health than violence. Our data indicate that violence had little effect on men’s health. Our findings do not generally support a relationship between poor health and the abuse of men.

  • 26.
    Sotoudeh, Gholam Reza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mohammadi, Reza
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Epidemiological pattern of accidental falls among elderly Iranians: A pilot study2016In: Injury Prevention Safety 2016 World Conference, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2016, Vol. 22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Sotoudeh, Gholam Reza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mohammadi, Reza
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Prevalence, circumstancec and consequences of accidental falls among elderly Iranians2016In: Injury Prevention Safety 2016 World Conference, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2016, Vol. 22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Sotoudeh, Gholam Reza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Reza, Mohammadi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Zahra, Mosallanezhad
    University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Soares, Joaquim J.F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The prevalence, circumstances and consequences of unintentional falls among elderly Iranians: A population study2018In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 79, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim

    Falling threatens the health, independence and quality of life of older adults. Information about characteristics and predisposing factors of falls is essential to develop and implement effective preventing measure. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, circumstances and consequences of falls among community-dwelling older adults in Tehran, Iran, and scrutinize factors (e.g. demographics) associated with falls.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran. A total of 653 individuals aged 65 years and over were selected by a stratified random sampling as representing older adults in Tehran. All required data were collected through face-to-face interviews using questionnaires.

    Results

    The prevalence of falls was 39.7% and higher in women than in men. For both sexes, most of the falls occurred in the afternoon (n = 135, 52.1%) and at home (n = 209, 80.7%). One-fourth of the falls (23.2%) occurred in a forward direction, mostly among women (60%). For both sexes, one-third of the causes of falls were loss of balance, mostly among women and the oldest persons. Two-hundred and twelve of the fallers reported injuries. The logistic regression showed that female gender, low education and constant worries about living expenses were significantly associated with falls.

    Conclusions

    This study may have provided new insights into the characteristics/ circumstances/ consequences of injurious falls and their relation with age, gender and injury severity in Iran. It may be useful for health policy makers and health providers when designing falls intervention and prevention programs at the community level.

  • 29.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    et al.
    School of Public Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija Riitta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Scientific Technological Area, Socio Economic Research Centre, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging (INRCA), Ancona, Italy.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Centro de Investigación Biomedica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Stankuniene, Aurima
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Social Pharmacy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Avery, Mark
    School of Public Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Department of Public Health, Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg.
    Factors associated with refraining from buying prescribed medications among older people in Europe2014In: Australasian Journal on Ageing, ISSN 1440-6381, E-ISSN 1741-6612, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To evaluate the associations between refraining from buying prescribed medications and selected factors among older persons.

    Methods

    A total of 4467 people aged 60–84 years from seven European countries answered a questionnaire (response rate 45.2%). Refraining from buying prescribed medications was measured with the question: ‘Have you ever refrained from buying prescribed medication and care?’

    Results

    About 11.9% of older people refrained from buying prescribed medications. The multiple regression analysis showed that ages 60–64 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.38–3.13) and 65–69 (OR = 1.73; 95%CI: 1.16–2.57) years, experience of financial strain (OR = 1.59; 95%CI: 1.27–2.01), as well as exposure to abuse (OR = 1.64; 95%CI: 1.31–2.06) when taking into account country of participant were independently associated with refraining from buying medications, while an opposite association was observed for being male (OR = 0.72; 95%CI: 0.58–0.91).

    Conclusions

    The study has revealed that refraining from buying prescription medications is a problem among older people and it has identified a number of factors associated with this.

  • 30.
    Stén, Kersti Danell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Med Acad, Dept Hlth Management, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    INRCA Ancona, Italian Natl Inst Hlth & Sci Aging, Sci Technol Area, Socio Econ Res Ctr, Ancona, Italy.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Barros, Henrique
    Univ Porto, Sch Med, Dept Hyg & Epidemiol, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Protestant Univ Appl Sci, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    Univ Granada, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Sociol, Athens, Greece.
    The relationship between abuse, psychosocial factors and pain complaints among older persons in Europe2014In: Medicina (Kaunas), ISSN 1010-660X, E-ISSN 1648-9144, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 61-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Abuse and pain complaints are common among older persons. However, little is known about relationships between abuse (e.g. psychological) and pain complaints (e.g. backache) among older persons while considering other factors (e.g. depression).Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine these relationships.Materials and methods: The design was cross-sectional. A total of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years from Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden answered questionnaires regarding various areas such as abuse, mental health (e.g. anxiety) and pain complaints (e.g. backache). The data were examined with bivariate (analyses ofvariance) and multivariate methods (linear regressions).Results: The bivariate analyses showed that psychological abuse was connected with all pain complaints; physical with headache and head pressure; sexual with neck or shoulder pain and headache; injury with all complaints (except pain in joints or limbs); financial with pain in joints or limbs and head pressure; and overall abuse (one or more types) with all complaints (except headache). The regressions showed that psychological abuse increased the likelihood of being affected by head pressure and heaviness or tiredness in the legs; physical abuse of being affected by headache and head pressure; financial abuse of being affected by head pressure; and overall abuse of being affected by headache and head pressure. In general, respondents from Sweden and younger (60-64 years) were less affected by the complaints than those from other counties (e.g. Germany) and older (e.g. 70-74 years), respectively. Respondents on medication (e.g. pain killers) were less affected by all pain complaints and those with high social support by pain in joints or limbs. High scores on anxiety and depression and having many diseases increased the likelihood of being affect by all pain complaints.Conclusions: Abuse was related with certain pain complaints (e.g.headache), but other factors and in particular mental health and physical diseases impacted on all pain complaints. Medication and partly social support had a positive effect on the pain experience, i.e. the complaints interfered less with for instance the daily-life of the respondents.

  • 31.
    Svanholm, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Authority officials' views on organisation and collaboration in health promotion for new arrivals in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 129-129Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Svanholm, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Local authority officials' collaboration in health promotion activities for newly arrived migrants2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 469-470Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Tredal, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Viitasara, Eija Riitta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiorre, MG
    Scientific Technological Area, Socio Economic Research Centre, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy .
    Torres-Gonzales, F
    Network of Biomedical Research on Mental Health Centers, University of Granada, Granada, Spain .
    Stankunas, M
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania .
    Lindert, J
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany .
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Barros, H
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto, Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Alcohol use among abused and non-abused older persons aged 60-84 years: A European study2013In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 96-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression).

    Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60–84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with bivariate/multivariate methods.

    Findings: Psychologically abused elders were more often alcohol users than non-users (21.7% vs. 16.3%) and the opposite regarding financially abused elders (4.8% vs. 3.5%). Psychologically abused elders also had more often three or more drinks containing alcohol in a drinking day (21.1% vs. 16.1%) and six or more drinks on one occasion (24.5% vs. 18.3%). Psychological abuse, demographics/socio-economics (e.g. education), smoking and leisure activities were positively associated alcohol use, and being from certain countries (e.g. Italy), age (e.g. 80–84 years), depression and financial abuse negatively.

    Conclusions: Across countries, 64.2% of the elders were drinkers. Some variables (e.g. psychological abuse) were positively related to alcohol use and others (e.g. depression) negatively. Many of the elders were exposed to abuse. Our findings may be useful to prevent/manage drinking and abuse among elders. However, alcohol use was influenced by various factors that need to be further elucidated, particularly the relation between abuse and drinking.

  • 34. Viitasara, Eija
    Violence in Caring: Risk factors, outcomes and support2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Viitasara, Eija
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life and Karolinska Institutet.
    Menckel, Ewa
    National Institute for Working Life and Karolinska Institutet.
    Developing a framework for identifying individual and organizational risk factors for the prevention of violence in the health-care sector.2002In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 117-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of violence at work has received considerable attention in recent years. According to Swedish statistics, personnel in the health-care sector are the most affected. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework or model for studies of workplace violence, and to demonstrate its application to the analysis of violence in health-care settings. The model treats violence as a process comprising of several stages/sub-events, and shows how this process is influenced by underlying structural (rather permanent) and situational (generally temporary) risk factors. Understanding the diversity in the process provides a basis for analysis of connections between interacting factors at different stages. Risk management (hazard identification, risk analysis, and preventive counter-measures) should be integrated into the work situation and operations of an organization.

  • 36.
    Viitasara, Eija
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svanholm, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Health promoting factors for newly arrived migrants - Experiences from rural and urban municipalities2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 475-476Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Viitasara, Eija
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life and Karolinska Institutet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Menckel, Ewa
    National Institute for Working Life and Karolinska Institutet.
    Multiple risk factors for violence to seven occupational groups in the Swedish caring sector2003In: Relations Industrielles - Industrial Relations, ISSN 0034-379X, E-ISSN 1703-8138, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 202-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Violence towards health-care personnel represent an in-creasing problem, but little is known in terms of how differentoccupational groups are affected. A questionnaire was sent to astratified sample of 2,800 of 173,000 employees in the Swedishmunicipal health and welfare sector. Seven major groups workingwith the elderly or persons with developmental disabilities wereconsidered: administrators, nursing specialists, supervisors, directcarers, nursing auxiliaries, assistant nurses, and personal assist-ants. The response rate was 85 percent. Fifty-one percent ofrespondents reported exposure to violence or threats of violenceover one year. The most vulnerable groups were assistant nursesand direct carers (usually of the developmentally disabled). Indi-vidual characteristics, such as age and organizational tenure, wererelated to exposure. Work-related characteristics, such as type ofworkplace, working full-time with clients, organizationaldownsizing, and high workload, were also associated with risk.Greater knowledge of impacts on different professional groups andrelevant prevention are required.

  • 38.
    Viitasara, Eija
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Menckel, Ewa
    Workplace violence and the importance of preventive interventions2008In: 9th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion: Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Viitasara, Eija
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Menckel, Ewa
    Workplace violence in health-and-care sector and the role of social support2008In: 9th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, March 15-18, 2008. Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, 2008Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 40.
    Westlander, Gunnela
    et al.
    Division of Social and Organizational Psychology, National Institute of Occupational Health, .
    Viitasara, Eija
    Division of Social and Organizational Psychology, National Institute of Occupational Health, .
    Johansson, Annika
    Department of Human Work Sciences, University of Luleå, .
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Department of Human Work Sciences, University of Luleå.
    Evaluation of an ergonomics intervention programme in VDT workplaces.1995In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on an intervention programme based on the concept of participatory ergonomics. The study was designed within the framework of a multidisciplinary project concerned with identifying the work conditions and problems necessary to improve the working life of VDT operators with routine data-entry and data-dialogue tasks. The intervention programme was evaluated in two follow-up studies. The evaluation criteria covered the proposals for improvement emerging from (1) the intervention programme's final joint decisions (of experts and employees) on measures needed, and (2) workers' views of the effectiveness of the programme itself. As the implementation period was marked by increasing turbulence caused by recession in many branches of the Swedish economy, attention was paid to the impact of the restructuring and rationalization effected by company management in the workplaces under study. To obtain a better understanding of the outcome of the intervention programme, the follow-up was extended systematically to explore the disturbing organizational factors operating during the implementation period. The results of the evaluation offer increased knowledge of organizational barriers to the implementation of ergonomics measures decided upon within the framework of intervention research.

  • 41.
    Ziaei, Reza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mohammadi, Reza
    Karolinska institutet.
    Dastgiri, Saeed
    Department of Community Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Asl Rahimi, Vahab
    Unit for Adolescence Health, Province Health Center, Tabriz, Iran.
    Jeddi, Abolfazl
    Unit for Adolescence Health, Province Health Center, Tabriz, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The Prevalence, Attitudes, and Correlates of Waterpipe Smoking Among High School Students in Iran: a Cross-Sectional Study2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 686-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlates of waterpipe (WP) smoking among 15–17-year-old high school students in Iran.

    Method

    Data were collected using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a self-administrated questionnaire distributed to a representative sample of high school students aged 15–17 in the city of Tabriz. Current WP smoking was defined as past 30-day use, and ever WP smoking was defined as at least one or two lifetime puffs. Differences in WP use, knowledge, and attitudes were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Binary logistic regression estimated the association between relevant independent variables (e.g., age) and the dependent variables (current/ever WP smoking).

    Results

    Of 1517 students, 21.6 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 19.5, 23.8) were ever WP smokers, and 9.7 % (95 % CI = 8.2, 11.2) were current WP smokers. Of current WP smokers, 40.3 % have stated that they want to stop smoking now. Moreover, 14.1 % of non-WP smokers reported that they might enjoy smoking WP. Of current WP smokers, 49.0 % have smoked at cafés. Additionally, 95.3 % of current WP smokers reported that their age did not prevent them from being served a WP. Studying in high school third grade (adjusted odds ratios (AORs) = 1.70; 95 % CI [1.10, 2.63]), experience of cigarette smoking (AORs = 1.57; 95 % CI [1.12, 2.20]), and being prepared to accept a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 3.31; 95 % CI [2.17, 5.04]) were independently associated with ever WP smoking, and accepting a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 4.36; 95 % CI [2.69, 7.07]) and gender (female) (AORs = 0.45; 95 % CI [0.30, 0.70] were independently associated with current WP smoking.

    Conclusion

    Prevalence of current and ever WP smoking is high in Tabriz. There is an urgent need to design interventions in order to increase students’ and their parents’ awareness regarding the harmfulness of WP, and to establish legal measures to restrict adolescents’ access to WPs and tobacco in society.

  • 42.
    Ziaei, Reza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Shahi, Hadi
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Dastgiri, S.
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Mohammadi, R.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fruit and vegetable intake and its correlates among high-school students in Iran: a cross-sectional study2019In: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 2198-1833, E-ISSN 1613-2238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Two important components of a healthy diet are fruits and vegetables (F&V), which are essential for maintaining physical health. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of F&V intake among high school adolescents in the city of Tabriz.

    Methods

    The Global School-based Student Health Survey self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection among 1517 adolescents.

    Results

    The prevalence of fruit intake was 76.1% (≥ 2 times/day) and vegetable intake 23% (≥ 3 times/day). Being at the third level of high school and having sedentary behavior, low intake of vegetables, low or lack of parental support, lack of peer support and lack of enough food at home were significantly associated with low consumption of fruit among students. Also, being overweight or obese and having low intake of fruit, low or lack of peer support, and being physically inactive were significantly associated with low intake of vegetables.

    Conclusion

    Results suggest that interventions targeting personal, interpersonal and environmental factors for increased F&V consumption should be given more priority by the public health authorities.

  • 43.
    Ziaei, Reza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bazarghani, Homayoun Sadeghi
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Dastgiri, Saeed
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Zeinalzadeh, Ali Hossein
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Bahadori, Farhad
    Tarbiat Modares University, Iran.
    Mohammadi, Reza
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Suicidal ideation and its correlates among high school students in Iran: A cross-sectional study2017In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Globally, the second leading cause of death among adolescents is suicide and in middle-income countries adolescents’ suicidal ideation is a neglected public health area. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among 15–17-year-old high school students in Iran.

    Methods

    Self-administered, Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample (N =1517) of high-school students aged 15–17 in the city of Tabriz. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between relevant independent variables (e.g. gender) and the dependent outcome variable (suicidal ideation in the past 12 months).

    Results

    Overall, 62 (4.1%, 95% CI= 3.1, 5.2) of 1,517 students had thoughts of suicide. Three hundred and thirteen (20.6%, 95% CI= 18.6, 22.7) students reported being bullied in the previous 30 days. In addition, 134 (8.8%, 95% CI= 7.5, 10.3) students reported having been sexually abused. Being worried that they could not eat or did not feel hungry (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 4.15; 95% Cl [1.71, 10.07]; current cigarette smoking (AOR = 3.00; 95% CI [1.69, 5.30]; thinking about using alcohol or other drugs (AOR = 4.28; 95% CI [2.41, 7.59]; and being sexually abused (AOR = 2.63; 95% CI [1.32, 5.24]) were all factors positively associated with suicidal ideation.

    Conclusion

    The prevalence of suicidal ideation was lower in our school students than in earlier studies. Interventions that address the issue of current cigarette smoking, worries, thinking about using alcohol or other drugs and sexual abuse should be given more priority by the public health authorities.

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