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  • 1.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Ericson, Lars
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Temporal variation of wood-fungi diversity in boreal old-growth forests: Implications for monitoring2005In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 970-982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring programs that supply reliable and sufficient information on numbers and types of organisms are essential for following changes in biodiversity. In boreal Fennoscandia, forest-dwelling species are threatened in managed forest landscapes and, thus, are of particular concern for conservation strategies. Wood fungi represent key ecological components in the boreal forest that are sensitive to forestry and widely used as indicators in large-scale forest inventories for identifying valuable forest habitats. Knowledge of their natural dynamics is required for designing monitoring programs to assess the adequacy of conservation strategies. We studied the occurrence of corticoids (Corticiaceae) and polypores (Polyporaceae) over time at different spatial scales in unexploited boreal old-growth forests. Data from 70 downed logs followed during an eight-year period showed that the lifespan of fruit bodies of most species was shorter than four years. Even perennial species followed this pattern, although fruit bodies of some species (e.g., Phellinus spp.) remained vital throughout the eight years studied. Both species richness and species composition on individual logs changed markedly over the eight years due to deterministic succession of species paralleling the wood decay. By contrast, data from the stand scale, i.e., seven 0.1-ha plots, showed that species richness and species composition of polypores did not undergo any major changes during a six-year period. A majority of all recorded polypore species (80%) were already present at the first inventory. However, although species richness remained constant at the stand scale, corticoid species composition differed between years, reflecting their short-lived, annual fruit bodies. This study suggests that monitoring should be performed at stand scale and focus on species with durable fruit bodies, e.g., polypores. This will provide data that can be used both to detect future changes in biodiversity in old-growth spruce forests and to evaluate conservation strategies.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.2012In: Fungal Biology, ISSN 1878-6146, E-ISSN 1878-6162, Vol. 116, no 10, p. 1025-1031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Forest fire has for a long time been the major stand replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. For organisms to adopt to this phenomenon different strategies for protective measurements has evolved. This study focuses on the organism group of wood fungi, and one of several possibilities for adaptation to forest fire - increased heat resistance in the mycelia. 16 species of wood fungi where selected and sorted a priori according to their prevalence for fire affected substrate. These were isolated and re-inoculated on pine wood before testing. Experiments where done in a series where the mycelia was exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220°C for 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 min. A very clear difference was found, the group containing species with a prevalence for a fire affected substrate had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species with a more general ecology. This data suggests that increased heat resistance in mycelia could be a possible adaptation to forest fire. This in turn has major impacts on the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi. An increase in temperature could shift the population structure in a log, allowing minor non fruiting mycelia content to expand on the expense of earlier dominant colonizers. Furthermore this study has implications on how to control prescribed restoration burning events. When burning areas where the dead wood content is dominated by early decay stages, loss of species can be avoided by proper management.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of heat on interspecific competition in saprotrophic wood fungi2014In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 11, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some boreal wood fungi that are associated with forest fire or open dry habitats have an increased resistance to heat in comparison to species associated with a less specific distribution or species found in mesic forests. We hypothesize that extreme temperature-stress experienced during fires will favor species adapted to heat and, ultimately, the composition of species inhabiting logs in such habitats will change. Competitiveness after temperature stress was examined in three fire-associated species – Dichomitus squalens, Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Phlebiopsis gigantea – and three non fire-associated species – Ischnoderma benzoinum, Phellinus pini and Fomitopsis pinicola. There was a difference between the fire-associated species and the non fire-associated species with respect to competitive strength after heat stress. All fire-associated species had an advantage after heat treatment, colonizing a larger volume of wood than any non-fire-associated competitor. Our findings suggest that increased heat tolerance of mycelia can exert a competitive balance shift after forest fire. It shows that a system governed by forest fire will be dominance controlled under certain conditions. Furthermore, from a management perspective, during a prescribed burning, certain species already present in the ecosystem will be favored if the fire is not allowed to totally consume the substrates.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Increased CO2 evolution caused by heat treatment in wood-decaying fungi2017In: Mycological progress, ISSN 1617-416X, E-ISSN 1861-8952, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 513-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-decaying fungi are regarded as the main decomposers of woody debris in boreal forests. Given that fungal respiration makes a significant contribution to terrestrial carbon flows, it is important to understand how the wood-decaying fungal metabolism is regulated in relation to different environmental conditions and disturbances. In the present study, we investigated the effect of temperature stress on wood decomposition rate in 18 species of wood-decaying fungi, representing a broad range of species-habitat associations. Heat shock duration and temperature were calibrated to match the conditions of a forest fire. We found a general increase in fungal decay rate after heat shock; the response was more pronounced in species associated with fire-prone forests. The underlying mechanism is unclear, but possibly relates to an up-regulation at the cellular level in response to heat shock. Our results show that the decomposition rate of dead wood can be strongly affected by environmental triggers.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Increased decomposition, triggered by heat shock found in wood fungiManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fungi can be extremely heat resilient: several studies have shown that species can survive highly elevated temperatures relative to their growth optima. In this study we examine the effect of heat shock on subsequent decomposition rates. Sixteen species of wood fungi were tested over a period of 17 weeks. All strains were inoculated on to sterilized pine wood cylinders, placed in small bio chambers and tested twiice a week for CO2 accumulation. After 8 weeks all species were subjected to heat shock. We found that this triggered an increased decomposition rate in all species, this increase peaked 6 weeks after the shock. the peak was higher in wood fungi species that are associated with forest fires compared to specoes with no such association.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Koch, Christin
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Testing the probability of finding major decomposing basidiomycetes in logs with T-RFLP - implications for field samplingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we examine the limitations and potential of T-RFLP for the accurate detection of fungal species in dead wood. We collected cross-sections of decayed logs to evaluate the number of fungal species domains that are likely to be hit when drilling a sawdust sample from a log. We used these estimates to simulate the number of species that would be found using a certain number of samples. We found that in 99% of the simulations, 4 or fewer species would be contained in a sample. Based on these results we tested the probability of detecting two species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes at three different DNA concentration ratios: 1:1, 1:5 and 1:20. An additional experiment was done with 3-5 species. It was possible to detect all species at ratios higher than 1:20 but lower than 1:5; in this range all peaks were easily detected. We were able to detect all species in the mixtures of 3-5 species, with extracts from both pure cultures and wood.

  • 7.
    Dettki, Holger
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Edman, Mattias
    Umeå Universitet.
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Umeå Universitet.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Umeå Universitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Umeå Universitet.
    Kruys, Nic
    Umeå Universitet.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå Universitet.
    Renhorn, Karl Erik
    Umeå Universitet.
    Screening for species potentially sensitive to habitat fragmentation1998In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 649-652Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood2016In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests.

  • 9.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Villard, Marc-André
    Effects of selection cutting on the abundance and fertility of indicator lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and Lobaria quercizans2008In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Villard, Marc-André
    Université de Moncton, Canada.
    The importance of large-tree retention for the persistence of old-growth epiphytic bryophyte Neckera pennata in selection harvest systems2016In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 372, p. 143-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial harvesting methods are generally more similar to the natural dynamics of broad-leaved forests than clear cutting. However, their effects on biodiversity are still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of selection cutting on the occurrence of a large epiphytic bryophyte, Neckera pennata, in a northern hardwood forest of New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight forest stands were selected, repre- senting two contrasting forest management practices: 5–9 years old, first-entry selection cuts and untreated stands that had been subjected to low-intensity single-tree cutting at least 35 years earlier. Within each stand, we quantified the presence–absence of N. pennata on 36 trees and measured selected forest stand variables. Although N. pennata had persisted in post-harvest stands, its frequency of occur- rence on maple trees was only 7% there, compared to 39% in untreated stands. The density of large- diameter sugar maple trees and crown cover were the most important factors predicting the frequency of N. pennata at the stand level. Tree diameter was also a strong predictor of N. pennata’s presence at the tree level and the occupancy of large-diameter maples was almost twice as high in untreated stands as in selection cuts. However, the occupancy of large-diameter maples relative to smaller maple trees was much higher in selection cuts, possibly due to dispersal limitations resulting from reduced connectivity of large-diameter host trees. Taken together, our findings suggest that (1) large trees from older seral stages are a prerequisite for the long-term persistence of N. pennata in managed forests and that (2) they are therefore particularly important for managers to retain in selection cuts. Further, since our results indi- cate that reduced crown cover in selection cuts has a negative effect on N. pennata, the benefit of retaining large host trees would probably increase if buffered within retention patches of maturing trees. Finally, since host tree diameter clearly is a very important factor for the presence of N. pennata, any extension of the harvest rotation would be beneficial.

  • 11.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fällström, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    An introduced tree species alters the assemblage structure and functional composition of wood-decaying fungi in microcosms2013In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 306, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is widely recognized that introduced plant species produce organic matter of different quality surprisingly little is known about how this influence the community structure of decomposers. Here, we investigated the effects of a commercial non-native tree species, lodgepole pine, on the community structure of wood-decaying basidiomycetes and the decomposition of deadwood in northern Sweden. We allowed an assemblage of wood-decaying fungi that occur naturally on pine to interact on fresh wooddiscs of lodgepole pine and Scots pine, using microcosms. At the end of the experiment we measured the wood mass loss and calculated the area of the different species' domains as indicated by interaction zone lines between competing species. Fungal assemblage structure developed in a markedly different way on lodgepole pine compared to Scots pine. In addition to there being fewer species in the final fungal assemblage on lodgepole pine, fungal functional composition was different. White-rot fungi were more competitive and dominated on lodgepole pine, while brown-rot fungi dominated on Scots pine. We also found that the decay rate of lodgepole pine wood was slightly lower, although the underlying reason remains unclear. However, there was a significant positive relationship between the abundance of white-rot fungi and the wood mass loss of lodgepole pine, while no relationship was found between fungal functional group and the decay rate of Scots pine. We also found no relationship between species richness and wood decay rates. Our study reveals that a non-native tree species used in commercial forestry can alter the structure and functional composition of a saprotrophic wood-decaying fungal assemblage. Future studies are required to clarify the mechanisms behind the observed patterns and whether they apply to natural systems.

  • 12.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Gustafsson, Mårten
    Dept of Forest Mycology and Pathology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Wood-disc traps provide a robust method for studying spore dispersal of wood-decaying basidiomycetes2003In: Mycologia, ISSN 0027-5514, E-ISSN 1557-2536, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 553-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-disk traps provide a robust method for studying spore dispersal of wood-decaying basidiomycetes -- Edman and Gustafsson 95 (3): 553 -- Mycologia <!-- function startTarget(windowname,wid,hei) { var dotpos = windowname.indexOf("."); if (dotpos > -1) { var tempwn = windowname.substring(0,dotpos) + windowname.substring(dotpos + 1, windowname.length); windowname = tempwn; } var sizestring = 'width=' + wid + ',height=' + hei; window.open('',windowname,'scrollbars,resizable,' + sizestring + '\''); } // -->

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    Spore traps consisting of disks containing monokaryotic mycelia as bait were tested to find a robust, long-time sampling method for studying dispersal of wood-decaying basidiomycetes. In total, 288 disks, 48 for each of six fungal species, were exposed 2 wk at 12 sites in northern Sweden. Both common and rare fungi were used, and the longest distance to a potential dispersal source exceeded 3 km. After 3–16 wk of incubation in the laboratory, the disks were investigated for spore hits. These were detectable both microscopically, by the presence of hyphal clamps, and macroscopically, by mycelial incompatibility zones. Spore traps resisted rain and freezing temperatures well, and spore hits from all species were found at all 12 sites. We argue that lengthy sampling makes it possible to detect low rates of spore deposition, aiding in the study of long-distance dispersal and dispersal of rare species. In addition, because several spore hits can be recognized in the same trap, spore deposition of wood-decaying fungi can be characterized with quantitative data.

  • 13.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Gustafsson, Mårten
    Dept of Forest Mycology and Pathology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Dept of Forest Mycology and Pathology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Ericson, Lars
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Abundance and viability of fungal spores along a forestry gradient: responses to habitat loss and isolation?2004In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional variation in spore deposition and viability was studied for two fungi, Fomitopsis rosea (Alb. & Schwein.: Fr.) P. Karst. and Phlebia centrifuga P. Karst., both confined to old-growth spruce forests in the boreal zone. Seven regions in Sweden were studied along a north-south transect in which the historical impact from forestry increases and the amount old forests decreases towards the south. The two southernmost regions were located outside the distribution border of the species. Spore deposition was measured species specifically as heterokaryotisation of homokaryotic mycelia growing on wood discs. There was a significant decline in spore deposition towards the south for both species. F. rosea deposited an average amount of 111 spores m-2 24 h-1 in the northernmost region compared to less than 1 spore in the four southernmost regions. The corresponding values for P. centrifuga were 27 spores m-2 24 h-1 in the north compared to less than 2 spores in the 4 southernmost regions. No deposition was found south of the distribution borders. The viability of spores from local populations within each region was measured as germination success on nutrient media. Individual fruiting bodies from large populations in the north generally produced spores with higher germinability than fruiting bodies from geographically isolated populations in the central and southern regions. However, there was a high variation among the southern populations. Our data suggest that some populations in mid- and south Sweden may suffer from negative genetic effects, possibly associated with fragmentation and loss of habitat. Thus, the combination of low spore deposition and low germinability of spores may be a threat to the long-term persistence of F. rosea and P. centrifuga in southern Sweden. Several other species may experience the same situation, especially when considering the severe decline of dead wood in Swedish forests.

  • 14.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mårten
    Stenlid, Jan
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ericson, Lars
    Spore deposition of wood-decaying fungi: Importance of landscape composition2004In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Spatial pattern of downed logs and wood-living fungi in an old-growth spruce forest2001In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 609-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since many wood-living forest species are influenced by the dynamics of coarse woody debris (CWD), information about the spatial pattern of CWD under natural conditions is essential to understand species distributions. In this study we examined the spatial pattern of downed logs and wood-decaying fungi in an old-growth boreal Picea abies forest in northwestern Sweden that is governed by gap-phase dynamics. The spatial pattern of wood-decaying fungi was studied to draw conclusions about species dispersal abilities. A total of 684 logs with a diameter 10 cm were mapped and analysed with Ripley's K-function. The distribution of all logs taken together displayed a significant aggregated pattern up to 45 m. The different decay stages also deviated from random expectations. Fairly fresh logs and logs in the middle decay stage were clumped up to about 25 and 35 m respectively, and late decayed logs aggregated up to 95 m. Logs with diameters from 10-29 cm were aggregated up to 25 m, whereas logs ≥30 cm diameter were randomly distributed. The result suggests that gap-dynamics do have an impact on the spatial pattern of the CWD, creating fine-scale clumping. The random distribution of large logs may result from the slightly regular spacing of large living trees. The spatial patterns of 16 species (n 20) of wood-decaying fungi were analysed with Ripley's K-function. Three patterns were aggregated, for Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Coniophora olivacea and Vesiculomyces citrinus. These results indicate that the distribution of most species at the stand level is generally not influenced by dispersal limitations.

  • 16.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fungi and wind strongly influence the temporal availability of logs in an old-growth spruce forest2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 482-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is a key habitat for many species in forest ecosystems. To ensure the long-term survival of such species, forest management regimes must include measures that promote dead wood dynamics similar to those of natural forests. Thus, information on CWD dynamics under natural conditions is required, including data pertaining to the underlying agents of disturbance. This study examines modes of mortality, decay rates, and temporal patterns in the availability of Picea abies logs in a Swedish old-growth forest affected by internal, small-scale disturbance. All 684 logs in a 6.6-ha plot were mapped and classified into one of six decay classes. Logs in the early stages of decay were examined for the presence of heart-rot fungi. Six years later all logs were re-inventoried, including newly formed logs. Matrix models based on the transition rates between decay classes showed that it took about 60 years for 90% of the logs to decay beyond class 6 (a deformed trunk with soft wood). Large logs (≥26 cm) decayed 40% more slowly than small logs (≤25 cm). The initial volume of logs was 37.6 m3/ha but increased to 44.8 m 3/ha after six years. In addition, there was a large shift in the decay-class distribution. The volume of logs in early and late decay classes increased by 71% and 45%, respectively, while the volume of logs in the intermediate decay classes decreased by 32%. The fluctuations appear to result from pulses in mortality, driven by a combination of strong winds and the heart-rot fungus, Phellinus chrysoloma, which was present in more than 30% of all logs at an early stage of decay. These results show that large temporal fluctuations in dead wood also occur in the absence of large-scale disturbance, and that heart-rot fungi are important factors driving the overall dynamics of dead wood. Since many wood-inhabiting species are naturally rare and have very specific substrate demands, such temporal variability in dead wood availability may have effects on biodiversity and should be taken into account when designing small, protected forest areas.

  • 17.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Small-scale fungal- and wind-mediated disturbances strongly influence the temporal availability of logs in an old-growth Picea abies forest2007Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kruys, Nicholas
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Local dispersal sources strongly affect colonization patterns of wood-decaying fungi on experimental spruce logs2004In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 893-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important habitat for many species in forest ecosystems. However, forestry has decreased the abundance of CWD so that many wood-dependent species have become threatened. To alleviate this problem, guidelines for a more biodiversity-oriented forestry focus on increasing CWD in managed forests. Unfortunately, how this increase is to be allocated on a landscape scale is not well understood. The present study reports an experiment in which freshly cut logs of varying sizes were placed in stands with contrasting abundance of natural CWD and subsequently varying pools of wood-inhabiting species. The first six years of colonization by wood fungi show that local abundance and composition of the fungal flora strongly influenced colonization. Higher species richness was observed in CWD-rich sites, and several species were more frequent on the experimental logs at CWD-rich sites. The strong within-site effect is interpreted as resulting from high spore deposition from the local species pool. This is supported by spore deposition estimates of Fomitopsis rosea, a red-listed species that only occurred on experimental logs at the CWD-rich sites. F. rosea had a 9-180 times higher spore deposition at the CWD-rich sites compared to the CWD-poor sites. The species richness and composition on small logs differed from that of large logs with higher richness on the latter. The results strongly suggest that restoration efforts would be more efficient if directed toward sites close to CWD-rich sites and that preferably large logs should be created.

  • 19.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Möller, Rebecca
    Ericson, Lars
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Effects of enhanced tree growth rate on the decay capacities of three saprotrophic wood-fungi2006In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 232, no 1-3, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of Scandinavian boreal forests has changed in many ways as a result of modern intensive forestry. One of the most fundamental changes is the loss of coarse woody debris (CWD), which has adversely affected many wood-inhabiting species. The consequences of reductions in CWD and its variability have received much attention in the literature recently. However, a neglected substratum change with possible profound ecological implications is enhanced tree growth rate due to forestry practices such as thinning and fertilization. In the study presented here we investigated how tree growth rate influenced the decay capacity of two threatened species, Phlebia centrifuga and Fomitopsis rosea, and a common species, F. pinicola, of saprotrophic wood-decay fungi. Their decay capacity was measured as the weight loss they caused in Picea abies wood-discs categorised as fast-, moderately-, and slow-grown.

    The results show that the rates of decay caused by all three species were highest in fast-grown wood cut in thinnings, and lowest in slow-grown wood cut in extensively managed stands. None of the stands had been fertilised. Interestingly, rate of decay caused by the common generalist fungus F. pinicola was 50% higher in fast-grown wood than in slow-grown wood, suggesting that the turnover of dead wood is much higher in intensively managed forests. Thus, the time window for wood-living species to colonize CWD, which is a transient habitat even in old-growth forests, is even shorter in intensively managed forests. This may adversely affect species with poor dispersal ability. Moreover, F. rosea decayed the slow-grown wood significantly more rapidly than the other species. This suggests that it may be adapted to such substrates, and that F. rosea may be favoured in old-growth forests where trees generally have slower growth rates than in managed forest. For P. centrifuga, there was a large variation in its decay capacity among genets, indicating a need for further studies on the genetics of threatened wood-fungi, given the species’ fragmented distribution.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Toivanen, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of restoration fire on deadwood heterogeneity and availability in three Pinus sylvestris forests in Sweden2013In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, ISSN ISSN-L 0037-5330 | ISSN 2242-4075 (Online), Vol. 47, no 2, p. Art. no. 954-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Restoration fires are increasingly used as a conservation tool in Sweden to recreate forests with characteristics of previous forests that were periodically disturbed by fires and promote firedependent species. Restoration fires can result in large inputs of fresh dead wood, but there are risks of losing some of the existing, pre-fire dead wood. To assess these counteracting effects we studied the heterogeneity and availability of dead wood before and after three restoration fires in boreal Scots pine forests. Specifically, we studied volumes of stumps, high stumps, snags and logs. The fires decreased the total volume of pre-fire dead wood (23-41%) and consumed logs in late decay stages (26-54%) to a higher extent than logs in earlier stages. The input of new fresh dead wood after the fires exceeded losses of pre-fire dead wood and resulted in a net increase of dead wood in all three sites. The added dead wood consisted of fresh snags killed by the fires. Fire also affected log characteristics: reducing their vegetation coverage (60-98%), decreasing their ground contact (4-50%) and increasing their surface area of charred wood (>50%). Such changes have important consequences for the micro environmental conditions inside logs, but have been rarely studied in relation to restoration fires. Our results show that restoration fire causes changes in dead wood availability and characteristics of logs. The results imply that ideally stands with low abundance of rare and heavily decayed wood substrates should be burned to optimize dead wood values. Alternatively, management practices should include protection of these substrates during restoration fires.

  • 21.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of Debarking Water from Norway Spruce (Picea abies) on the Growth of Five Species of Wood-Decaying Fungi2014In: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C - A Journal of Biosciences, ISSN 0939-5075, E-ISSN 1865-7125, Vol. 9-10, no 69c, p. 418-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste.

  • 22.
    Hedenström, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Resveratrol, piceatannol, and isorhapontigenin from Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking wastewater as inhibitors on the growth of nine species of wood-decaying fungi2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 617-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diethyl ether extract obtained from solvent-solvent extraction of Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water, a byproduct from debarking of logs in the pulp and paper industry, was tested for inhibition of growth on agar plates of nine species of wood-decaying fungi: Antrodia sinuosa, Antrodia xantha, Coniophora puteana, Fomitopsis pinicola, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Heterobasidion parviporum, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Serpula himantioides, and Serpula lacrymans. One fraction of the extract showed excellent antifungal activity for a majority of the species, with complete inhibition of growth for A. sinuosa, A. xantha, and G. sepiarium. The major constituents of the most active fraction were identified as the hydroxystilbenes resveratrol, isorhapontigenin (synonymous with methyl piceatannol), and piceatannol (synonymous with astringenin). The active compounds were isolated or synthesized and used individually for dose-response studies. It was found that isorhapontigenin and piceatannol inhibited all growth of A. sinuosa, A. xantha, and G. sepiarium in 0.35 % weight concentration. The hydroxystilbenes were the three most abundant substances in the debarking water and can be obtained as a mixture or in enriched forms. From some extraction steps of the raw debarking water, it would be possible to obtain the hydroxystilbenes in quantities that might be of commercial interest as efficient natural fungicides.

  • 23.
    Jönsson, Mari
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Colonization and extinction patterns of wood-decaying fungi in a boreal old-growth Picea abies forest2008In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 96, no 5, p. 1065-1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Wood-decaying fungi are ubiquitous and functionally important organisms within forest ecosystems world-wide, but remarkably little is known of their population dynamics in relation to the dynamics of their host substrates. Living in transient environments, where local extinctions are caused by gradual substrate (patch) destruction or deterioration due to wood decomposition, the long-term persistence of these species requires successful colonization of new patches.2. During a 6-year period, we examined the colonization-extinction dynamics of wood-decaying fungi (Aphyllophorales: Polyporaceae and Corticiaceae) in relation to the spatiotemporal distribution of host logs within a boreal old-growth Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest.3. The dynamics of the species studied were strongly influenced by both local log characteristics (within patch) and connectivity (between patch). Several species (e.g. Asterodon ferruginosus, Phellinus ferrugineofuscus, P. viticola, Phlebia centrifuga) showed a positive effect of connectivity, mainly colonizing logs in the vicinity of previously occupied logs. This implies that some wood-decaying fungi may be dispersal limited in terms of successful colonizations. The relative importance of patch conditions and connectivity was however, highly species specific.4. Our results further illustrate the importance of life-strategies adopted by species that are present during different stages of wood decomposition. Early colonizers were primarily affected by the stage of decomposition; secondary colonizers were affected by a variety of within patch and/or between patch variables, maintaining high species coexistence within intermediate stages of decay. Phellinus nigrolimitatus was the dominant polyporous decayer at the final stages of decomposition, clearly gaining a competitive advantage from specializing on highly decomposed wood and having very low mean annual mortality rates.5. Local extinction rates were higher on small diameter logs than large diameter logs, and generally increased as decay proceeded, illustrating the importance of deterministic patch destruction due to wood decomposition.6. Synthesis. The fungi-log study system was highly dynamic, illustrating that both characteristics and spatiotemporal availability of logs are important in explaining the distribution patterns and population dynamics of wood-decaying fungal communities. The result implies that the dynamics of some wood-decaying fungi can be characterized as patch-tracking metapopulations, with connectivity-dependent colonizations and local extinctions caused by the turnover of the patches.

  • 24.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden .
    Johansson, Therese
    SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden .
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Ericson, Lars
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden .
    Landscape and substrate properties affect species richness and community composition of saproxylic beetles2012In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 286, p. 108-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive forest management has dramatically reduced the area of old-growth forest in Fennoscandia. We examined if the proportion of old forest in a landscape affects species composition, richness and abundance of saproxylic beetles. We used tube-shaped window traps in five pairs of sites, selected so that the sites within each pair differed with respect to the proportion of old forest (>125 years) in the surrounding landscape. A landscape level inventory of the wood fungi Fomitopsis rosea, as a proxy for forest with high conservation values, was used to complement the data on old forests. In addition, to testing whether mycelia-colonised wood may attract saproxylic beetles, the tube-shaped window traps were baited with wood colonised by Fomitopsis pinicola or F. rosea. Old-forest-rich landscapes supported significantly more species and a higher abundance of saproxylic beetles than old-forest-poor landscapes. The analysis revealed a clear connection between the community composition of saproxylic beetles and the proportion of old forest and number of F. rosea fruiting bodies in the surrounding landscape (radius 3 km). The local landscape species pool thus appears to be important for the beetle species that are trapped since the composition of saproxylic beetles differed between the two landscape types. The effects of the different baits were less pronounced than the effect of landscape type, although species-specific responses to the two mycelia baits were observed. This indicates that volatiles from mycelia of wood-decaying fungi and the mycelial community may affect colonisation patterns of saproxylic beetles. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation and habitat loss have resulted in depauperate beetle faunas in old-forest-poor landscapes. Our results highlight the need to invoke a landscape scale approach for preserving biodiversity, in this case the need to maintain a sufficient proportion of forest with old growth characteristics in the managed landscape. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Ottosson, Elisabet
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kubartova, Ariana
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindhe, Anders
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Anders
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies2015In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 91, no 3, article id fiv012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking.

  • 26.
    Ottosson, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala Biocenter, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordén, Jenni
    Microbial Evolution Research Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Dahlberg, Anders
    Uppsala Biocenter, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Larsson, Karl-Henrik
    Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Penttillä, Reijo
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Uppsala Biocenter, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ovaskainen, Otso
    Metapopulation Research Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Species associations during the succession of wood-inhabiting fungal communities2014In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 11, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied fungal succession in decaying wood by compiling time-series data of fruit body observations. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of a primary species affects the probability of a succeeding species occurring later on the same log. Significant associations were detected for 15 species pairs; these were consistent with earlier findings on cooccurrence patterns in single time surveys. We used enrichment analysis to test if species with particular life-history attributes were more often associated with the occurrence of a succeeding species, or vice versa. White rot fungi and fungi abundant as mycelia were more often associated with the occurrence of succeeding species, compared to brown rot fungi and species with low mycelial abundance. Our results indicate that certain primary species cause priority effects and non-random co-occurrence patterns in the field. These successional patterns are likely to be connected both with substrate modification and species interactions.

  • 27. Poulin, Jean-Francois
    et al.
    Villard, Marc-André
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Goulet, Pierre J
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Thresholds in nesting habitat requirements of an old forest specialist, the Brown Creeper (Certhia americana), as conservation targets2008In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 141, no 4, p. 1129-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many bird species respond to forestry, even at moderate intensities. In New Brunswick, Canada, the Brown Creeper exhibits a negative, threshold response to harvesting intensity. This study aimed to determine whether (a) the threshold found in Brown Creeper occurrence is lower than eventual thresholds in its nesting requirements, and whether (b) the conservation of this species could be achieved through moderate-intensity harvest systems. Creepers are particularly sensitive to forestry because they nest on snags with peeling bark and they mainly forage on large-diameter trees. In northern hardwood stands, we compared habitat structure at local- (r = 80 m) and neighbourhood-scales (r = 250 m) around nest sites and sites not used by creepers. Over two years, we found 76 nests, 66 of which were paired with unused sites for comparison. At the local scale, densities of trees 30 cm dbh and snags 10 cm dbh, and the probability of presence of potential nest sites were significantly higher near nests than at sites where no creepers were detected. At the neighbourhood scale, the area of untreated mature forest was significantly higher around nests. Variance decomposition indicated that habitat variables at the local scale accounted for the majority of explained variation in nest site selection. We also found significant thresholds in the densities of large trees (127/ha) and snags (56/ha), and in the area of mature forest (10.4 ha). The conservation of breeding populations of Brown Creepers may thus require densities of large trees nearly twice as high as those associated with its probability of presence. Such a target seems to be incompatible even with moderate-intensity harvesting.

  • 28.
    Sandström, Jennie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wei, Yu-Lian
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wood-inhabiting fungi in rocky pine forests in the High Coast Region in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Sandström, Jennie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Rocky pine forests in the High Coast Region in Sweden: structure, dynamics and historyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Venugopal, Parvathy
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Junninen, Kajsa
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kouki, Jari
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Assemblage composition of fungal wood-decay species has major influence on how climate and wood quality modify decomposition2017In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 93, no 3, article id fix002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactions among saprotrophic fungal species, as well as their interactions with environmental factors, may have a major influence on wood decay and carbon release in ecosystems. We studied the effects that decomposer diversity (species richness and assemblage composition) have on wood decomposition when the climatic variables and substrate quality vary simultaneously. We used two temperature (16 and 21°C) and two humidity (70% and 90%) levels at two wood qualities (wood from managed and old-growth forests) of Pinus sylvestris. In a nine-month experiment, the effects of fungal diversity were tested using four wood-decaying fungi (Antrodia xanthaDichomitus squalensFomitopsis pinicola and Gloeophyllum protractum) at assemblage levels one, two and four species. Wood quality and assemblage composition affected the influence of climatic factors on decomposition rates. Fungal assemblage composition was found to be more important than fungal species richness, indicating that species-specific fungal traits are of paramount importance in driving decomposition. We conclude that models containing fungal wood-decay species (and wood-based carbon) need to take into account species - and assemblage composition - specific properties to improve predictive capacity in regard to decomposition related carbon dynamics.

  • 31.
    Venugopal, Parvathy
    et al.
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Junninen, Kajsa
    Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Linnakoski, Riikka
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kouki, Jari
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Climate and wood quality have decayer-specific effects on fungal wood decomposition2016In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 360, p. 341-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any process that affects wood decomposition and decomposers in boreal forests may also affect the role that dead wood has on global carbon storages. We investigated under controlled laboratory conditions the impact of three major variables – temperature, humidity and wood quality – on Scots pine wood decomposition by four different fungal species. To reveal these effects, we conducted a nine-month factorial experiment. Wood quality was found to have a much more pronounced effect on fungal wood decay than climate variables. Furthermore, the fast-grown pine wood from managed forests decayed much faster than centuries old ‘kelo’ pine trees from natural forests as well as the slow-grown wood from managed forests. We found an overall increase in decomposition with temperature and humidity in Gloeophyllum protractum, except that the decay rate of the fast-grown wood declined with increasing temperature at higher humidity levels. The overall decomposition rates varied greatly with decayer species and wood type, and several interactions between temperature, humidity and wood quality effects were documented. In particular, we found that the fast decayers, Dichomitus squalens and Fomitopsis pinicola did not show any response to climate variables, but responded to wood quality only. The slow decayers Antrodia xantha and G. protractum responded to wood quality and interaction effects of climate and wood quality. Our results demonstrated species-specific effects of climate and wood quality when tested simultaneously, and show that it is critical to understand the different and complex mechanisms that affect wood decomposition and, consequently, carbon storages in forests, in order to increase the reliability of the climate-carbon prediction models.

  • 32.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Escherichia coli Bacteria Develop Adaptive Resistance to Antibacterial ZnO Nanoparticles2018In: Advanced Biosystem, ISSN 2366-7478, Vol. 2, no 5, article id 1800019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibacterial agents based on nanoparticles (NPs) have many important applications, e.g., for the textile industry, surface disinfection, wound dressing, water treatment, and food preservation. Because of their prevalent use it is important to understand whether bacteria could develop resistance to such antibacterial NPs similarly to the resistance that bacteria are known to develop to antibiotics. Here, it is reported that Escherichia coli(E. coli) develops adaptive resistance to antibacterial ZnO NPs after several days' exposure to the NPs. But, in contrast to antibiotics‐resistance, the observed resistance to ZnO NPs is not stable—after several days without exposure to the NPs, the bacteria regain their sensitivity to the NPs' antibacterial properties. Based on the analyses it is suggested that the observed resistance is caused by changes in the shape of the bacteria and the expressions of membrane proteins. The findings provide insights into the response of bacteria to antibacterial NPs, which is important to elucidate for designing and evaluating the risk of applications based on antibacterial NPs.

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