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  • 1. Axblom, Caroline
    et al.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Astaxanthin from microalgae: effects of temperature and nutrient stress on production in the green alga Haematococcus lacustris1999In: 4th international Ecological Engineering conference: Manging the Wastewater Resource, June 7-11, Aas, Norway, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Barthelson, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Linking ecological and economical progress at micro level by Nature-Economy (SDR) model.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making with focus on legal operationalisation2015In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm – business as usual – and the new one, aiming at operationalise sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development, ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics, and conditions set by ecosystems can therefore not been ignored, when (a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and to fully understand the consequences of such solutions, and (b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    Over the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making, such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Ecological Footprints, and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Ecological modelling contributes or complements such methods. Emergy analysis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing both ecology and economy. Less known is environmental legal modelling.

    This paper puts ecological models in the context of societal steering systems for sustainable development, and focuses on a legal model for implementing environmental policy goals.

  • 4.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Where did requirements for alternatives in EIA go?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s the growing interests for environmental questions became prominent and were worldwide recognized. The safeguard of natural resources, the recognition of the environment´s carrying capacity, and the need for planning to minimize conflicts between environment and development were issues pointed out. In 1969 the US enacted the National Environmental Policy Act, NEPA, with its “action forcing” provisions in section 102(2). The provisions included a procedure and a document and was directed towards activities, with likely significant impact on the environment. What gave this section teeth was the requirement for “alternatives to the proposed action”. This tool, internationally known as EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) was later picked up by other countries and international organisations, where it was considered as a vital component for decision making processes aiming at environmental awareness. EIA was outlined as guidelines and principles by UNEP 1972, reflected in the Espoo convention in 1991 and 1992 declared as principle 17 in the Rio Declaration. This clearly reflects a special degree of acceptance in modern environmental law. However, the postulate to investigate alternatives has been circumvented in practice. Today it can be left out without even being challenged. Many lawyers obviously have difficulties to really understand EIA and the idea behind it. From a sustainability perspective this is indeed fatal. This article puts the request for alternative investigations in perspective of a) effective decision making and sustainable use of natural resources, b) environmental quality standards and environmental planning and c) sustainable assessment tools.

  • 5.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm - business as usual - and the new one, aiming at operationalize sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics and conditions set by ecosystems, can therefore not been ignored, when a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and fully understand the consequences of such solution and b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    During the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making. Related to ecosystems we have e.g. the carrying capacity and resilience models, to resource use there are Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecological Footprints, to economy there are eco-economy and green economy, to law there are Environmental Law Methodology (ELM) and Sustainable law. Emergy synthesis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing everything from thermodynamics to economy.

    There still is no “standard method” for this kind of decisions, which makes it important to contrast different methods. Some methods might enforce each other, whereas others might drive in different directions. It is therefore important to understand the methods in relation to each other.

  • 6.
    Fakhari Rad, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Including Ecosystem Services in Sustainability Assessment of Forest Biofuels2012In: World Bioenergy 2012 Proceedings / [ed] The Swedish Bioenergy Association, 2012, p. 75-78Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing demand for forest biofuels the pressures on ecosystem services from forestry practices willincrease. This calls for identification and assessment of tradeoffs between different uses of provisioning and otherecosystem services and establish management practices considering such tradeoffs.

  • 7.
    Fakhari Rad, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    More forest biofuels from Jämtland - ecosystem services tradeoffs2012In: Ecosystem Services - From policy to practice, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing European demand for biofuels, the interest for forest biomass from the northernboreal forests of Sweden will increase. Traditional optimization parameters like carbon footprint orlife cycle energy use will not be enough to ensure the sustainability of forest biofuel production inSweden. Impacts on ecosystem services must also be assessed.Swedish forests today have annual volume growth surpassing harvesting. This is partly thebackground to the fact that land occupation parameters has not been considered relevant when itcomes to forestry in Sweden; the general forms of forest management practices used has made alsoproduction forestry seen as ‘nature’ (e.g. about three quarters of Swedish forests are certified byFSC, PEFC or both). With increasing competition for forest resources, harvesting pressure andintensity of forestry will likely increase, and the view ‘forests is nature’ will have to change.In the Swedish county of Jämtland there is 3.4 million ha of forest area, and forestry is an importantindustry. At the same time the county also has a large tourism industry, to a substantial extent forskiing but also for experiences of undisturbed nature, hiking, hunting, fishing et c. The county is alsomarketing itself as a “Quality Food Area” having a focus on traditional, small scale and localproduction of food products and food experiences, with the clean and uncontaminated environmentfor agriculture, game and fish as a cornerstone. More intensive forestry may create conflictsbetween such enterprises related to cultural ecosystem services and those provisioning servicespushed for biofuel production.We need to make possible the inclusion of negative impacts on ecosystem services from biofuelproduction as well as inclusion of tradeoffs between different types of e.g. cultural ecosystemservices in sustainability assessments of increased forest biofuel harvesting and production inJämtland.Before

  • 8.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fakhari Rad, Mohammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ecosystem services tradeoffs when striving twoards a biobased future [Eco-Tech'12]2012In: Proceedings of ECO-TECH 2012, 26-28 November, Kalmar, Sweden, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing demand for bio-based materials and forest biofuels the pressures on ecosystem services from forestry practices will increase. This calls for identification and assessment of tradeoffs between different uses of provisioning and other ecosystem services and establish management practices considering such tradeoffs. Traditional optimization parameters like carbon footprint or life cycle energy use will not be enough; impacts on ecosystem services must also be assessed.The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment concludes that ecosystems and their ability to provide humanity with ecosystem services are under severe stress. Increased use of bio-based materials and biofuels must be furnished in ways not unnecessary worsening the situation, or locally destroy the provisioning of essential ecosystem services.The Swedish county of Jämtland is used as an example, with 3.4 million ha of forest area and forestry as an important industry. At the same time the county has a large tourism industry - for skiing but also for experiences of undisturbed nature, hiking, hunting, fishing et c. The county is also marketing itself as a “Quality Food Area” having a focus on local food production and food experiences, with the clean and uncontaminated environment for agriculture, game and fish as a cornerstone. More intensive forestry may create conflicts between enterprises related to cultural ecosystem services and those provisioning services pushed for biofuel production.We need to make possible the inclusion of tradeoffs between different types of e.g. cultural ecosystem services in sustainability assessments of increased forest biomaterial harvesting and production in Jämtland.

  • 9.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ecosystem services in evaluating value chains when moving toward a bio based society2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A worldwide shift from a fossil based to biobased economy is slowly underway. Even if fossil resources will be still be used in foreseeable future, an increased use of biomass as resources, not least for fuels, can be expected. A systematic, worldwide increase in demand of bioresources will inevitably put larger potential pressures on ecosystems and the environment. To be able to minimize or fully avoid damage, or at least unnecessary damage to human welfare, we among other things need the increased understanding of including ecosystem services into life cycle assessment of products and services. Such a combination of understanding basic responses from impacts on ecosystems by technical systems, and environmental interactions of technical systems over the whole value chain of a product or service will give possibilities to identify important hot spots as well as optimizing technology use to minimize damage to important ecosystem services. Yet we have not achieved this. We argue that important reasons are that we still need to understand how to include ecosystem services in LCA, and that this is complicated by the fact that there are two main paradigms regarding ecosystem services – the donor value approach and the receiver value approach. Approaching the problem through the case of an expected increased forest bio fuel production from the boreal forests of the Mid Sweden region, we demonstrate the different approaches. We argue that for now we will probably need to use the two approaches in parallel.

  • 10.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    From environmental problems to sustainable development and towards resilience: Development over time of a university program inenvironmental science aiming for action competences2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:During the latest decades society has developed from an environmental awareness, with reactive thinking, of the “preBrundtland age” into having sustainability as the goal for human development after the Rio declaration. Lately, within the environmentalscientific sphere, the concept of resilience is increasingly superimposed on the sustainability paradigm. It is seen as important both forunderstanding of the present situation as well as a necessity for societies to survive in times of rapid change. During this period from “preBrundtland” until today when resilience is in focus, the environmental science program of Ecotechnology started, developed and changed inresponse to changes in society. A goal, from the very beginning of the educational program, has been to empower students to take action.The types of action and how action competence has been perceived, has changed over the three decades the program has been running.

    Objectives: Environmental science and sustainability is often difficult to teach since it demands an interdisciplinary approach stretching overthe traditional faculty division of natural, social, and engineering sciences. At Mid Sweden University these three branches have beenintegrated in Ecotechnology education for 30 years. The purpose of this paper is to describe the interdisciplinary teaching with special focuson the development of the student’s action competence for sustainable development, in the light of how the environmental issues havedeveloped.

    Methods: The paper has a descriptive approach exploring the experiences from the 30 years of interdisciplinary teaching.

    Results: Different teaching methods and strategies have been employed over time, partly in sync with changing overarching societal goals.

    Conclusion: Some observations are 1) a key element to develop action competence is to push students to a self-propelled learning behaviorrather than traditional teaching of facts, 2) to not too easily provide the students with answers will develop problem solving skills, 3) “doingbefore-reading” teaching is more time consuming but seem to give deeper knowledge.

  • 11.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Hjortsberg, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jönsson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Lindblom, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Scheffer, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Söderberg, Karolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Theorell, Linus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Bio-CCS - a model based case study from the mid Sweden region2015In: Proceedings of Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Sitges Barcelona, November 1-4, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In its 2014 report, IPCC recommend Carbon Capture and Storage not only for fossil power plants but also for bioenergy to beable to meet the 2 degree target. In a case study, models for CCS applied to a combined heat and power (CHP) plant inÖstersund, Sweden, using wood chips as main fuel was assessed. The goal was to gain knowledge to be prepared to takemore rapid action if policy instruments are implemented in future. More "traditional" technology with absorption inmonoethanolamine (MEA) and subsequent underground storage uses a significant part of produced electricity, and in anenergy system perspective it is not necessarily the most efficient use of a limited wood resource. For processes withcomparatively low net climate impact, like bio-CHP, alternatives significantly more energy efficient per unit of capturedcarbon dioxide but only able to capture part of the total emitted carbon can be considered. One such alternative is to capturecarbon dioxide using microalgae. Key issues for assessment of processes in this case are how to store the carbon captured inthe algae biomass (e.g. in products) and for how long the carbon will be withdrawn from atmosphere with such storage.

  • 12.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Kuul, Ivi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Berg, Claes-Göran
    Jämtkraft AB.
    Pre Study of CCS for a Bio Fueled CHP Plant2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and CoolingSeptember, 6-10, 2014, Stockholm, SWEDEN / [ed] Anna Land, 2014, p. 511-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental performance of a potential carbon capture and storage (CCS) installation at the bio fueled combined heat and power (CHP) plant in Lugnvik, Östersund was studied with screening life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. CCS has lately been discussed for plants using bio fuels since it is one of few possibilities to actively decrease the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The most common process for carbon capture, absorption in MEA, was assumed. Transportation of the captured carbon dioxide to Norway for injection in natural gas fields was the considered storage option.The impacts from transportation of the captured carbon dioxide indicate that alternatives should be investigated, e.g. possibilities for local storage or other types of utilization of the captured carbon. The comparatively high energy use for the MEA capturing process indicates that CCS for bio fueled plants must be carefully considered. Alternative technologies for carbon capture should be further investigated - e.g. if biological methods might give better performance over chemical absorption – as should the consequences of alternative handling of the captured carbon dioxide.

  • 13.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Tellström, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Edholm, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Van den Brink, Paul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Appearances of Ecosystem Services in Environmental Impact Assessment - learnings from two Swedish case studies2016In: Proceedings of Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016: The 10th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutionsin the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World., 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem Services is an increasingly used concept to understand and describe the dependencies of socio-technical systems on the ecosystems in which they exist. We have studied to what extent ecosystem services are appearing in Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) in two Swedish cases, the improvement of ecological status in a river used for small scale hydropower and the mining operations of the MM mine. In neither of the two cases ecosystem services have been intentionally included in the work with the EIAs. The goal of the studies has been to examine to what extent ecosystem services are appearing anyway in the EIAs, to what extent data in the EIAs are sufficient to perform more structured ecosystem service assessments, and if the use of a more structured ecosystem services review during the EIA process could have contributed positively to the EIA work. 

    Both EIAs in this study holds some information on impacts on ecosystem services, and more information on affected ecosystem functions that could be translated into ecosystems services and probably to full ecosystem service reviews with additional data gathering. Cases of ecosystem functions and services impacting other ecosystem functions and services, sometimes in several stages, were found, indicating that such functions or services could be of special importance to protect and / or support.

  • 14.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    A holistic socioecological systems approach at the regional level – the EMPI (EMMI)2011In: Proceedings from the 55th International System Science Society conference, 17-23 July 2011, Hull, United Kingdom, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Different perceptions of the relation man vs. nature viewed by different applications of the ecosystem concept2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental consciousness in the general public and the development of ecology walked hand in hand during the 1950s and 60s. In the 1970s a major paradigm shift occurred within the science of ecology, especially its terrestrial branches. The reductionistic ecology took dominance and the new paradigm abandoned the ecosystem concept for at least a decade. The connection to the public environmental movement weas also, temporally, substantially weakened during this period. However, the older paradigm–holistic ecology–did not die, and a few ecologists have continued to develop the ecosystem concept. System science and new suggestions in the field of thermodynamics has been influential in addressing complex ecosystems far from equilibrium. This has created new perceptions on the ecosystem concept which over time may come to influence the nature of environmental consciousness. The new perceptions will be illustrated mainly by the works of the systems ecologist H.T. Odum.

  • 16.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergianalys – en användbar metod för utvärdering av svenska miljömål på systemnivå och i ett scenarioperspektiv?2017Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergidiagram kopplade till de svenska miljömålen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige 1994-20172018Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergy and sustainability2016In: Society's steering systems – a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] E. Grönlund, A. Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, 1, p. 113-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Methods to assess sustainability of sludge management2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Microalgae at wastewater pond treatment in cold climate: an ecological engineering approach2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three types of wastewater ponds in subarctic climates were investigated, each of them highly dependent on microalgae. They were fellingsdams, i.e. wastewater stabilization ponds complemented with chemical precipitation, high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs), and a type of aquaculture interface ponds between a wastewater treatment plant and the natural surrounding.

    From a microalgae taxa perspective green algae and cryptophytes were dominant in the wastewater ponds. Green algae and cryptophytes were also, together with chryso- and haptophytes, dominating the hypereutrophic and eutrophic stages of the natural lakes. Biomasses in the different types of ponds were of very different order of magnitude. From 100-1000 mg/l in the stabilization ponds during summer and 10-100 mg/l in spring and autumn, 70- 90 mg/l in a HRAP in autumn, to 5-30 mg/l in the most hypereutrophic stage in the natural ponds, 1-10 mg/l in the eutrophic stage, and below 1 mg/l in the oligotrophic stage.

    The connection between wastewater pond treatment and the field of ecological engineering was recognized. Future development of pond technology may benefit from a stronger connection to the theoretical framework of systems ecology developed in collaboration with the field of ecological engineering and ecotechnology.

  • 23.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Microalgae at wastewater treatment in cold climate2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 24.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Länsstyrelsen Jämtlands län.
    Räkna med miljön – hur stora är gratistjänsterna från naturen i Norrland?: Dokumentation från konferensen "Norrland i Europa och Världen", 28 november 2007, Folkets Hus, Östersund.2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Sustainable wastewater treatment2014In: Handbook of Engineering Hydrology: Environmental Hydrology and Water Management / [ed] Saeid Eslamian, CRC Press, 2014, 1, p. 387-400Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, wastewater needed only to be carried away from the human settlement intoa nearby river, lake, sea, or groundwater. However, with increasing population and industrialactivity, the volume and composition of the wastewater needed some mechanical, biological,or chemical treatment before discharge. In this chapter, wastewater treatment is placed intothe context of sustainable development, with its main aspects of environmental, economic,and social concerns, both for future and current generations. The wide spectra of indicatorsand assessment methods that are used to assess the sustainability of the wastewater treatmentmethods are presented. The theme throughout the chapter is a systems view that shows us that sustainability cannot be assessed only at the scale of the wastewater treatment facility.The fence or walls of the treatment plant are a too narrow scope for a proper sustainabilityassessment as we will see.

  • 26.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The Recovery of Two Polluted Subarctic Lakes—Towards Nutrient Management or a Pristine State?2012In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 793-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two small subarctic lakes were eutrophicated due to wastewater discharge from 1964. In 1975, a wastewater treatment plant was built and a recovery process started. This paper will: (1) compile the 1972–1974, 1978–1980 and 1985–1988 investigation data regarding phosphorous and microalgae for one of the lakes; (2) complement with unpublished data from 1985 and 2003; and (3) introduce a discussion regarding three alternatives for future development of the lakes in their last phase of recovery. In the latest investigation, 2003, the lakes were assessed as almost recovered. They had returned to an oligotrophic state, but not fully to a pre-sewage situation. In the upper lake, more heavily polluted, the total phosphorous levels had decreased from an average of 168 µg P/L in 1972–1974 to an average of 12 µg P/L in 2003. The phytoplankton biomass had decreased twentyfold during the same period, from 11.2 mg/L to 0.6 mg/L. The Secchi depth had increased from 1.3 m to 2.8 m. The low oxygen level in late winter was still not recovered, thereby profoundly affecting residential organisms in the lakes. The low winter oxygen is assumed to remain so for a long time due to phosphorus release from sediments in the lakes.

  • 27.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Why is emergy so difficult to explain to my ecology and environmental science friends?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication problems concerning the emergy concept, in an ecology/environmental science context are described. Problematic areas to communicate are identified, as 1) the different use of the energy concept, where adding up energies of different kinds are not accepted, 2) the size of tidal and deep heat emergy compared to solar energy, 3) the solar energy being represented by rainfall or land cycle, and 4) the view on value and connection to economics. Pedagogic experiences are shared regarding 1) how to communicate the energy hierarchy concept, 2) the communication benefits of decoupling the hypothesis' of energy hierarchy, maximum empower and pulsing, and 3) communication to economists regarding the emergy concepts relation to economics. Some larger contextual reasons influencing the communication are also identified as 1) the important paradigm shift in ecology during the 1970s, from a holistic ecosystem ecology to a reductionistic population and community ecology, and 2) the dualistic view of quantity and quality regarding the four main types of flows existing in systems (energy, mass, money and information), where useful qualitative measures seem to be missing as a complement to the quantitative measure of information in bits. The main recommendation from this paper is that even more carefulness is spent on explaining that the emergy concept relies on the theory of the energy hierarchy, with the implication that the energy concept is used in a slightly, but very important, different way than by most scientists.

  • 28.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Why is emergy so difficult to explain to my environmental science friends?2009In: Emergy Synthesis 5: Theory and Applications of the Emergy Methodology / [ed] M.T. Brown, Gainesville, Florida, USA: The Center for Environmental Policy , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Barthelson, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Englund, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ekoteknik (Ecotechnics / Ecotehcnology) – 30 Years of Experience in Interdiciplinery Education2014In: Proceedings of the 20th International Sustainable Development Research Conference Trondheim 18-20 June 2014: Resilience – the new research frontier, Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Product Design , 2014, p. 17-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important part of a society’s resilience is how prepared it is to cope with the changing conditions during the alpha and omega phases according to resilience theory. Lars Thofelt, an academic from the mid Sweden region, early recognized this need for students to develop skills needed for a societal change, and devoted his life to pedagogy suitable for this. The main outcome of his achievement was the interdisciplinary university program in Ecotechnics/Ecotechnology (Ekoteknik in Swedish), at Mid Sweden University. Ecology, economy and technology in cooperation for sustainable development were the original approach, and still are.Thofelt’s ideas had a main focus of helping students develop their inherent capabilities of solving problems and overcome obstacles. After Thofelt’s 12 years at the program his ideas were carried on by former colleagues and students, and the teaching further developed with a mix of the Thofelt tradition and other experiences brought in by new employees. This paper describes this interdisciplinary teaching approach with special focus on development of resilience capacity in students.It was concluded that 1) a key element to develop resilience skills in students is to push them to a self-propelled learning behavior rather than traditional teaching, 2) not too easily provide the students with answers will develop their problem solving skills, 3) doing-before-reading teaching is more time consuming but seem to give deeper knowledge, 4) interdisciplinary teaching will in the long run benefit from having the interdisciplinary team within the department, rather than as a conglomerate of several departments.

  • 30.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Billgren, Charlotte
    Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    IFM, section Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Raburu, Phillip O.
    Dept. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Emergy Assessment of a Wastewater Treatment Pond System in the Lake Victoria Basin2017In: Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, ISSN 2325-6192, E-ISSN 2325-6206, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 11-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of efforts to reduce the eutrophying load to Lake Victoria, a wastewater treatment system at one of the sugar factories in Kenya was evaluated with the ecosystem ecology method emergy accounting. As a comparison a traditional cost analysis was also performed. The analysis included the local and imported ecosystem services. After preliminary treatment the effluent was discharged into a series of 12 stabilisation ponds. The removal of COD and TSS was high, whereas phosphorus concentrations were reduced by less than 20 %. The monetary costs were dominated by operation and management cost, some of which could probably be reduced by more effective management. The local ecosystem services in emergy terms contributed only 1% (or 1,000 Em$) to the treatment system. Imported ecosystem services in purchased lime contributed more to the treatment system, 22% (or 24,600 Em$). Since the land costs in the area were low, land demanding treatment methods using free local ecosystem services, could be cost effective choices for wastewater management. Ecosystem ecology methods as emergy accountings can guide these choices by revealing the additional contribution of free ecosystem services. Emergy accountings seem to need further clarification regarding differences in micro-/macroeconomic views.

  • 31.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Environmental Monitoring, County Administration of Jamtland, Östersund, Sweden .
    Brandén Klang, Anders
    Environmental Objectives, County Administration of Jamtland, Östersund, Sweden.
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    SIKA - Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Methodological considerations from a wastewater treatment case study in Kenya2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergy methodology questions were raised during a case study where a Sugar factory effluent were treated in a pond system in the Lake Victoria watershed, and evaluated from a performance, cost and resource use perspective. This paper focus on the methodological questions, which were the following: (1) how should the emergy systems diagram be drawn when dealing with a system that is in the recycle loop? Is the wastewater on top in the energy hierarchy (highest transformity) or should the treatment system be located somewhere between the sugar factory on the energy hierarchy top and the dispersed nutrients low down in the energy hierarchy? (2) Rain emergy dominated the local renewable inputs. But how do rain contribute to the wastewater treatment in a pond system, other than as minor dilution? And is evapotranspiration a relevant measure of rain emergy in an aquatic system? (3) Since the case study had a microeconomic focus, is the historical ecosystem work behind lime a relevant item to include from the company's perspective? (4) the wastewater can be considered as a treatment problem, but also as a nutrient and water resource for e.g. irrigation. How does emergy accounting deal with the dualism of a get-rid-of-view and a get-use-of-view? (5) Is the, among some people, controversial maximum empower theory needed for the evaluation of the system, or is the less controversial energy hierarchy theory sufficient for the interpretation? (6) Does the emergy evaluation add any information regarding the sustainability of the pond system?

  • 32.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    A systems ecology view on sustainable wastewater treatment2014In: / [ed] Kazala F., Lundström J., Rosenlund J., Hogland W., 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental, economic, and social dimensions of sustainability, were connected in a systems ecology model with focus on wastewater treatment. Life Cycle Assessment and similar approaches are the most common systems analysis models in the wastewater treatment context. These models are beneficial, but are not the only possible approach to systems analysis. The model in this paper showed that the social and economic dimensions were inseparable intertwined, and both of them dependent on the environmental dimension for ecosystem services in the form of natural resources and regenerating capacity. The holistic view, as applied by a systems ecology approach, put focus on how sustainable wastewater treatment are limited to deliver something that can be assimilated by the environmental systems, and in the best applications,  produce something that is again useful to the society.

  • 33.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    A systems ecology view on wastewater treatment sustainability2013Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Craggs, R
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Hanaeus, J
    Advanced pond system for wastewater treatment in cold climates: assessment of sustainability2002In: Algal Biotechnology - A Sea of Opportunities,: the 1st congress of the International Society for Applied Phycology, 26-30 May 2002 at Aguadulce, Roquetas de Mar. Universidad de Almeria, Almeria, Spain, Almería :: Univ. de Almería, Servicio de Publ , 2002, p. 310-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ekbladh, Göran
    Emergy analysis2002In: Ecosystem properties and principles of living systems as foundation for sustainable agriculture: critical reviews of environmental assessment tools, key findings and questions from a course process, Uppsala: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Englund, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Barthelson, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ecotechnics/Ecotechnology in Östersund – 30 years of entrepreneurship focused education2014In: / [ed] Caczala F., Lundström J., Rosenlund J., Hogland W., 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1983 was the starting year for an interdisciplinary and sustainability oriented education program at the former university college in Östersund, located in the Mid Sweden mountain region. In this paper – 30 years later - the different phases that the educational program has passed over the years is examined with an entrepreneurial focus. In 1983 the “slogan” for the education was: “Ecology, economy and technology in cooperation for sustainable development”. One of the main ideas was to have a problem solving and entrepreneurial focus in the education. The goal was that the students should be prepared to start their own businesses after graduating, based on ideas they had developed during the education. The first years the program was two years in length, partly based on the idea to not “wear out” eager entrepreneurs with too many study years. Later a third year was added, to fulfill the bachelor’s level. In the late 1990’s the education had become part of Mid Sweden University, which during that period were struggling for full University status. This put pressure towards “academization” of the education program, which had its benefits but also its problems from the entrepreneurship angle. During the first decade after the millennia shift the education took a more international focus attracting students from many countries all over the world.  A Master’s level was also added to the program and the first graduate students received their Ph.D. during this period. The latest development is to split the Bachelor’s program into three “sister” programs: the Ecoengineers with a more traditional engineer focus (but still interdisciplinary), the Ecoentrepreneurs with less chemistry and math, but more social entrepreneur and green procurement courses, and the Ecotechnology students standing in between as the most interdisciplinary students.

  • 37.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Hanaeus, J
    Produktiv rening med mikroalger i kallt klimat2002In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 58, p. 251-258Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Hanaeus, J
    Use of microalgae in wastewater treatment in cold climate2001In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 57, p. 135-145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Hanæus, J
    Productive treatment of wastewater with microalgae in cold climate -laboratory experiments2001In: Ecological Engineering for Landscape Services and Products. The Annual Conference of the International Ecological Engineering Society, November 25th to 29th 2001, Christchurch, New Zealand., Christchurch, New Zealand, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergy as a measure to assess sustainability2016In: Ecological sustainability: Engineering change, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergy accounting (EA) is one of the methods in the sustainability assessment toolbox. In its use of stocks and flows of energy and matter it has similarities with e.g. Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment, but EA also includes stocks and flows of money and information. In its methodological approach of relating to a global baseline of renewable flows EA is similar to Ecological footprints in that it is not just revealing which of two alternatives is using more or less of different stocks or flows but also comparing the use to available renewable flows on a global annual basis.

    This paper address the contribution of three different aspects of EA (emergy analysis, emergy synthesis) to the overarching goal of sustainable development. The discussed aspects were: 1) the Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), 2) emergy as a normalizing measure, and 3) emergy as a network measure.

    It was concluded that the ESI is an interesting measure but does not catch the full range of the sustainability concept. The EA approach, with the ESI as part of it, has more to say about sustainability than what is captured by the ESI alone. An interesting outcome is that the traditional triple-bottom-line of environmental, economic and social sustainability emerges very easily from the emergy assessment conceptual diagram approach. EA holds a promise to classify the economic, social, and socio-economic domains of sustainability, as well as their connection to the ecological/environmental sustainability. The reason why the ESI captures only a small part of what is interesting from a sustainability point of view in the full EA may be that it has the focus on the traditional load and yield components. Many of the interesting parts from emergy evaluations in the sustainability context may instead come from the capability of EA to capture network properties.

  • 41.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergy as a measure to assess sustainable development2016In: Proceedings of 22nd International Sustainable Development Research Society Conference, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal, 13 – 15 July 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergy accounting is one of the methods in the sustainability assessment toolbox. In its use of stocks and flows of energy and matter it has similarities with Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Substance Flow Analysis (SFA), and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), but Emergy accounting also includes stocks and flows of money and information. In its methodological approach of relating to a global baseline of renewable flows Emergy accounting is similar to Ecological footprints in that it is not just revealing which of two alternatives is using more or less of different stocks or flows but also comparing the use to available renewable flows on a global annual basis.This paper address the contribution of three different aspects of emergy accounting (emergy analysis, emergy synthesis) to the overarching goal of sustainable development. The discussed aspects were: 1) the Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), 2) emergy as a normalizing measure, and 3) emergy as a network measure.It was concluded that the Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI) is an interesting measure but does not catch the full range of the sustainability concept. The emergy accounting approach, with the ESI as part of it, has a lot more to say about sustainability than just what is captured by the ESI. An interesting outcome is that the traditional triple-bottom-line of environmental, economic and social sustainability emerges very easily from the emergy assessment conceptual diagram approach. Emergy accounting holds a promise of clarifying the fuzziness often connected to how to classify economic, social, and socio-economic domains of sustainability. These are in practice often difficult to distinguish between, as are their connections to the ecological/environmental sustainability. The reason why the ESI captures only a small part of what is interesting from a sustainability point of view in the full emergy assessment may be that it has the focus on the traditional load and yield components. Many of the interesting parts from emergy evaluation in the sustainability context may instead come from the capability of emergy accounting to capture network properties.

  • 42.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergy in the new systems ecology2016In: Ecological sustainability: Engineering change, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystems ecology was the dominating branch within the field of ecology during the 1950s and 1960s.  During the 1970s ecosystem ecology was to a large extent replaced by the emerging so called “popcom” ecology, often described as a major paradigm shift in ecology from a holistic approach to a reductionistic paradigm. It is said that more than 90% of the active ecologist switched paradigm during this period. However, during the 1980s and 1990s several new concepts emerged among the remaining ecosystem ecologist and a few new scientist, often coming to the field with other backgrounds than ecology. This effort has the last years produced a more complete theory of what has been called the new systems ecology.

     

    In this presentation the concept of emergy is compared to a selection of the other new concepts within systems ecology. The presentation aims to sum up earlier published comparisons and to add a few new angles to those.

  • 43.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The use of emergy accounting to assess progress in sustainable urban and regional development2016In: Valuing and Evaluating Creativity for Sustainable Regional Development: Book of abstracts / [ed] Daniel Laven & Wilhelm Skoglund, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 219-221Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergy accounting (also named emergy analysis or emergy synthesis) is a method developed from systems science and systems ecology. Emergy is a measure appearing when applying the energy hierarchy principle to natural (e.g. forests and lakes) or human (e.g. cities, regions and countries) systems. The principle postulates that energies in any system will self-organize in hierarchical patterns given time to do so (Odum 1994, 2007). Emergy is expressed in relation to one type of energy occurring in the hierarchy, almost always solar emergy Joules, seJ. In the context of economy, emergy values can alternatively be expressed in a currency related unit, for example Em€ or Em$ (proportional to values in seJ). The significance is that Em€ or Em$ measures the contribution different items gives to the whole system, rather than how individuals value different items on the market; a donor value approach rather than a receiver (market) value approach (Grönlund et al., 2015).

    Emergy accounting has similarities with ecological footprint (EF) accounting. EF in principle accounts for the area of productive land needed to produce what we consume (measured in a unit called global hectares, a normalized hectare that takes into account different productivity and production methods–agriculture, forestry, and fishing–in different countries). By comparing this to the productive hectares available in the biosphere, the annual overshoot can be calculated. In the latest presentation the annual overshoot is calculated to be at least 50%. The EF method has met some methodological criticism based for example on the problems to include fossil fuels, water use, nuclear power, and toxicity aspects into the calculations. Emergy accounting has solved at least the two first of these problems.

    Similar to ecological footprint (EF) accounting Emergy accounting use a global baseline for comparison. However, when EF uses the productive capacity of biological production in the biosphere (biocapacity), Emergy accounting instead use the renewable energy flows (solar, tide, and deep heat energies) driving the biosphere the investigated year. The comparison with the global baseline has made the two methods useful to evaluate activities covering large land areas as nations and regions, and of course the full biosphere. Cities have also been possible to evaluate since they generally depend on large production areas (EF) in the countryside or use a large share of the annual driving energies of the biosphere (Emergy accounting).

    Many regions have been evaluated with Emergy accounting. For example several counties in Florida (Odum, 1994), the Caribbean island of Bonaire (Abel, 2000), the U.S. National forests (Brown and Campbell, 2007), the regions of  Nyando and Kerisho in western Kenya (Cohen, 2003), the Rolling Pampas in Argentina (Ferreya, 2001), the Siena region in Italy (e.g. Pulselli et al., 2008), the Okavango delta in Botswana ( Lehmensiek, 2004), and the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve in subtropical China (Lu et al., 2006). Some of the evaluation has also explicitly addressed regional sustainability, for example Dan Campbells (1998) “Emergy analysis of human carrying capacity and regional sustainability: an example using the state of Maine”.

    Emergy accounting of urban areas during the period 1971-2015 have been reviewed by Grönlund et al. (2015). They found that sustainability became the main focus from approximately 2008 and up today. Investigated urban areas with a sustainability focus has been Macao (e.g. Lei et al. 2014), Beijing (e.g. Zhang et al., 2011), Rome (Ascione et al., 2009), Shenyang (Liu et al., 2014), and Montreal (Vega-Azamar et al., 2013).

    Central in the sustainability assessment has been emergy indices of different kinds, e.g. Emergy Yield Ratio, Environmental Loading Ratio, Emergy Investment Ratio, Empower Density, Renewability, Emergy Intensity of currency, Emergy Exchange Ratio, Emergy/capita, Emergy-based Urban Ecosystem Health Index, Waste to emergy ratio, Waste to renewable, Emergy use purchased ratio, and Metabolic dependence (Grönlund et al. 2015).

    Emergy accounting delivers something new to science: a quantitative method that claims to be able to handle flows of both energy and matter, sometimes said to represent the economy of nature, and economic flows, said to represent the economy–“living”–of human systems, like e.g. cities. This will open up for creative new ideas. When environmental economics was an emerging field within economics a couple of decades ago, a phase of creativity started with a wide flora of hypothesis’ emerging on how to put value on environmental issues outside of the traditional scope of neoclassical economic theory (“internalize the externalities”). A similar phase is likely to emerge now in the field of ecology, where emergy accounting will open up for new creative applications of how to incorporate economic flows and values into systems including both nature and society.

     

    References

    Brown, M. T., & Ulgiati, S. (2004). Emergy Analysis and Environmental Accounting. In C. J. Cleveland (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Energy (pp. 329-354). New York: Elsevier.

    Campbell, D. E. (1998). Emergy analysis of human carrying capacity and regional sustainability: an exampel using the state of Maine. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 51, 531-569.

    Grönlund, E., Fröling, M., & Carlman, I. (2015). Donor values in emergy assessment of ecosystem services Ecological Modelling, 306, 101-105.

    Grönlund, E., Fröling, M., & Skytt, T. (2015). Energy, Emergy and the City. Paper presented at the Energy and Urban Systems. 9th Biennial International Workshop Advances in Energy Studies, Stockholm 4-7 May, 2015.

    Odum, H. T. (1994). Ecological and general systems - an introduction to systems ecology. Niwot, CO, USA: Univ. Press of Colorado.

    Odum, H. T. (2007). Environment, power and society for the twenty-first century : the hierarchy of energy. New york: Columbia University Press.

  • 44.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The use of Emergy to assess sustainable development2014In: Proceedings of the 20th International Sustainable Development Research Conference Trondheim 18-20 June 2014: Resilience – the new research frontier, Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Product Design , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem since long within science has been the gap between social and natural science (described for example by C.P. Snow, 1959: The Two Cultures. Cambridge University Press, London). From a qualitative point of view this problem has been met by creating interdisciplinary groups of specialists from both ‘cultures’. The quantitative outcomes has however stayed within the ‘cultures’ framework. Emergy is a relatively new measure that surprisingly has showed the ability to integrate at least economic flows and physical flows of kilograms and

    Emergy assessment (emergy analysis, emergy synthesis) produces quantitative results on a broad scale covering both ecological and socio-economic systems. In this paper is investigated how such results fits into different views on sustainability and sustainable development.

    Emergy is a measure based on systems science and thermodynamics. From its methodological foundations quantitative values of both ‘natural’ and socio-economic flows are delivered. These quantitative results form an interesting base to view sustainability or sustainable development. Different possible interpretations are discussed in the paper from different sustainability paradigms, as well as the limitations and possibilities of the Emergy method.

    Several authors have used an ‘Emergy Sustainability Index’ in their papers. Although an interesting index, it is considered too narrow to claim capturing sustainability, and it is suggested that this index is renamed.

    Resilient societies need inter- and trans-disciplinary methodological approaches. Quantitative methods covering both economic and ecological flows are rare in this context. Emergy as one of the few measures of this type is therefore interesting.

  • 45.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Wastewater Treatment and Recycling with Microalgae in Cold Climate2014In: Proceedings of the 20th International Sustainable Development Research Conference Trondheim 18-20 June 2014: Resilience – the new research frontier, Tronheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Product Design , 2014, p. 317-324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilient societies need technology with high recycling possibilities, as well as possibilities to treat wastewater with local ecosystem services as dominating driving forces.Modern wastewater treatment often suffers from the problem of being a linear system, rather than a recycling system. From a recycling point of view the nutrients in the wastewater is of highest interest.The use of microalgae has been proposed as collection systems for the nutrients, with several potential advantages: 1) they treat the wastewater further from a pathogenic point of view, 2) they produce a sludge of interesting biochemical quality depending on the species present in the treatment ponds, 3) they use the naturally occurring ecosystem services available at the wastewater treatment site in the form of sunlight, wind, and regional biodiversity of phytoplankton.The academic focus regarding microalgae use for wastewater treatment has to a large extent been on the “sunbelt”, between latitudes 35 North and South, respectively. However, a few investigations have been performed on northern and southern latitudes. This paper summarizes experiences from using microalgae for waste water treatment at northern latitudes in Sweden and present suggestions for further research.

  • 46.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Donor values in emergy assessment of ecosystem services2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently many definitions of ecosystem services in use. Common is an aim to visualize contributions, assets and costs not traditionally covered by market valuations, thus often giving ecosystems much lower value than their importance to economy. Emergy accounting, with its approach of donor values in contrast to receiver or market values, is one approach to assess contributions from the ecosystems and increase our understanding of the values of ecosystem services.

    Pulselli et al. (Ecol. Mod. 222:2924-2928) have connected the donor-side approach with a user side approach for ecological services. In this paper we investigate the donor-side more in depth, and put up an emergy model with two possible main paths to assess values for the ecosystem services: 1) the emergy values of the natural driving forces  (ES-DF), as sun, rain, wind and land cycle, and 2), the emergy values delivered directly to the human society and economy (ES-PS, environmental production systems). The first approach can be assessed with the common calculation procedure of emergy accounting; the second includes more challenging feedback flows of different types. The implications of these different feedback flows are discussed in the paper. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment terminology of supporting, providing, regulating and cultural ecosystem services relate primarily to the emergy ES-PS flows.

  • 47.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Donor values in emergy assessment of ecosystem services2015In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 101-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently many definitions of ecosystem services in use. Common for them is an aim to visualize contributions, assets and costs not traditionally covered by market valuations, thus often giving the ecosystems much lower value than their importance to economy. Emergy accounting, with its approach of donor values in contrast to receiver or market values, is one approach to assess contributions from the ecosystems and increase our understanding of the values of ecosystem services.

    Other authors have connected the donor-side approach with a user side approach for ecological services. In this paper, we investigate the donor-side more in depth, and put up an emergy model with two possible main paths to assess the values for the ecosystem services: (1) the emergy values of the natural driving forces (DrivEES), such as sun, rain, wind and land cycle and (2) the emergy values delivered directly to the human society and economy (FuncESS, ecosystem function ecosystem services). The first approach can be assessed with the common calculation procedure of emergy accounting; the second includes more challenging feedback flows of different types. The implications of these different feedback flows are discussed in this paper. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment terminology of supporting, providing, regulating and cultural ecosystem services relate primarily to the emergy FuncESS flows.

  • 48.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ecotechnology at Mid Sweden University – 30 years of Education in Environmental Consciousness and Entrepreneurship2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1983 was the starting year for an interdisciplinary and sustainability oriented education at Mid Sweden University. In this paper–30 years later–the different versions of the educational program over the years is examined with a focus on developing the students’ environmental consciousness. In 1983 the “slogan” for the education was: “Ecology, economy and technology in cooperation for sustainable development”. In the first decade after the millennia shift the education took a more international focus attracting students from countries all over the world.  A Master’s level was added and the first graduate students received their Ph.D. during this period. The latest development is to split the Bachelor’s program into three “sister” programs complementing the “old” Ecotechnology students with Ecoengineers, given a slightly more traditional engineer focus (but still interdisciplinary), and Ecoentrepreneurs with more social entrepreneur focus. Is a next interesting step to increase the interdiciplinarity even more over the faculties, towards the humanities?

  • 49.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Skytt, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy, emergy, and the city2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In his book “Environment, Power, and Society” (1971) H.T. Odum introduced a picture of the energy metabolism of a city based on Wolman's paper from 1965 (Sci. Am., 213: 179-190). With the development of the emergy analysis--a branch of energy systems accounting--several authors have contributed to develop quantitative measures of HT Odum’s picture, which from many perspectives are diverging from traditional energy studies. In this paper, studies using emergy analysis to study cities are reviewed. The research regarding emergy and cities had during the period 1975-1995 its focus on cities in the United States, e.g. Miami, Jacksonville, San Francisco and Chicago. The research during 1995-2005 was almost exclusively focused on Taipei. From approximately 2006 up till 2015 the research focus has been on Chinese cities; Macao, Beijing and 37 other Chinese cities have been investigated. But there are resent also studies made on Rome (Italy) and Montreal (Canada). Studies up to about 2007/2008 were generally concerned with understanding spatial aspects of the cities investigated. After that, evaluating the sustainability of cities has become a main research focus.

  • 50.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Skytt, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy, Emergy and the City2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In his book “Environment, Power, and Society” (1971) H.T. Odum introduced a picture of the energy metabolism of a city based on Wolman's paper from 1965 (Sci. Am., 213: 179-190). With the development of the emergy concept--a branch of energy systems accounting--several authors have contributed to develop a quantitative view of HT Odum’s picture, which from many aspect are diverging from the traditional energy accounting picture. In this paper the emergy view of the city is reviewed. The research on emergy and cities had its focus in United States during the period 1975-1995 with investigations of cities like Miami, Jacksonville, San Francisco and Chicago. The main research during 1995-2010 took place almost only in Taipei. From approximately 2006 up today the main research takes place in Chinese cities; Macao, Beijing and 30 other Chinese cities have been investigated the last 6 years. Newer investigations have also been done on Rome (Italy) and Montreal (Canada). The main interest in the research up to 2007/2008 was on the spatial aspect of the city. After that new focuses have emerged, with sustainability as a main question.

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