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  • 1. Bratt, Katarina
    et al.
    Sunnerheim, Kerstin
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    Fagerlund, Amelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engman, Lars
    Andersson, Rolf E
    Dimberg, Lena H
    Avenanthramides in Oats (Avena Sativa L.) and Structure-Activity Relationships2003In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 594-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight avenanthramides, amides of anthranilic acid (1) and 5-hydroxyanthranilic acid (2), respectively, and the four cinnamic acids p-coumaric (p), caffeic (c), ferulic (f), and sinapic (s) acid, were synthesized for identification in oat extracts and for structure−antioxidant activity studies. Three compounds (2p, 2c, and 2f) were found in oat extracts. As assessed by the reactivity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), all avenanthramides except 1p showed activity. Initially, the antioxidant activity of the avenanthramides decreased in a similar order as for the corresponding cinnamic acids, that is: sinapic > caffeic > ferulic > p-coumaric acid. The avenanthramides derived from 2 were usually slightly more active than those derived from 1. All avenanthramides inhibited azo-initiated peroxidation of linoleic acid. 1c and 1s were initially the most effective compounds. The relative order of antioxidant activities was slightly different for the DPPH and the linoleic acid assays run in methanol and chlorobenzene, respectively.

  • 2.
    Co, M.
    et al.
    Dept Phys & Analyt Chem, Uppsala Univ, POB 599, SE-75124 Uppsala.
    Fagerlund, Amelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Engman, L.
    Dept Biochem & Organ Chem, Uppsala Univ, SE-75123 Uppsala.
    Sunnerheim, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Sjöberg, P. J.
    Dept Phys & Analyt Chem, Uppsala Univ, POB 599, SE-75124 Uppsala.
    Turner, C.
    Dept Phys & Analyt Chem, Uppsala Univ, POB 599, SE-75124 Uppsala.
    Extraction of Antioxidants from Spruce (Picea abies) Bark using Eco-friendly Solvents2012In: Phytochemical Analysis, ISSN 0958-0344, E-ISSN 1099-1565, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction - Antioxidants are known to avert oxidation processes and they are found in trees and other plant materials. Tree bark is a major waste product from paper pulp industries; hence it is worthwhile to develop an extraction technique to extract the antioxidants. Objective - To develop a fast and environmentally sustainable extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from bark of spruce (Picea abies) and also to identify the extracted antioxidants that are abundant in spruce bark. Methodology - A screening experiment that involved three different techniques was conducted to determine the best technique to extract antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) turned out to be the best technique and a response surface design was therefore utilised to optimise PFE. Furthermore, NMR and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were applied to identify the extracted antioxidants. Results - PFE using water and ethanol as solvent at 160 and 180°C, respectively, gave extracts of the highest antioxidant capacity. Stilbene glucosides such as isorhapontin, piceid and astringin were identified in the extracts. Conclusion - The study has shown that PFE is a fast and environmentally sustainable technique, using water and ethanol as solvent for the extraction of antioxidants from spruce bark. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. This paper includes four tables in which the extracted solid yield and the antioxidant capacity of spruce bark extracts were presented for the different extraction techniques, as well as the response surface coefficients for the optimised PFE were presented. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd..

  • 3.
    Fagerlund, Amelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Shanks, David
    Sunnerheim, Kerstin
    Engman, Lars
    Frisell, Håkan
    Protective effects of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants in pulp products2003In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 18, p. 176-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various types of natural and synthetic antioxidants when added to handsheets of pulp in low concentrations (0.2% weight%) could significantly reduce the emission of hexanal. The most efficient compounds caused a 90% reduction after eight weeks. Their capacity to inhibit brightness reversion was limited.

  • 4. Fagerlund, Amelie
    et al.
    Sunnerheim, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Dimberg, Lena H
    Radical-scavenging and antioxidant activity of avenanthramides2009In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 550-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avenanthramides are amides of cinnamoyl-anthranilic acids and, among cereals, are exclusively found in oats. This study investigated the structure-antioxidant activities of 15 avenanthramides with different substitution patterns in the two aromatic rings, seven of which were new avenanthramides synthesised and characterised in this study. Radical-scavenging activity was tested as reactivity towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-). The activity increased with the number of radical-stabilising groups ortho to the phenolic hydroxy group. Both aromatic rings were independently important for activity, while conjugation across the amide bond was of minor importance. Antioxidant activity was determined as inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. In contrast to the radical-scavenging activity, antioxidant activity was observed for most avenanthramides, and also for compounds with only one hydroxy group in either of the aromatic rings. Compared with alpha-tocopherol, the avenanthramides protected linoleic acid from oxidation to a smaller extent initially, but the effect lasted for a longer time.

  • 5.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Naturally occurring phenols with antioxidant, antifungal and anti-browsing activity2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of Debarking Water from Norway Spruce (Picea abies) on the Growth of Five Species of Wood-Decaying Fungi2014In: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C - A Journal of Biosciences, ISSN 0939-5075, E-ISSN 1865-7125, Vol. 9-10, no 69c, p. 418-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste.

  • 7.
    Hedenström, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Resveratrol, piceatannol, and isorhapontigenin from Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking wastewater as inhibitors on the growth of nine species of wood-decaying fungi2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 617-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diethyl ether extract obtained from solvent-solvent extraction of Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water, a byproduct from debarking of logs in the pulp and paper industry, was tested for inhibition of growth on agar plates of nine species of wood-decaying fungi: Antrodia sinuosa, Antrodia xantha, Coniophora puteana, Fomitopsis pinicola, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Heterobasidion parviporum, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Serpula himantioides, and Serpula lacrymans. One fraction of the extract showed excellent antifungal activity for a majority of the species, with complete inhibition of growth for A. sinuosa, A. xantha, and G. sepiarium. The major constituents of the most active fraction were identified as the hydroxystilbenes resveratrol, isorhapontigenin (synonymous with methyl piceatannol), and piceatannol (synonymous with astringenin). The active compounds were isolated or synthesized and used individually for dose-response studies. It was found that isorhapontigenin and piceatannol inhibited all growth of A. sinuosa, A. xantha, and G. sepiarium in 0.35 % weight concentration. The hydroxystilbenes were the three most abundant substances in the debarking water and can be obtained as a mixture or in enriched forms. From some extraction steps of the raw debarking water, it would be possible to obtain the hydroxystilbenes in quantities that might be of commercial interest as efficient natural fungicides.

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