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  • 1.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in adultswith congenital heart disease2017In: Congenital Heart Disease, ISSN 1747-079X, E-ISSN 1747-0803, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 357-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study were to compare the level of posttraumatic stress disorder between adults with and without congenital heart disease, and to examine the correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (e.g., sociodemographics).

    Design: Cross-sectional.

    Setting: Two university-affiliated heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran.

    Patients: A sample of 347 adults with congenital heart disease aged 18–64 years (52% women), and 353 adults without congenital heart disease matched by sex and age (±2 years) was recruited.

    Outcome Measures: The PTSD Scale: Self-report version was used to assess the diagnosis and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among each group of participants.

    Results: The posttraumatic stress disorder in the patients was comparable to those of the control group, except for increased arousal (P = .027) which was scored higher among the patients. Over 52% of adults with congenital heart disease met the criteria for a likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis compared with 48% of adults without congenital heart disease. The regression analyses among patients revealed that elevated depressive symptoms (OR = 1.27) and a positive history of cardiac surgery (OR = 2.02) were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. The model could explain 29% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Conclusions: The high and comparable prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among patients and nonpatients highlight the significance of the context in which adults with congenital heart disease may face other/additional stressors than disease-related ones, an issue that clinicians need also take into account. Furthermore, the association of posttraumatic stress disorder with elevated depressive symptoms warrant a comprehensive psychological assessment and management of adults with congenital heart disease, in particular among those with a history of invasive procedures.

  • 2.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The Psychosocial Situation of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease in Iran2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives:Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are a new group of patients with a prevalence of 4 per 1000. They have evolved as a result of significant improvements in medical management during the past decades. However, adults with CHD experience various medical and social challenges that may influence their psychosocial functioning. Providing appropriate medical, rehabilitation and social care for adults with CHD, and indeed improving their well-being require the evaluation of their current psychosocial situation. This thesis aims to increase the understanding of the mental health, somatic symptoms, social support, style of coping, quality of life and life satisfaction of adults with CHD and to examine the possible contributing factors in the context of a developing country; issues not addressed in the current literature.Methods:This thesis is based on four studies. Study I recruited 347 consecutive CHD patients (18-64 years) from two heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The study iscross-sectional and focused on sex differences in socio-economic status, lifestyle and medical characteristics of adults with CHD. Studies II, III and IV havea cross-sectional case-control design comparing the aforementioned CHD patients with 353 non-CHD participants, matched by sex and age. Outcome variables were anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms (Study II), styles of coping (Study III), and life satisfaction/quality of life (Study IV). The data were analysed with bivariate and multivariate methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to scrutinize the association of demographic/socio-economic variables, social support, mental health, and medical variables with the aforementioned outcome variables among adults with CHD (Studies II, III, IV). Results:Study I showed that women with CHD were more often married and had children and were less often employed, but had healthier behaviour compared to men. Even though most of the patients received regular medical viiicare from different typesof medical professionals, half of them had no knowledge about the type of their cardiac defect. Study II showed that CHD patients experienced more anxiety and somatic symptoms than the healthy controls, whereas there were no differences in depressive symptoms. Perceived financial strain, lower social support and low annual income were positively associated with worse outcome in mental health and somatic symptoms. None of the medical variables were related to anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms. Study III showed that the styles of coping of the CHD patients were comparable to those of the control group and CHD per se was not associated with a certain style of coping, except for palliative reaction pattern. Problem-focused styles of coping were associated with being never married, parenthood, higher level of anxiety and somatic symptoms, lower level of depressive symptoms and higher social support. Emotion-focused styles of coping were associated with annual income and higher level of anxiety. None of theadopted coping strategies were related to the heart disease variables. Study IV showed that adults with CHD had poorer quality of life and lower life satisfaction than the control group. However, CHD was associated only with decreased overall quality of life and its physical health domain, and life and health satisfaction. Among CHD patients, higher quality of life was associated with female sex, younger age, employment status, having less emotional distress and higher social support, while life satisfaction was associated with female sex, being employed, less emotional distress and higher social support. Conclusions:The results support the notion that psychosocial factors contribute to the well-being of adults with CHD.Socio-economic factors, emotional health and social support are significant determinants in nearly all outcomes of interest which need to be considered by health care providers and policy makers in their efforts to improve the health ofadults with CHD. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to establish causal linksand qualitative studies are recommended to deepen the understanding of coping and quality of life.

  • 3.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    INRCA Ancona, Italian Natl Inst Hlth & Sci Aging, Italy.
    Barros, Henrique
    Univ Porto, Oporto, Portugal.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania; Griffith Univ, Australia.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    Univ Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Univ Emden, Germany; Brandeis Univ, USA.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    INRCA Ancona, Italian Natl Inst Hlth & Sci Aging, Italy.
    Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study from seven European countries2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 686-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Being a victim of abuse during one's life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. Methods: A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Conclusions: Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships.

  • 4.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Gävle.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, Henrique
    EPIUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania; University of Griffith, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, Jutta
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany; Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, United States of America.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Lifetime abuse and somatic symtoms among older women and men in Europe2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0220741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Research suggests that survivors of interpersonal violence have an increasing experience of bodily symptoms. This study aims to scrutinise the association between lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men, considering demographics/socio-economic, social support and health variables.

    Methods

    A sample of 4,467 community-dwelling persons aged 60–84 years (57.3% women) living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) was recruited for this cross-sectional study. Lifetime abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed on the basis of the UK study of elder abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale-2, while somatic symptoms were assessed by the Giessen Complaint List short version.

    Results

    Women reported somatic symptoms more frequently than men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lifetime exposure to psychological abuse was associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms among both women and men, while experiencing lifetime sexual abuse was associated with somatic symptoms only among older women, after adjusting for other demographic and socio-economic variables. Country of residence, older age, and low socio-economic status were other independent factors contributing to a higher level of somatic symptoms.

    Conclusions

    The positive association between the experience of abuse during lifetime and the reporting of higher levels of somatic symptoms, in particular among older women, seems to suggest that such complaints in later life might also be related to the experience of mistreatment and not only to ageing and related diseases. Violence prevention throughout lifetime could help to prevent somatic symptoms in later life.

  • 5.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Kovacs, Adrienne
    Knight Cardiovascular Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Oregon, US.
    Moons, Philip
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Abbasi, Kyomars
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Jackson, Jamie
    The Ohio State University, Ohio, US.
    Hopelessness among adults with congenital heart disease: Cause for despair or hope?2017In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 230, no March 2017, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) face unique life courses and challenges that may negatively influence their psychological functioning. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the level of hopelessness among adults with CHD in comparison with non-CHD participants and (2) identify correlates of elevated hopelessness among adults with CHD.

    Methods

    We enrolled 347 patients with CHD (18–64 years, 52.2% female) and 353 matched (by sex/age) non-CHD persons in this cross-sectional study. Hopelessness was assessed by Beck Hopelessness Scale. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of elevated hopelessness.

    Results

    The mean total hopelessness score did not significantly differ between the CHD and non-CHD groups. Twenty-eight percent of CHD patients had elevated hopelessness scores. Within the CHD patient sample, regression analyses revealed that being male (odds ratio = 2.62), not having children (odds ratio = 3.57), being unemployed (odds ratio = 2.27), and elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 1.21) were significantly associated with hopelessness. Regular physical activity (odds ratio = 0.36) emerged as a protective factor and all CHD disease parameters were unrelated to hopelessness. The final model explained 43% of the variance in hopelessness.

    Conclusions

    Adult CHD teams are encouraged to continue to explore strategies to support patients to live as rich and full as lives as possible by pursuing relationships, employment and physical activity, as well as managing depression and hopelessness.

  • 6.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Melchiorre, M G
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, H
    University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindert, J
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany.
    Stankunas, M
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Torres-Gonzalez, F
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Soares, Joaquim J.F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Life-time abuse and mental health among older persons: a European study2017In: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, ISSN 1092-6771, E-ISSN 1545-083X, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 590-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the association of lifetime abuse and mental health among older persons, considering associated factors (e.g., demographics) through a cross-sectional design. We recruited 4,467 women and men ages 60–84 years from 7 European cities. Mental health was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial, and physical injuries) based on the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale and the UK survey of abuse/neglect of older people. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that country of residence, low educational level, and experienced financial strain increased the odds of probable cases of anxiety and depression. Female sex, white-collar profession, and financial support by social/other benefits/or partner income were associated with higher odds of anxiety, while older age and experience of lifetime injury were associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms. The findings of this study indicate that socioeconomic factors, as well as experienced lifetime severe physical abuse leading to injuries, are significant in perceived mental health of adults in later life.

  • 7.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden .
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Khankeh, HR
    Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Public Health Sciences, Institution of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Quality of life and life satisfaction among adults with and without congenital heart disease in a developing country2015In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Life-expectancy of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has improved world-wide, but there are limited data on these patients' experiences of quality of life (QoL), life satisfaction (LS), and their determinants (e.g. social support), particularly among patients from developing countries.

    Design Cross-sectional case-control.

    Methods A total of 347 CHD patients (18-64 years, 52.2% women) and 353 non-CHD participants, matched by sex/age, were recruited from two heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. LS and QoL served as dependent variables, and demographic/socioeconomic status, mental-somatic symptoms, social support, and clinical factors (e.g. defect category) served as independent variables in multiple regression analyses once among all participants, and once only among CHD patients.

    Results The CHD patients had significantly lower scores in LS and all domains of QoL than the control group. However, having CHD was independently negatively associated only with overall QoL, physical health, and life and health satisfaction. Additionally, multivariate analyses among the CHD patients revealed that female sex, younger age, being employed, less emotional distress, and higher social support were significantly associated with higher perceived QoL in most domains, while LS was associated with female sex, being employed, less emotional distress, and better social support. Neither QoL nor LS was associated with cardiac defect severity.

    Conclusions The adults with CHD had poorer QoL and LS than their non-CHD peers in our developing country. Socio-demographics, emotional health, and social support were important 'determinants' of QoL and LS among the CHD patients. Longitudinal studies are warranted to establish causal links.

  • 8.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences University of Gävle Gävle Sweden .
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Khankeh, HR
    Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Public Health Sciences Institution of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden .
    Style of Coping and its Determinants in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease in a Developing Country2014In: Congenital Heart Disease, ISSN 1747-079X, E-ISSN 1747-0803, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 349-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The objective of this study is to compare coping strategies between adults with and without congenital heart disease and to scrutinize the associations between different available resources (e.g., social support) and adoption of certain coping strategies.

    DesignThe study has a cross-sectional case-control design.

    SettingThe study was conducted in two university-affilliated heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran.

    Patients The participants comprised 347 persons (18–64 years) with and 353 individuals without congenital heart disease, matched by gender and age.

    Outcome Measures Coping strategies, assessed with the Utrecht Coping List-short form, were compared between both groups. Block-wise multiple regression analyses were conducted to scrutinize the associations between different independent variables (e.g., demographic/socioeconomic statuses) and adoption of certain styles of coping (dependent variables) among all participants and separately for each group.

    Results The styles of coping in the patients were comparable with those of the control group. Multivariate analyses revealed that congenital heart disease per se was not associated with style of coping except for palliative reaction pattern. The active problem-solving coping style was associated with never married marital status, parenthood, unemployment, higher level of anxiety/somatic symptoms, lower level of depressive symptoms, and better social support. The avoidance behavior style was associated with having a low income, whereas the expression of emotion style was associated with higher anxiety symptoms, experience of financial strain, and income. None of the adopted coping strategies was related to the heart disease variables.

    Conclusions The adults with congenital heart disease coped as well as adults without congenital heart disease. Marital status, parenthood, annual income, financial strain, psychological adjustment, and perceived social support were important explanatory factors in adopting a certain style of coping among adults with congenital heart disease. However, longitudinal studies with repeated measures are warranted.

  • 9.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran .
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden .
    Khankeh, Hamid Reza
    Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Gender differences in health conditions and socio-economic status of adults with congenital heart disease in a developing country2013In: Cardiology in the Young, ISSN 1047-9511, E-ISSN 1467-1107, Vol. 23, no 02, p. 209-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Providing appropriate care for adults with congenital heart disease requires the evaluation of their current situation. There is limited research in Iran about these patients, particularly in relation to gender differences in the demographic/socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as disease parameters.

    Materials and methods The sample consisted of 347 congenital heart disease patients in the age group of 18–64 years, including 181 women, assessed by an analytical cross-sectional study. The patients were recruited from the two major heart hospitals in Tehran. Data were collected using questionnaires.

    Results The mean age of the patients was 33.24 years. Women were more often married and more often had offspring than men (p < 0.001). Educational level and annual income were similar between women and men. Unemployment was higher among women (p < 0.001), but financial strain was higher among men (p < 0.001). Smoking, alcohol, and water-pipe use was higher among men than among women (p < 0.001). Cardiac factors, for example number of cardiac defects, were similar among women and men, except that there were more hospitalisations owing to cardiac problems, for example arrhythmia, among men. Disease was diagnosed mostly at the hospital (57.4%). Most medical care was provided by cardiologists (65.1%). Only 50.1% of patients had knowledge about their type of cardiac defect.

    Conclusion Gender differences exist in the socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics of adults with congenital heart disease, in some cases related to the disease severity. Our findings also point to the need for interventions to increase patients’ knowledge about, and use of, healthier lifestyle behaviours, irrespective of gender. Furthermore, providing appropriate jobs, vocational training, and career counselling may help patients to be more productive.

  • 10.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Khankeh, HR
    Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms in adults with congenital heart disease2013In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Despite the improvement in life-expectancy of adults with congenital heart disease, they may experience unique medical and social challenges that could impact on their psychological functioning. The aims of this study were to address the experience of anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms among adults with congenital heart disease in comparison with that of non-heart diseased persons considering the role of various factors (e.g. socio-economic).

    Methods

    In cross-sectional case–control study, the participants consisted of 347 patients with congenital heart disease (18–64 years, 52.2% female) and 353 matched (by sex/age) non-heart diseased persons. The participants completed a questionnaire. The data were analyzed with bivariate and multivariate methods.

    Results

    In bivariate analyses, scores in anxiety and somatic symptoms were higher among patients than the healthy controls (both at p ≤ 0.001), whereas the groups did not differ in depressive symptoms. Following multiple-linear-regression-analyses, only the association between congenital heart disease and somatic symptoms was confirmed. Among the patients, perceived financial strain was significantly related to anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms; lower perceived social support to anxiety and depression; and low annual income to somatic symptoms. Additionally, somatic symptoms were associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms, and vice versa. And no medical variables were related to anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms.

    Conclusions

    Congenital heart disease was only independently associated with somatic symptoms. Financial strain, social support and co-existence of emotional distress with somatic symptoms should be considered in developing appropriate interventions to improve the well-being of patients with congenital heart disease. However, longitudinal research is warranted to clarify causality.

  • 11.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging.
    Lindert, Jutta
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Barros, Henrique
    University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The prevalence of lifetime abuse among older adults in seven European countries2016In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 891-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the lifetime prevalence rate of abuse among older persons and to scrutinize the associated factors (e.g. demographics).

    Methods This cross-sectional population-based study had 4467 participants, aged 60–84, from seven European cities. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injuries) was measured based on The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, and the UK survey of abuse/neglect of older people.

    Results Over 34 % of participants reported experiencing lifetime psychological, 11.5 % physical, 18.5 % financial and 5 % sexual abuse and 4.3 % reported injuries. Lifetime psychological abuse was associated with country, younger age, education and alcohol consumption; physical abuse with country, age, not living in partnership; injuries with country, female sex, age, education, not living in partnership; financial abuse with country, age, not living in partnership, education, benefiting social/partner income, drinking alcohol; and sexual abuse with country, female sex and financial strain.

    Conclusions High lifetime prevalence rates confirm that elder abuse is a considerable public health problem warranting further longitudinal studies. Country of residence is an independent factor associated with all types of elder abuse which highlights the importance of national interventions alongside international collaborations.

    Keywords Determinant Elder abuse Financial Injuries Psychological Sexual

  • 12.
    Fraga, S
    et al.
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Soares, Joaquim J.F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiorre, MG
    Center for Socioeconomic Research on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, H
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, J
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Stankunas, M
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences; University of Griffith, Australia.
    Torres-Gonzales, F
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lifetime Abuse and Quality of Life among Older People2017In: Health & Social Work, ISSN 0360-7283, E-ISSN 1545-6854, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of lifetime abuse on quality of life (QoL) among older adults. By using a multinational study authors aimed to assess the subjective perception of QoL among people who have reported abuse during the course of their lifetime. The respondents (N = 4,467; 2,559 women) were between the ages of 60 and 84 years and living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Lifetime abuse was assessed by using a structured questionnaire that allowed to assess lifetime experiences of abuse. QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life–Old module. After adjustment for potential confounders, authors found that to have had any abusive experience decreased the score of sensory abilities. Psychological abuse was associated with lower autonomy and past, present, and future activities. Physical abuse with injuries significantly decreased social participation. Intimacy was also negatively associated with psychological abuse, physical abuse with injury, and sexual abuse. The results of this study provide evidence that older people exposed to abuse during their lifetime have a significant reduction in QoL, with several QoL domains being negatively affected.

  • 13.
    Pojskic, Haris
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Linnaeus Univ, Kalmar.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Relationship Between Obesity, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels in Children and Adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of Gender Differences2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine: (i) the level of physical activity (PA), obesity indices and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among boys and girls in primary school, and (ii) to determine the association of obesity indices and PA with CRF for the total number of participants, and then separately for boys and girls. 753 sixth to ninth grade girls and boys aged 10-14 years took part in this cross-sectional study. The PA was assessed by the "Physical Activity Questionnaire - Children" and CRF was assessed by the Maximal multistage a 20 m shuttle run test. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were considered as obesity indices. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of CRF. The results obtained showed the prevalence of general overweight and obesity was 25.5% in our sample which was lower than that in the regional estimate (e.g., similar to 28%) for Eastern Europe. Among all participants, CRF was associated with male sex, older age, a lower WC percentile, higher WHtR, and higher level of PA. The model accounted for 24% of the variance. CRF was associated with older age and higher level of PA among girls and boys. Lower WC percentile was a significant determinant of CRF among boys. In conclusion, general overweight/obesity was not independently associated with CRF. Those with better CRF were more likely to be male and older, had a higher level of PA and lower central adiposity. These findings emphasize the importance of supporting school age children to take a part in programmed physical activity regardless of their body composition.

  • 14.
    Sotoudeh Anvari, Maryam
    et al.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Mortazavian Babaki, Maryam
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Boroumand, Mohammad Ali
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Jalali, Arash
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Relationship between calculated total antioxidant status and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.2016In: The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 2149-2263, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 689-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Antioxidants play a major role in the cellular protection cascade against oxidative damage. Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. Our aim was to evaluate the association between calculated serum total antioxidant status (cTAS) and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD).Methods: One hundred and seventy-four patients with angiographically documented significant (≥50%) luminal stenosis (n=123) or with minimal (<50%) luminal stenosis (n=51) in at least one coronary artery or major branch segment in the epicardial coronary tree were categorized as CAD+ group; 88 patients with no luminal stenosis were considered as the control group. The level of cTAS (mmol/L) was evaluated using the following equation: (0.63×albumin concentration)+(1.02×uric acid concentration)+(1.53×bilirubin concentration).Results: In univariate analyses, mean levels of cTAS, uric acid, and creatinine were significantly higher in CAD+ group than in controls. However, adjusted cTAS level was not found to be a CAD predictor in the total population [odds ratio (OR)=1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81–1.76;p=0.364] or in men (OR=1.25; 95% CI: 0.73–2.12; p=0.420) and women (OR=1.20; 95% CI: 0.66–2.19; p=0.553). A weak but statistically significant correlation was found between cTAS and Gensini score (Spearman’s ρ=0.16, p=0.015).Conclusion: In patients with suspicious CAD, the level of cTAS was not found to be an independent predictor for the presence of CAD. Further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm the results.

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