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  • 1.
    Dreier, Till
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Maneuski, Dzimitry
    School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Schöwerling, Jan Oliver
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences, Osnabrück, Germany.
    O'Shea, Val
    School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A USB 3.0 readout system for Timepix3 detectors with on-board processing capabilities2018In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, article id C11017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timepix3 is a high-speed hybrid pixel detector consisting of a 256 x 256 pixel matrix with a maximum data rate of up to 5.12 Gbps (80 MHit/s). The ASIC is equipped with eight data channels that are data driven and zero suppressed making it suitable for particle tracking and spectral imaging.

    In this paper, we present a USB 3.0-based programmable readout system with online preprocessing capabilities. USB 3.0 is present on all modern computers and can, under real-world conditions, achieve around 320MB/s, which allows up to 40 MHit/s of raw pixel data. With on-line processing, the proposed readout system is capable of achieving higher transfer rate (approaching Timepix4) since only relevant information rather than raw data will be transmitted. The system is based on an Opal Kelly development board with a Spartan 6 FPGA providing a USB 3.0 interface between FPGA and PC via an FX3 chip. It connects to a CERN T imepix 3 chipboard with standard VHDCI connector via a custom designed mezzanine card. The firmware is structured into blocks such as detector interface, USB interface and system control and an interface for data pre-processing. On the PC side, a Qt/C++ multi-platformsoftware library is implemented to control the readout system, providing access to detector functions and handling high-speed USB 3.0 streaming of data from the detector.

    We demonstrate equalisation, calibration and data acquisition using a Cadmium Telluride sensor and optimise imaging data using simultaneous ToT (Time-over-Threshold) and ToA (Timeof- Arrival) information. The presented readout system is capable of other on-line processing such as analysis and classification of nuclear particles with current or larger FPGAs.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-12-11 15:36
  • 2.
    Esebamen, Omeime X.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    High resolution, low energy electron detector2011In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, no 1, p. Art. no. P01001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron detection at low energy range for scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron capture detector and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) applications, require detectors with high sensitivity and accuracy for low energy range. Such detectors must therefore have a thin entrance window and low recombination at the Si-SiO2 interface. An electron detector with 100 photons to electron-hole pair production rate having a 10 nm SiO2 passivating layer reveals a responsivity of approximately 0.25 A/W when irradiated. Simulations results showing the responsivity of electron interaction between detectors of varied interface fixed oxide charge density Qf show that there is an appreciable difference with the responsivity of a p +n detector and that of an n+p. The simulation results also show the significance of the effect of the minority carriers transport velocity Sn,p on the responsivity of the detector. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

  • 3.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Spectral resolution in pixel detectors with single photon processing2013In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 88520O-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pixel detectors based on photon counting or single photon processing readout are becoming popular for spectral X-ray imaging. The detector is based on deep submicron electronics with functions to determine the energy of each individual photon in every pixel. The system is virtually noiseless when it comes to the number of the detected photons. However noise and variations in system parameters affect the determination of the photon energy. Several factors affect the energy resolution in the system. In the readout electronics the most important factors are the threshold dispersion, the gain variation and the electronic noise. In the sensor contributions come from charge sharing, variations in the charge collection efficiency, leakage current and the statistical nature of the charge generation, as described by the Fano factor. The MEDIPIX technology offers a powerful tool for investigating these effects since energy spectra can be captured in each pixel. In addition the TIMEPIX chip, when operated in Time over Threshold mode, offers an opportunity to analyze individual photon interactions, thus addressing charge sharing and fluorescence. Effects of charge sharing and the properties of charge summing can be investigated using MEDIPIX3RX. Experiments are performed using both Si and CdTe detectors. In this paper we discuss the various contributions to the spectral noise and how they affect detector response. The statements are supported with experimental data from MEDIPIX-type detectors.

  • 4.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hard X-ray imaging and particle detection with TIMEPIX32016In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2016, Vol. 9968, article id UNSP 99680TConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CMOS pixel electronics open up for applications with single photon or particle processing. TIMEPIX3 is a readout chip in the MEDIPIX family with the ability to simultaneously determine energy and time of interaction in the pixel. The device is fully event driven, sending out data on each interaction at a maximum speed of about 40 Mhits/s. The concept allows for off-line processing to correct for charge sharing or to find the interaction point in multi pixel events. The timing resolution of 1.56 ns allows for three dimensional tracking of charged particles in a thick sensor due to the drift time for the charge in the sensor. The experiments in this presentation have been performed with silicon sensors bonded MEDIPIX family chips with special focus on TIMEPIX3. This presentation covers basic performance of the chip, spectral imaging with hard X-rays, detection and imaging with charged particles and neutrons. Cluster identification, centroiding and charge summing is extensively used to determine energy and position of the interaction. For neutron applications a converter layer was placed on top of the sensor.

  • 5.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. CERN, CH-1211, Geneva, 23, Switzerland .
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gimenez, E. N.
    Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chiltern, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom .
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Maneuski, D.
    University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom .
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Shea, V.
    University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom .
    Wilhelm, H.
    Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chiltern, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom .
    Tartoni, N.
    Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chiltern, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom .
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Zain, R. M.
    University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom .
    Probing Defects in a Small Pixellated CdTe Sensor Using an Inclined Mono Energetic X-Ray Micro Beam2013In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 2864-2869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High quantum efficiency is important in X-ray imaging applications. This means using high-Z sensor materials. Unfortunately many of these materials suffer from defects that cause non-ideal charge transport. In order to increase the understanding of these defects, we have mapped the 3D response of a number of defects in two 1 mm thick CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes (55 mu m and 110 mu m) using a monoenergetic microbeam at 79 keV. The sensors were bump bonded to Timepix read out chips. Data was collected in photon counting as well as time-over-thresholdmode. The time-over-thresholdmode is a very powerful tool to investigate charge transport properties and fluorescence in pixellated detectors since the signal from the charge that each photon deposits in each pixel can be analyzed. Results show distorted electrical field around the defects, indications of excess leakage current and large differences in behavior between electron collection and hole collection mode. The experiments were carried out on the Extreme Conditions Beamline I15 at Diamond Light Source.

  • 6.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gimenez, Eva
    Diamond Light Source.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Maneuski, Dizmitry
    Glasgow University.
    O'Shea, Val
    Glasgow University.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wilhelm, Heribert
    Diamond Light Source.
    Tartoni, Nicola
    Diamond Light Source.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zain, Rasif
    Glasgow University.
    Probing Defects in a Small Pixellated CdTe Sensor Using an Inclined Mono Energetic X-Ray Micro Beam2012In: 2012 IEEE NUCLEAR SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM AND MEDICAL IMAGING CONFERENCE RECORD (NSS/MIC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 4233-4236, article id 6551965Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High quantum efficiency is important in X-ray imaging applications. This means using high-Z sensor materials. Unfortunately many of these materials suffer from defects that cause non-ideal charge transport. In order to increase the understanding of these defects, we have mapped the 3D response of a number of defects in two 1 mm thick CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes (55 mu m and 110 mu m) using a monoenergetic microbeam at 79 keV. The sensors were bump bonded to Timepix read out chips. Data was collected in photon counting as well as time-over-threshold mode. The time-over-threshold mode is a very powerful tool to investigate charge transport properties and fluorescence in pixellated detectors since the signal from the charge that each photon deposits in each pixel can be analyzed. Results show distorted electrical field around the defects and indications of excess leakage current and large differences in behavior between electron collection and hole collection mode. The experiments were carried out in the Extreme Conditions Beamline I15 at Diamond Light Source.

  • 7.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Comparison of energy resolution spectra of CdTe TIMEPIX detector working in photon counting and time-over-threshold mode2013In: IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2013, p. Art. no. 6829825-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid pixel detectors like the Medipix andTIMEPIX developed by the Medipix collaboration combinedwith high-z materials are of growing interest. In particular theTIMEPIX detector can be operated in photon counting mode andtime-over-threshold mode (ToT) to obtain spectral information.Previous studies showed that 110 μm pixel sizes obtain a betterenergy resolution than 55 μm pixel sizes. Furthermore, thresholdscans obtained a better spectral resolution than operation in ToTmode. In this work the influence of noise sources in differentmeasurement approaches on the spectral response of a TIMEPIXchip bump-bonded to CdTe sensor are presented. Two 1mmthick CdTe sensors with pixel sizes of 55 μm and 110 μm,bump-bonded to a TIMEPIX readout chip, were evaluated atthe Diamond Light Source synchrotron. A finely collimated,perpendicular pencil beam with x-ray energies of 25 keV and79 keV was used to investigate single pixels. A small area of 10x10pixels was investigated in ToT-mode and compared to a thresholdscan of the same pixels on both detectors. The measurementsare compared to an analytical SPICE/Python simulation thatemulates photon counting and time-over-threshold mode.

  • 8.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Monte Carlo and Charge Transport Simulation of Pixel Detector Systems2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about simulation of semiconductor X-ray and particledetectors. The simulation of a novel coating for solid state neutrondetectors is discussed as well as the implementation of a simulationframework for hybrid pixel detectors.Today’s most common thermal neutron detectors are proportionalcounters, that use 3He gas in large tubes or multi wire arrays. Globalnuclear disarmament and the increase in use for homeland securityapplications has created a shortage of the gas which poses a problemfor neutron spallation sources that require higher resolution and largersensors. In this thesis a novel material and clean room compatible pro-cess for neutron conversion are discussed. Simulations and fabricationhave been executed and analysed in measurements. It has been proventhat such a device can be fabricated and detect thermal neutrons.Spectral imaging hybrid pixel detectors like the Medipix chipare the most advanced imaging systems currently available. Thesechips are highly sophisticated with several hundreds of transistors perpixel to enable features like multiple thresholds for noise free photoncounting measurements, spectral imaging as well as time of arrivalmeasurements. To analyse and understand the behaviour of differentsensor materials bonded to the chip and to improve development offuture generations of the chip simulations are necessary. Generally, allparts of the detector system are simulated independently. However, itis favourable to have a simulation framework that is able to combineMonte Carlo particle transport, charge transport in the sensor as wellas analogue and digital response of the pixel read-out electronics. Thisthesis aims to develop such a system that has been developed withGeant4 and analytical semiconductor and electronics models. Further-more, it has been verified with data from measurements with severalMedipix and Timepix sensors as well as TCAD simulations.Results show that such a framework is feasible even for imagingsimulations. It shows great promise to be able to be extended withfuture pixel detector designs and semiconductor materials as well asneutron converters to aim for next generation imaging devices.

  • 9.
    Krapohl, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Esebamen, Omeime Xerviar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Simulation and measurement of short infrared pulses on silicon position sensitive device2011In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, no C01036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral position sensitive devices (PSD) are important for triangulation, alignment and surface measurements as well as for angle measurements. Large PSDs show a delay on rising and falling edges when irradiated with near infra-red light [1]. This delay is also dependent on the spot position relative to the electrodes. It is however desirable in most applications to have a fast response. We investigated the responsiveness of a Sitek PSD in a mixed mode simulation of a two dimensional full sized detector. For simulation and measurement purposes focused light pulses with awavelength of 850 nm, duration of 1 µs and spot size of 280 µm were used. The cause for the slopes of rise and fall time is due to time constants of the device capacitance as well as the photo- generation mechanism itself [1]. To support the simulated results, we conducted measurements of rise and fall times on a physical device. Additionally, we quantified the homogeneity of the device by repositioning a spot of light from a pulsed ir-laser diode on the surface area.

  • 10.
    Krapohl, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Maneuski, D
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom .
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Investigation of charge collection in a CdTe-Timepix detector2013In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, no May, p. Art. no. C05003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy calibration of CdTe detectors is usually done using known reference sources disregarding the exact amount of charge that is collected in the pixels. However, to compare detector and detector model the quantity of charge collected is needed. We characterize the charge collection in a CdTe detector comparing test pulses, measured data and an improved TCAD simulation model [1]. The 1 mm thick detector is bump-bonded to a TIMEPIX chip and operating in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode. The resistivity in the simulation was adjusted to match the detector properties setting a deep intrinsic donor level [2]. This way it is possible to adjust properties like trap concentration, electron/hole lifetime and mobility in the simulation characterizing the detector close to measured data cite [3].

  • 11.
    Krapohl, David
    et al.
    University of Luebeck, Institute for Signal Processing.
    Loeffler, Susanne
    University of Luebeck, Institute for Neurology.
    Moser, Andreas
    University of Luebeck, Institute for Neurology,.
    Hofmann, Ulrich G
    University of Luebeck, Institute for Signal Processing.
    Microstimulation in The Brain: Does Microdialysis Influence the Activated Volume of Tissue?2009In: Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference Milan 2009, Milan: COMSOL , 2009, , p. 7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease and other movement disor- ders. The stimulation is currently administered using tetrode-macroelectrodes that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This often leads to side effects which bias the surrounding ar- eas, e.g. the speech centre. Targeting a spe- cific brain region can better be achieved with micro-stimulation electrodes with directed elec- trical field distribution. Experimental studies showed the effectiveness of microelectrode DBS by comparing neurotransmitter outflow before and after the stimulation. The neurotransmit- ter outflow in close proximity to the stimulation is hereby measured by means of microdialysis. To establish ideal distances and stimulation strength, the electric potential around the stim- ulation electrode and microdialysis membrane were modelled using comsol Multiphysics.

  • 12.
    Krapohl, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pospisil, S
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP), Czech Technical University, Horskà 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic.
    Slavicek, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simulation of a silicon neutron detector coated with TiB 2 absorber2012In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, no 1, p. Art. no. C01096-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron radiation cannot be directly detected in semiconductor detectors and therefore needs converter layers. Planar clean-room processing can be used in the manufacturing process of semiconductor detectors with metal layers to produce a cost-effective device. We used the Geant4 Monte-Carlo toolkit to simulate the performance of a semiconductor neutron detector. A silicon photo-diode was coated with vapour deposited titanium, aluminium thin films and a titaniumdiboride (TiB 2) neutron absorber layer. The neutron capture reaction 10B(n, alpha)7Li is taken advantage of to create charged particles that can be counted. Boron-10 has a natural abundance of about SI 19.8%. The emitted alpha particles are absorbed in the underlying silicon detector. We varied the thickness of the converter layer and ran the simulation with a thermal neutron source in order to find the best efficiency of the TiB 2 converter layer and optimize the clean room process. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

  • 13.
    Krapohl, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simulation of the Spectral Response of a Pixellated X-Ray Imaging Detector in Single Photon Processing Mode2010In: 2010 Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray imaging with spectral resolution, “Color X-ray imaging” is a new imaging technology that is currently attracting a lot of attention. It has however been observed that the quality of spectral response is degraded as the pixel size is reduced. This is an effect of charge sharing where the signal from a photon absorbed close to the border between two pixels is shared between pixels. This effect is caused by both diffusion during the charge transport and X-ray fluorescence in heavy detector materials. In order to understand the behavior of pixellated detectors with heavy detector materials operating in single photon processing mode, we have simulated the X-ray interaction with the sensor and the transport of the charge to the readout electrode using a Monte Carlo model for the X-ray interaction and a drift diffusion model for the charge transport. By combining these models, both signal and noise properties of the detector can be simulated.

  • 14.
    Krapohl, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Schubel, Armin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Validation of Geant4 Pixel Detector Simulation Framework by Measurements with the Medipix Family Detectors2016In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 1874-1881, article id 7497723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monte Carlo simulations are an extensively used tool for developingand understanding radiation detector systems. In this work, we usedresults of several chips and readout modes of the Medipix detector family to validatea Geant4 based pixel detector framework, developed in our group, thatis capable of simulating particle tracking, charge transport in thesensor material and different readout schemes. We experimentally verifiedthe simulation with different detector geometries in terms of pixelpitch and size as well as sensor material and sensor thickness. Thesingle pixel mode (SPM) and charge summing mode (CSM) in Medipix3 were evaluated with fluorescenceand synchrotron radiation. The integration of the charge sensitiveamplifier functionality in the simulation framework allowed to simulatethe time-over-threshold mode of the Timepix chip.Simulation and measurement have been compared in terms of spectralresolution using threshold scans in photon counting mode (Medipix3) and time over thresholdmode (Timepix). Furthercomparisons were done using X-ray tube spectra and beta decay to covera broad energy range. Additionally, TCAD simulations are performedas a comparison to a well-established simulation method. The resultsshow good agreement between simulation and measurement.

  • 15.
    Norlin, Börje
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Spectroscopic X-Ray Imaging Using a Pixelated Detector with Single Photon Processing Readout2010In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE NUCLEAR SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM CONFERENCE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 1074-1078, article id 5873931Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Color informatics to analyze the object content in Xray images is an emerging technology. Identification of different elements for applications such as medical contrast agent imaging is possible using energy resolving X-ray imaging sensors. In this work RGB representations of transmission images of ground elements achieved with the MEDIPIX system are exemplified.

  • 16.
    Norlin, Börje
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. CERN, Medipix Consortium, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Readout cross-talk for alpha-particle measurements in a pixelated sensor system2015In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, article id C05025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations in Medici are performed to quantify crosstalk and charge sharing in a hybrid pixelated silicon detector. Crosstalk and charge sharing degrades the spatial and spectral resolution of single photon processing X-ray imaging systems. For typical medical X-ray imaging applications, the process is dominated by charge sharing between the pixels in the sensor. For heavier particles each impact generates a large amount of charge and the simulation seems to over predict the charge collection efficiency. This indicates that some type of non modelled degradation of the charge transport efficiency exists, like the plasma effect where the plasma might shield the generated charges from the electric field and hence distorts the charge transport process. Based on the simulations it can be reasoned that saturation of the amplifiers in the Timepix system might generate crosstalk that increases the charge spread measured from ion impact on the sensor.

  • 17.
    Schübel, Armin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. CERN, Genève 23, Switzerland.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A Geant4 based framework for pixel detector simulation2014In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, no 12, article id C12018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The output from a hybrid pixel detector depends on the interaction of the radiation with the sensor material, the transport of the resulting charge in the sensor, the pulse processing in the readout circuit and processing of the resulting signal. In order to understand the full behaviour of the device and to predict the performance of future devices it is important to have a framework that can simulate the entire process in the detector system.Geant4 is a Monte Carlo based toolkit for simulation of particle interaction with matter which is developed and actively used for CERN experiments and detector development [1]. By extending the Monte Carlo code in Geant4 with a charge carrier transport model of the sensor material and basic amplifier functionality as well as read out logic, a simulation of the complete detector system is possible.The MEDIPIX is a state of the art hybrid pixel detector that allows bonding of a wide range of sensor materials [2,3]. Simulation models have been developed and tested for different chips from the MEDIPIX family. The simulation is defined using configuration files to set the geometry, sensor material properties, number of pixels, pixel pitch and chip properties. Source properties as well as filters and objects in the beam can be added for different experimental set-ups. The interaction of radiation with the sensor is taken into account in the transport of the charge carriers in the sensor material and a current induced in the pixel electrode that triggers an amplifier response. Simulation results have been verified with X-ray fluorescence and radioactive sources using MEDIPIX family chips. In this paper we present the developed simulation framework and first results.

  • 18.
    Slavicek, Tomas
    et al.
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Praha, Czech Republic.
    Kralik, M
    Czech Metrology Institute, Radiová 1, 102 00 Praha 10, Czech Republic.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pospisil, S
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Praha, Czech Republic.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A thermal neutron detector based on planar silicon sensor with TiB 2 coating2012In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, no 1, p. Art. no. C01053-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron radiation as a non-ionizing radiation is particularly difficult to detect; therefore a conversion material is required. The conversion material converts neutrons into secondary charged particles in order for them to be detected in a silicon detector. The use of titanium diboride (TiB 2) as the conversion material deposited by an electron beam-physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD) as a part of a front-side contact of a planar silicon detector is presented. The effect of different front-side contact material compositions is discussed. The detectors behaviour was examined using alpha particles and thermal neutrons from an 241Am-Be source. Simultaneously, a Geant4 simulation was so as executed to evaluate the conversion layer functionality and to discover the conversion material thickness for the best neutron detection efficiency. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

  • 19.
    Thungström, Göran
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Esebamen, Omeime Xerviar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Petersson, S
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horská 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic .
    Brenner, R
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, SE 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fabrication, Characterization and Simulation of Channel Stop for n in p-Substrate Silicon Pixel Detectors2014In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, no 7, p. Art. no. C07013-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon detectors made on p-substrates are expected to have a better radiation hardness as compared todetectors made on n-substrates. However, the fixed positive oxide charges induce an inversion layer ofelectrons in the substrate, which connects the pixels. The common means of solving this problem isby using a p-spray, individual p-stops or a combination of the two. Here, we investigate the use offield plates to suppress the fixed positive charges and to prevent the formation of an inversion layer.The fabricated detector shows a high breakdown voltage and low interpixel leakage current for astructure using biased field plates with a width of 20 μm. By using a spice model for simulation of thepreamplifier, a cross talk of about 1.6 % is achieved with this detector structure. The cross talk iscaused by capacitive and resistive coupling between the pixels

  • 20.
    Thungström, Göran
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Harrnsdorf, Lars
    RTI Electronics AB, Lund University IKVM.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Mattsson, S.
    Lund University IKVM.
    Gunnarsson, M.
    Lund University IKVM.
    Measurement of the sensitive profile in a solid state silicon detector, irradiated by X-rays2013In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, no 4, p. Art. no. C04004-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A newly constructed solid state silicon dose profile detector is characterized concerning its sensitive profile. The use of the MEDIPIX2 sensor system displays an excellent method to align an image of an X-ray slit to a sample under test. The scanning from front to reverse side of the detector, show a decrease in sensitivity of 20%, which indicates a minority charge carrier lifetime of 0.18 ms and a diffusion length of 460 μm. The influence of diced edges results in a volumetric efficiency of 59%, an active volume of 1.2 mm 2 of total 2.1 mm2.

1 - 20 of 20
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