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  • 1.
    Arriaga, P.
    et al.
    Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Cis-IUL, Portugal .
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Psychological Research and Social Intervention, Cis-IUL, Portugal .
    Fernandes, S.
    ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Cis-IUL, Portugal .
    Playing for better or for worse?: Health and social outcomes with electronic gaming2013In: Handbook of Research on ICTs for Human-Centered Healthcare and Social Care Services / [ed] Cruz-Cunha, M; Miranda, I; Goncalves, P, IGI Global, 2013, p. 48-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Of the many of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products, electronic games are considered as having great potential for improving health and social outcomes. This chapter considers the factors that may be involved in facilitating health and social outcomes and also those factors that might be considered risk factors by reviewing studies that have shown both positive and detrimental effects on people's physical and mental health. The authors also debate some research questions that remain unanswered and suggest guidelines for practitioners, researchers, and game designers.

  • 2. Arriaga, Patricia
    et al.
    Adrião, Joana
    Madeira, Filipa
    Cavaleiro, Inês
    Maia e Silva, Alexandra
    Barahona, Isabel
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A "dry eye" for victims of violence: effects of playing a violent video game on pupillary dilation to victims and on aggressive behavior2015In: Psychology of violence, ISSN 2152-0828, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 199-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present experiment analyzed the effects of playing a violent video game on player’s sensitivity to victimized people by measuring the involuntary pupil dilation responses (PDRs) during a passive picture viewing paradigm and examining the mediating role of PDR on aggression. Method: Participants (N = 135) were randomly assigned to play a violent video game or a nonviolent video game. The participants’ PDRs were then recorded while they were exposed to pictures of alleged victims of violence displayed in negative, neutral, and positive contexts. A competitive reaction time task was also used to measure aggression. Results: Participants in the violent game condition demonstrated both a lower PDR to the victims of violence in a negative circumstances and greater aggression than participants in the nonviolent game condition. Lower PDR to victims displayed in negative context mediated the relationship between violent game play and aggression. Conclusion: The negative effects of playing violent games are a societal concern. Our results indicate that a single violent gaming session can reduce the player’s involuntary PDRs to pictures of victimized people in negative context and increase participant aggression, a new relevant finding that should encourage further research in this area.

  • 3. Arriaga, Patricia
    et al.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    100 anos depois: Onde está o Watson?2014In: Psicologia Na Actualidade, no 18, p. 18-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    et al.
    UniversidadeLuso´fona de Humanidades e Tecnologias (ULHT), Lisboa, Portugal.
    Esteves, Francisco
    ISCTE, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Carneiro, Paula
    UniversidadeLuso´fona de Humanidades e Tecnologias (ULHT), Lisboa, Portugal.
    Monteiro, Maria B.
    ISCTE, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Are the effects of unreal violent video games pronounced when playing with a virtual reality system?2008In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 521-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to analyze the short‐term effects of violent electronic games, played with or without a virtual reality (VR) device, on the instigation of aggressive behavior. Physiological arousal (heart rate (HR)), priming of aggressive thoughts, and state hostility were also measured to test their possible mediation on the relationship between playing the violent game (VG) and aggression. The participants—148 undergraduate students—were randomly assigned to four treatment conditions: two groups played a violent computer game (Unreal Tournament), and the other two a non‐violent game (Motocross Madness), half with a VR device and the remaining participants on the computer screen. In order to assess the game effects the following instruments were used: a BIOPAC System MP100 to measure HR, an Emotional Stroop task to analyze the priming of aggressive and fear thoughts, a self‐report State Hostility Scale to measure hostility, and a competitive reaction‐time task to assess aggressive behavior. The main results indicated that the violent computer game had effects on state hostility and aggression. Although no significant mediation effect could be detected, regression analyses showed an indirect effect of state hostility between playing a VG and aggression. 

  • 5.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    et al.
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Carneiro, Paula
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Monteiro, Maria B.
    Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Violent computer games and their effects on state hostility and psychophysiological arousal2006In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 146-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of violent computer games on state hostility, state anxiety and arousal. Participants were undergraduate students, aged from 18 to 25 years. Before the experimental sessions, participants filled in self-report measures concerning their video game habits and were also pre-tested for aggressiveness and trait anxiety. Physiological responses (heart rate and skin conductance) were measured during the experiment. After playing, information about state hostility and state anxiety was collected. The results showed that participants who played the violent game reported significantly higher state hostility, and support the assumption that an aggressive personality moderates the effect of playing a violent game on state hostility.

  • 6.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e Intervenção Social (Cis-IUL), Av. das Forças Armadas, 1649-026 Lisboa, Portugal .
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e Intervenção Social (Cis-IUL), Av. das Forças Armadas, 1649-026 Lisboa, Portugal .
    Feddes, Allard R.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Looking at the (mis) fortunes of others while listening to music2014In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 251-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined whether eye movements when regarding pictures of other people in fortunate (positive) and unfortunate (negative) circumstances are influenced by background music. Sixty-three participants were randomly assigned to three background music conditions (happy music, sad music, or no music) where pairs of negative-positive pictures were shown. Participants' eye movements were recorded throughout the experiment to assess distinct phases of attentional processes, i.e., initial orienting to, and subsequent engagement with, visual scenes. We found that these attentional processes were not uniformly influenced by the music. The type of background music had no effect on initial visual attention but played a relevant role in guiding subsequent gaze behaviour by maintaining attention in a mood-congruent fashion: sad music enhanced attentional bias to visual images of others in unfortunate circumstances, whereas happy music contributed to longer gazes at images of others in fortunate circumstances. These results support the notion that attention is affected by background music and reflected by gaze behaviour.

  • 7.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    et al.
    ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Monteiro, Maria B.
    ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Esteves, Francisco
    ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Effects of Playing Violent Computer Games on Emotional Desensitization and Aggressive Behavior2011In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1900-1925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzed the effects of playing a violent computer game on emotional desensitization and aggressive behavior. College students (N = 58) were randomly assigned to play a violent game (VG) or a nonviolent game (NVG), and then were exposed to a set of emotional pictures. Participants' physiological responses were recorded, and the Self‐Assessment Manikin scale was used to assess affective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures. Participants were then asked to replay the game, after which aggressive behavior was measured. Participants' violent game habits (VGH) were also measured. We found that VG playing interacted with participants' VGH to influence aggression, and that self‐reported valence mediated this effect by lowering the feelings of pleasure and displeasure toward emotional stimuli.

  • 8. Arriaga, Patricia
    et al.
    Silva, Ana
    Esteves, Francisco
    Os efeitos de um jogo de computador nas aptidões perceptivas e espaciais2001In: Psicologia: Teoria, Investigação e Prática, no 6, p. 269-284Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIS-IUL.
    Zillmann, Dolf
    University of Alabama.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Promotion of Violence by the Mainstream Media of Communication2016In: The Social Developmental Construction of Violence and Intergroup Conflict / [ed] J. Vala, S. Waldzus, M. Calheiros, Springer, 2016, p. 171-195Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the effects that exposure to or enactment of violence in mainstream media has on aggressive behavior, emotions, and empathy. In line with contemporary technological developments, the authors also cover the more and more widespread consumption of violent video games, which put the player in a more active role than traditional media (such as television) put their viewers. As the field is extremely controversial, the authors are careful in their analysis of the actually existing evidence as well as in their conclusions and recommendations for future research. Despite all controversy, and after reviewing existing literature, as well as a large number of own empirical work, the authors come to the conclusion that there is evidence for increased aggressive motivation and impulsivity as a result of exposure to media violence, but that it is not clear yet how much it affects people’s real-life behavior. Nevertheless, it is clear that there is no evidence for cathartic effects, a conclusion that is similar in research on the effects of filmed violence, and an idea that had been present in the controversy for decades but can now be abandoned.

  • 10.
    Bernhardsson, Jens
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF N2pc DURING FEAR PROCESSING2013In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 50, p. S119-S119Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bernhardsson, Jens
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Make no mistake: You are being watched2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Calvo, Manuel
    et al.
    University of La Laguna, Spain.
    Esteves, Francisco
    University Lusofona of Humanities and Technologies, Portugal.
    Detection of emotional faces: low perceptual thresholds and wide attentional span2005In: Visual cognition (Print), ISSN 1350-6285, E-ISSN 1464-0716, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experiments, prime face stimuli with an emotional or a neutral expression were presented individually for 25 to 125 ms, either in foveal or parafoveal vision; following a mask, a probe face or a word label appeared for recognition. Accurate detection and sensitivity (A') were higher for angry, happy, and sad faces than for nonemotional (neutral) or novel (scheming) faces at short exposure times (25-75 ms), in both the foveal and the parafoveal field, and with both the probe face and the probe word. These results indicate that there is a low perceptual threshold for unambiguous emotional faces, which are especially likely to be detected both within and outside the focus of attention; and that this facilitated detection involves processing of the affective meaning of faces, not only discrimination of formal visual features.

  • 13.
    Carneiro, Maria Paula
    et al.
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Albuquerque, Pedro
    Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal.
    Fernandez, Angel
    Universidade de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Normas de associação livre de 16 palavras portuguesas para crianças de diferentes faixas etárias2004In: Laboratório de Psicologia, E-ISSN 1646-6004, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 49-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [pt]

    Neste estudo são apresentadas as normas de associação livre de 16 palavras portuguesas para 3 faixas etárias de crianças – 3/4 anos, 7/8 anos e 11/12 anos – e adultos. As comparações efectuadas entre as faixas etárias revelaram uma diferença significativa entre os 3/4 anos e os 7/8 anos ao nível do número de associados obtidos, provavelmente atribuída a um aumento considerável do vocabulário nesta fase do desenvolvimento. Mudanças conceptuais na organização do conhecimento foram também analisadas, verificando-se nos pré-escolares associações que revelam relações funcionais e um predomínio de relações taxonómicas a partir dos 7/8 anos.

  • 14.
    Carneiro, Paula
    et al.
    Universidade Lusófona, Portugal.
    Albuquerque, Pedro
    Universidade do Minho, Portugal.
    Fernandez, Angel
    Universidad de Salamanca, Spain.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Universidade Lusófona, Portugal.
    Analyzing false memories in children with associative lists specific for their age2007In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 78, no 4, p. 1171-1185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments attempted to resolve previous contradictory findings concerning developmental trends in false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm by using an improved methodology--constructing age-appropriate associative lists. The research also extended the DRM paradigm to preschoolers. Experiment 1 (N=320) included children in three age groups (preschoolers of 3-4 years, second-graders of 7-8 years, and preadolescents of 11-12 years) and adults, and Experiment 2 (N=64) examined preschoolers and preadolescents. Age-appropriate lists increased false recall. Although preschoolers had fewer false memories than the other age groups, they showed considerable levels of false recall when tested with age-appropriate materials. Results were discussed in terms of fuzzy-trace, source-monitoring, and activation frameworks.

  • 15.
    Carneiro, Paula
    et al.
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias.
    Dissociação entre o desenvolvimento da memória explícita e implícita em crianças2001In: Psicologia, Educação e Cultura, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 195-216Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bilingualism and social flexibility2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bilinguals' social flexibility2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Empirical investigation of the relationship between social flexibility and bilingualismManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Identification of facial expressions of emotion in bilingual children with different exposures to their languages2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the emotional development of bilingual children by measuring balanced and unbalanced 4-year-old bilinguals’ performance on an identification of emotional facial expressions task. A total of 84 children were divided into three groups: balanced bilinguals, unbalanced bilinguals, and monolinguals. Participants completed a computerized task where photographs of faces displaying anger, happiness, sadness, and fear were presented. The groups generally performed in line with previous research, but slightly differently from each other. For all three groups, the results showed that anger and happiness were more accurately identified, while sadness and fear were still difficult to identify for children at this age. However, there were interesting trends suggesting that balanced bilinguals made more refined judgments than the two other groups. Overall, this study supports the idea that the development of bilingual children is similar to their monolingual peers when it comes to learning to identify facial expressions of emotions, but that proportion of exposure to the bilingual child’s languages may lead to slightly different developmental courses.

  • 20.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Identification of facial expressions of emotion by 4-year-old children from different linguistic environments2018In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated the identification of facial expressions of emotion, a socio-emotional task that has not previously been examined in children from different linguistic environments. Eighty-four 4-year-olds growing up in one of three linguistic environments (monolingual, dominant bilingual, balanced bilingual) performed a task where they identified facial expressions (happiness, anger, sadness, fear). Accuracy was analysed with a mixed-design analysis of variance using group (monolinguals, dominant bilinguals and balanced bilinguals) and emotion (happy, angry, sad and scared) as between- and within-group variables, respectively. Our results showed a main effect of emotion, but there was no main effect of group. This suggests that 4-year-olds’ linguistic environment does not affect performance on an identification of facial expressions task. This study was the first to investigate the identification of facial expressions of emotion in children coming from different linguistic environments. As the socio-emotional development of bilinguals is not yet well understood, especially regarding the visual perception of emotions, this study is amongst the first to contribute to this area of research. Our results are therefore of significance as a building block for additional studies that should explore the visual perception of emotions in other types of tasks and populations.

  • 21.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esteves, Francisco Gomes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Identification of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Balanced and Unbalanced 4-year-old Bilinguals2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Claudio, Ana Paula
    et al.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Sci, BioISI Biosyst & Integrat Sci Inst, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Carmo, Maria Beatriz
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Sci, BioISI Biosyst & Integrat Sci Inst, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Gomes, Ines Laureano
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Sci, BioISI Biosyst & Integrat Sci Inst, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. ISCTE IUL, CIS Ctr Psychol Res & Social Intervent, Lisbon, Portugal.;Mid Sweden Univ, Dep Psychol PSY, Ostersund, Sweden..
    Gaspar, Augusta
    ISCTE IUL, CIS Ctr Psychol Res & Social Intervent, Lisbon, Portugal.;Catholic Univ Portugal, Fac Social Sci, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Sense of presence inside a feared (virtual) tunnel2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 10TH IBERIAN CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES (CISTI 2015), 2015, p. Art. no. 7170433-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality in Exposure Therapy allows exposing patients to simulations of feared situations, even in cases where actual exposure is not possible or difficult. We have created a Web application that helps therapists performing this type of therapy when dealing with patients that suffer from anxiety of crossing road tunnels. The application contains a set of animations of virtual scenarios recreating a car journey across a tunnel visualized from the point of view of the traveler sitting beside the driver and exhibiting a set of potential anxiety inductors. In this paper we describe the application and report a user study to assess the adequacy of our application as a VRET tool and also to compare the impact of visualizing the animations resorting to two distinct low cost apparatus: a versatile immersive equipment and a big projection.

  • 23.
    Cláudio, A. P.
    et al.
    LabMAg, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal .
    Carmo, M. B.
    LabMAg, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal .
    Pinheiro, T.
    LabMAg, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal .
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. CIS-IUL, University Institute of Lisbon, ISCTE, Portugal .
    Lopes, E.
    LabMAg, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal .
    Virtual environment to treat social anxiety2013In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer, 2013, no PART 2, p. 442-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our work is to propose a Virtual Reality solution to treat social anxiety, applying cognitive-behavioral therapies, that preserves the sense of immersion without requiring the use of expensive special purpose hardware. We have developed an application, called Virtual Spectators, that creates a simulation taking place in a virtual scenario inhabited by animated virtual humans whose behaviors are dynamically controlled by the therapist. To evaluate the effective usefulness of the tool from the point of view of the therapist, we performed an evaluation of the application with a set of these professionals familiarized with the use of exposure therapy. Their feedback was positive and they were enthusiastic about the possibility of using such a tool to support a session of exposure therapy. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 24.
    Costa, Rui
    et al.
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Portugal.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, Portugal.
    Skin conductance responses to visual sexual stimuli2008In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research showed that the asymmetrical direction of bilateral skin conductance responses (SCRs) remains constant regardless of task (with larger left SCRs in men and larger right SCRs in women). However, SCRs are controlled ipsilaterally by structures also associated with sexual arousal, hence it could be expected that larger right SCRs are specifically elicited by sexual stimuli. In order to test the two competing hypotheses, left and right SCR magnitude to three stimulus categories (sexually explicit, sexually non-explicit and neutral) were compared in 54 subjects (27 females). The direction of the asymmetry remained constant across stimulus types, however, unexpected sex differences occurred, as males had larger right SCRs and there was no lateralization in females. Interestingly, this interaction disappeared after controlling for indicators of subjective sexual arousal, suggesting that a specific (not previously hypothesized) processing of sexual information could take place.

  • 25.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences in the generation of emotional words in children and adults2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have traditionally shown that there are differences between the number of words that men and women produce, where females generally produce more words than males. The same has been found for emotional words. However, it is unclear when during development, and why those differences arise. In order to understand this issue better, we replicated a study by Neshat Doost et al. (1999) on a Swedish population. Not only did we study emotional word generation in children (n = 127, age range 8-10 years) as in the original study by Neshat Doost et al. (1999), but we also tested an adult population (n = 183, mean age = 27.7 years) in order to compare different stages in life. Participants generated words based on ten categories, two of which were neutral, and eight of which were emotional categories, covering various aspects of happiness, sadness, and fear. Our results show similar gender differences in the targeted age groups. For the younger population, females produced more words than males in all emotional categories, but there was no difference in the neutral category. Similarly, in the adult population, women generated more words than men in most emotional categories, but no differences were found in the neutral categories. Overall, our results show no gender differences in word generation of neutral words for both the younger and the adult participants, but when it comes to the emotional categories, the female participants generated significantly more words than their male peers. This trend is observable even in children as young as 8-10 years, and persists into adulthood. Our results suggest that gender differences in amount of words generated is specific to, or at least more prominent for emotional words.

  • 26.
    Emauz, A.
    et al.
    Centro de Investigação e Intervenção social (CIS-IUL), Escola de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal .
    Gaspar, A.
    Centro de Investigação e Intervenção social (CIS-IUL), Escola de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal .
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centro de Investigação e Intervenção social (CIS-IUL), Escola de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal.
    Carvalhosa, S. F.
    Centro de Investigação e Intervenção social (CIS-IUL), Escola de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal .
    Adaptação da escala de empatia com animais (EEA) para a população Portuguesa2016In: Analise Psicologica, ISSN 0870-8231, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 189-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within Psychology, there has been a growing interest in the study of human animal interactions. However, studies addressing human empathy towards non-human animals are still scarce, as are the instruments to measure it, and as of now there was none available for the Portuguese population. We chose the Animal Empathy Scale (AES), for being the most frequently used tool to measure empathy towards non-human animals. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a twocomponent structure, and the two new subscales were named Emotional Detachment and Animal Empathic Concern. Both the final scale and subscales structures showed a well-adjusted model with good levels of internal consistency. A significant correlation was found with a measure of empathy towards humans (Interpersonal Reactivity Index - IRI), strengthening the validity of this instrument as a useful tool to assess empathy toward animals in the Portuguese population. © 2016, Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada. All rights reserved.

  • 27. Esteves, Francisco
    Attentional bias to emotional facial expressions1999In: Revue europeenne de psychologie appliquee, ISSN 1162-9088, E-ISSN 1878-3457, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Esteves, Francisco
    Sesgos en el procesamiento de expresiones faciales emocionales1999In: Ansiedad y Estrés, ISSN 1134-7937, Vol. 5, no 2-3, p. 217-227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL).
    Arriaga, Patricia
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL).
    Carneiro, Paula
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL).
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Emotional responses (verbal and psychophysiological) to pictures of food stimuli2010In: Psicologia, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 89-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional processing of food-related pictures was studied in four experiments, comparing participants who revealed unhealthy attitudes toward food, dieting and body shape with control groups. All subjects were female and responses to pictures of low and of high calorie foods were compared to responses to other emotional stimuli. The first three experiments measured verbal and autonomic responses and Experiment 4 was a classical conditioning study. In Experiments 2-4, pictures were presented backward masked in order to observe automatic, non-conscious responses. The results showed that, in general, food pictures were processed in the same way as other emotional material, both verbally and psychophysiologically. Although there were some results indicating a difference between groups, the general pattern was that participants selected for being more worried about food and dieting did not show higher reactivity to food cues.

  • 30.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhardsson, Jens
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotional arousal and attention bias to female body shapes2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Carneiro, Paula
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Arriaga Ferreira, Patricia
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Rosa, Beatriz
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Psicologia Experimental - passado, presente e futuro2001In: Revista de Humanidades e Tecnologias, ISSN 1646-4028, no 4/5, p. 220-226Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Öhman, Arne
    Uppsala University.
    Automatically elicited fear: Conditioned skin conductance responses to masked facial expressions1994In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 393-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined automatic elicitation of conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs), when a backward masking procedure prevented the subject's conscious awareness of the conditioned stimuli (CSs). The CSs were pictures of emotional facial expressions. A differential conditioning procedure was used. One facial expression (e.g. an angry face) was aversively conditioned by a shock unconditioned stimulus, whereas another facial expression (e.g. a happy face) was never presented with the shock. After conditioning, the CSs were presented backwardly masked by a neutral face. This procedure prevented conscious perception of the CS. Nevertheless, reliable differential SCRs were obtained when the CS had been an angry face. This effect, however, was dependent on the subject's direction of attention. When attention was focused on the mask, no differential responding was observed. Thus it was concluded that, when fear-relevant stimuli (angry faces) served as the CS, elicitation of SCRs was automatic in the sense that it was possible even when the subjects were not aware of the stimuli presented. However, it was only partially automatic because the effect was modified by attention.

  • 33.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emauz, Ana
    ISCTE-IUL.
    Gaspar, Augusta
    ISCTE-IUL.
    Assessing affective empathy towards humans and other animals from emotional facial expressions2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Esteves, Francisco Gomes
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Claudio, Ana P.
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Carmo, Maria B.
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Gaspar, Augusta
    Catholic Univ Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Psychophysiological responses to a Virtual Reality scenario for the treatment of Social Anxiety2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality systems have been proved to be a valuable tool in the exposure treatment of different anxiety disorders. Virtual Spectators is an application created to be used by therapists in the treatment of social anxiety. The application allows the therapist to manipulate the difficulty of the task during the therapy session. The aim of the present study was to test the emotional impact of the application in non-clinical participants with different levels of social anxiety, by measuring Heart-Rate, Skin Conductance Responses and the Startle Reflex. Participants had to read two different texts (one easier and another more difficult) in front of a panel with three animated virtual judges, while their physiological responses were monitored continuously. From an initial pool of 95 participants, 32 (10 males) were selected to participate in the experiment according to their anxiety level (high or low). The results showed a general increase in heart-rate and skin conductance levels while they were reading the first text. A general differentiation between the groups was also observed in the heart-rate data, with participants in the high-anxiety group showing higher rates than in low-anxiety participants. Interestingly, the participants rated the exposure situation as more realistic while they were reading the more difficult text. In general, it can be concluded that the application Virtual Spectators seems to be a useful instrument to induce anxiety responses in exposure situations in the treatment of social anxiety.

  • 35.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Karolinska Sjukhuset.
    Parra, Cristina
    Karolinska Sjukhuset.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    Karolinska Sjukhuset.
    Öhman, Arne
    Karolinska Sjukhuset.
    Nonconscious associative learning: Pavlovian conditioning of skin conductance responses to masked fear-relevant facial stimuli1994In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 375-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the possibility of nonconscious associative learning in a context of skin conductance conditioning, using emotional facial expressions as stimuli. In the first experiment, subjects were conditioned to a backwardly masked angry face that was followed by electric shock, with a masked happy face as the nonreinforced stimulus. In spite of the effectively masked conditioned stimuli, differential conditioned skin conductance responses were observed in a subsequent nonmasked extinction phase. This effect could not be attributed to differential sensitization or pseudo‐conditioning. In the second experiment, the differential responding during extinction was replicated with angry but not with happy faces as conditioned stimuli. It was concluded that with fear‐relevant facialexpressions as the conditioned stimulus, associative learning was possible even in conditions where the subjects remained unaware of the conditioned stimulus, associative learning was possible even in conditions where the subjects remained unaware of the conditioned stimulus and its relationship to the unconditioned stimulus.

  • 36.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Santos, Isabel
    Universidade Lusófona de Lisboa.
    Attentional bias to caloric food stimuli2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to test if there was a bias for a better detection of caloric food stimuli when compared to healthy food. Using a visual search paradigm, it was showed that caloric stimuli (both pictures and words) were faster detected among healthy food stimuli than the other way around.

  • 37.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Öhman, Arne
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Masking the face: Recognition of emotional facial expressions as a function of the parameters of backward masking1993In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four experiments are reported investigating recognition of emotional expressions in very briefly presented facial stimulus. The faces were backwardly masked by neutral facial displays and recognition of facial expressions was analyzed as a function of the manipulation of different parameters in the masking procedure. The main conclusion was that stimulus onset asynchrony between target and mask proved to be the principal factor influencing recognition of the masked expressions. In general, confident recognitions of facial expressions required about 100–150 msec, with shorter time for happy than for angry expressions. The manipulation of the duration of both the target and the mask, by itself, had only minimal effects.

  • 38. Fernandes, Sara
    et al.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Atitudes infantis face aos cuidados de saúde e percepcão de dor: Papel mediador dos medos médicos2014In: Ciência e Saúde Colectiva, ISSN 1413-8123, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 2073-2082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sought to contribute to a better understanding of children's attitudes and opinions regarding health care, mainly in terms of medical procedures, institutions and the efficacy of health professionals. The sample included 381 children, recruited from different schools in Lisbon. The more negative attitudes were attributed to institutions, while positive attitudes were related to the efficacy of health professionals. Medical procedures were considered less painful compared to potential day-to-day accidents. Higher levels of pain were reported by children of the female sex and by children during the primary education phase. Medical fears mediated the relationship between the perception of pain and children's attitudes with respect to health care. Higher levels of pain perception were seen to be related to more negative attitudes regarding health care. However, this relationship was diminished when children's fears about medical issues were contemplated. In conclusion, a translated instrument to assess children's attitudes regarding health care is needed, as it may even contribute to the development of intervention programs within the scope of the promotion of attitudes towards health care.

  • 39.
    Fernandes, Sara
    et al.
    ISCTE-IUL.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    PREPARING CHILDREN FOR SURGERY - EFFECTIVENESS OF EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Fernandes, Sara
    et al.
    ISCTE-IUL, Portugal.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    ISCTE-IUL, Portugal.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Providing preoperative information for children undergoing surgery: a randomized study testing different types of educational material to reduce children’s preoperative worries2014In: Health Education Research, ISSN 0268-1153, E-ISSN 1465-3648, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1058-1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children’s preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8–12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the seven independent conditions that were combined into the following three main groups: an experimental group, which received educational materials with information about surgery and hospitalization (a board game, a video or a booklet); a comparison group, which received entertaining material with the same format type; and a control group, which did not receive any material. Children’s preoperative worries and parental anxiety were evaluated after the experimental manipulation. Children who received educational materials were significantly less worried about surgery and hospital procedures than children in the comparison and the control groups, although no statistically differences were found between the type of materials within the experimental group, and no significant effect occurred on parental state anxiety. These results do however support the hypothesis that providing preoperative materials with educational information reduce children’s preoperative worries.

  • 41.
    Fernandes, Sara
    et al.
    Center for Research and Social Intervention (CIS-IUL), University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal .
    Arriaga, Patricia
    Center for Research and Social Intervention (CIS-IUL), University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal .
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center for Research and Social Intervention (CIS-IUL), University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal .
    Using an educational multimedia application to prepare children for outpatient surgeries2015In: Health Communication, ISSN 1041-0236, E-ISSN 1532-7027, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1190-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surgery is a highly stressful event for children and caregivers. Extensive effort has been made to improve preoperative care in order to alleviate worry about the surgical procedure itself. This study tested the impact of an educational multimedia intervention on the cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses of children undergoing surgery, as well as on parental state anxiety. Children (n = 90) were assigned to three different groups: an educational multimedia intervention (experimental group), an entertainment video game intervention (comparison group), and a control group (no intervention). Children who received the educational multimedia intervention reported lower level of worries about hospitalization, medical procedures, illness, and negative consequences than those in the control and in the comparison groups. Parental state anxiety was also lower in the both the educational and the entertainment video game interventions compared to the control group. These findings suggest that providing information to children regarding medical procedures and hospital rules and routines is important to reduce their preoperative worries, and also relevant for parental anxiety.

  • 42.
    Fernandes, Sara
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIS-IUL, Av. das Forças Armadas, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Arriaga, Patrícia
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIS-IUL, Av. das Forças Armadas, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Carvalho, Helena
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIS-IUL, Av. das Forças Armadas, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. CIS-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Psychometric Assessment of the Child Surgery Worries Questionnaire Among Portuguese Children2017In: Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, ISSN 1068-9583, E-ISSN 1573-3572, Vol. 24, no 3-4, p. 289-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worries are common in surgical patients, especially in children. The present study analyzed the factor structure and the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Child Surgery Worries Questionnaire (CSWQ-P) in a Portuguese sample of 490 children. Exploratory factor analysis, conducted via principal axis factoring with oblimin rotation, provided evidence for a four-factor structure of the 21 item questionnaire. A confirmatory factor analysis was also conducted, showing the good fit of this solution. The CSWQ-P proved to have one more subscale than the original Spanish version CSWQ. Correlations with the children’s trait anxiety provided evidence of convergent validity for the CSWQ-P. Females also scored higher on worries than males on all subscales. Psychometric properties of this revised version of the CSWQ provided support for use with young children, and indicate the CSWQ-P has value for use in healthcare practice and in clinical research. 

  • 43.
    Galinha, Iolanda Costa
    et al.
    Univ Autonoma Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; ISCTE IUL, CIP, Lisbon, Portugal; Ctr Psychol Res & Social Intervent CIS, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Garcia-Martin, Miguel Angel
    Univ Malaga, Spain.
    Oishi, Shigehiro
    Univ Virginia, Charlottesville, VA USA.
    Wirtz, Derrick
    Univ British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, Canada.
    Esteves, Francisco Gomes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cross-Cultural Comparison of Personality Traits, Attachment Security, and Satisfaction With Relationships as Predictors of Subjective Well-Being in India, Sweden, and the United States2016In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, ISSN 0022-0221, E-ISSN 1552-5422, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 1033-1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits like Neuroticism and Extroversion, Satisfaction With Relationships, and Attachment Security are among the most important predictors of subjective well-being (SWB). However, the relative contribution of these predictors to SWB is seldom tested, and even more rarely tested cross-culturally. In this study, we replicate and extend Galinha, Oishi, Pereira, Wirtz, and Esteves, aiming to identify the strongest predictors of SWB, and in what way that contribution is universal or culture-specific, across such collectivist-individualist countries as India, Sweden, and the United States (N = 1,622). Structural equation modeling showed that Satisfaction With Relationships is a stronger predictor of SWB in India, while Neuroticism is a stronger predictor of SWB in Sweden and the United States, results consistent with prior Portuguese and Mozambican samples. These findings suggest that Satisfaction With Relationships is probably a stronger predictor of SWB in more collectivistic and less developed countries, while low Neuroticism is a stronger predictor of SWB in more individualistic and highly developed countries. Across all samples, Attachment Security and Extroversion showed very weak or nonsignificant effects on SWB above the contribution of Neuroticism and Satisfaction With Relationships, consistent with prior results. Neuroticism significantly mediated the relationship between Attachment Security, SWB, and Satisfaction With Relationships.

  • 44.
    Galinha, Iolanda Costa
    et al.
    Univ Autonoma Lisboa, P-1100188 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Oishi, Shigehiro
    Univ Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
    Pereira, Cicero Roberto
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Social Sci, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Wirtz, Derrick
    E Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC, USA.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Inst Univ Lisboa, CIS Ctr Psychol Res & Social Intervent, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Adult Attachment, Love Styles, Relationship Experiences and Subjective Well-Being: Cross-Cultural and Gender Comparison between Americans, Portuguese, and Mozambicans2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 823-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attachment security, love styles, and romantic relationship experiences are closely associated with subjective well-being (SWB). A few studies have empirically observed significant relations between these variables. However, no studies have included all of these predictors to analyze the unique contribution of each to SWB, and no cross-cultural studies have analyzed these variables simultaneously. This article examined (a) the relations between attachment security, love styles, romantic relationship experiences and subjective well-being, (b) the unique contribution of each to predict SWB, and (c) cross-cultural and gender differences in the predictors of SWB across three samples of 1,574 university students: 497 from North Carolina (US), 544 from Maputo (Mozambique), and 533 from Lisbon (Portugal). We found cross-cultural differences in the three samples. The main predictor of SWB was attachment security in the US and Portuguese samples, while in the Mozambican it was eros love style. Storge love style positively predicted SWB in the US and Portuguese samples, but not in the Mozambican. In contrast, mania love style predicted the SWB of Mozambicans but not that of Americans or Portuguese. We found gender similarities and differences: the association between attachment security and SWB was not gender-specific; the associations between love styles, relationship experiences and SWB were gender-specific.

  • 45.
    Galinha, Iolanda Costa
    et al.
    Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal .
    Pereira, Cicero Roberto
    Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Lisboa, Distrito de Lisboa, Portugal .
    Esteves, Francisco Gomes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. CIS-Centre for Psychological Research and Social Intervention, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisboa, Distrito de Lisboa, Portugal .
    Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Temporal Invariance of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)2013In: Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, ISSN 0102-7972, E-ISSN 1678-7153, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 671-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the structure and the temporal invariance of the Portuguese version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Previous studies are not consensual whether PANAS measures two or three affect factors and whether such factors are independent or correlated. In order to fill in this gap, we compared the original PANAS, as an independent bi-dimensional structure, with several other alternative structures. Two hundred forty five university students and professional trainees answered the questionnaire in two distinct moments with a two month interval. The model of PANAS with a structure of two independent factors, Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA), as proposed by the authors of the scale, was tested. However, the best model consisted of two independent factors, PA and NA, with the cross-loading of the item "excited" between PA and NA, and specified error correlations between the same categories of emotions. Another gap in the literature is the temporal invariance analysis of the PANAS. This paper assesses the temporal invariance of the scale, using the structural equation modeling analysis. Although it was used in its state form version, the PANAS scale showed temporal stability in a two month interval.

  • 46.
    Galinha, Iolanda
    et al.
    Autónoma University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Oishi, Shigehiro
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Pereira, Cicero
    University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Wirtz, Derrick
    East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.
    Esteves, Francisco
    University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    The Role of Personality Traits, Attachment Style, and Satisfaction with Relationships in the Subjective Well-Being of Americans, Portuguese, and Mozambicans2013In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, ISSN 0022-0221, E-ISSN 1552-5422, Vol. 44, p. 416-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits, attachment security, and satisfaction with relationships are each important predictors of subjective well-being (SWB). However, no studies have included these predictors together to analyze the unique contribution of each to SWB. Furthermore, most studies are empirically based in Western/industrialized societies, and few studies include African countries. This article addresses the unique contribution of extroversion, neuroticism, attachment security, and satisfaction with relationships to SWB across three samples of 1,574 university students: 497 from North Carolina (United States of America), 544 from Maputo (Mozambique), and 533 from Lisbon (Portugal). Structural equation modeling analysis showed that in the American sample, emotional stability was a more important predictor of global SWB than satisfaction with relationships. In the Mozambican sample, satisfaction with relationships was far more important as a predictor of SWB than emotional stability. In the Portuguese sample, emotional stability and satisfaction with relationships were equally important predictors of SWB. The main difference between the three samples was the contribution of satisfaction with relationships to SWB. Similarities between the three samples include the low or nonsignificant contributions of extroversion and attachment to SWB, above and beyond the contribution of satisfaction with relationships and neuroticism, suggesting they may be sharing variance in the prediction of SWB.

  • 47. Galinha, Iolanda
    et al.
    Pereira, Cicero
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Versão reduzida da escala portuguesa de afeto positivo e negativo-PANAS-VRP: Análise fatorial confirmatória e invariância temporal2014In: Psicologia, ISSN 0874-2049, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) is a parsimonious scale. However, several authors suggested that a short-version of the scale is useful. In this study, a short version of the Portuguese PANAS (Galinha & Ribeiro, 2005) was developed. The study analyzed the factorial structure and the temporal invariance of the short-version in a two month interval. A sample of 245 graduate students and professional training students was collected and replicated in a two month interval. The new short version of the Portuguese PANAS (PANAS-VRP) was then analyzed in a second sample of 535 university students. Results showed that although the structure of the PANAS-VRP was not the same in both samples of the study (what can be explained by the theoretical framework of the scale), it did show good psychometric properties in both samples. The PANAS-VRP also showed temporal invariance in a two month interval and a strong correlation with the original version of the scale in both samples, suggesting that both versions of the scale are measuring the same constructs.

  • 48.
    Gaspar, Augusta
    et al.
    ISCTE-IUL, Department of Psychology, Lisbon, Portugal .
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. ISCTE-IUL, Department of Psychology, Lisbon, Portugal .
    Preschooler´s faces in spontaneous emotional contexts - how well do they match adult facial expression prototypes?2012In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 348-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototypical facial expressions of emotion, also known as universal facial expressions, are the underpinnings of most research concerning recognition of emotions in both adults and children. Data on natural occurrences of these prototypes in natural emotional contexts are rare and difficult to obtain in adults. By recording naturalistic observations targeted at emotional contexts in day-to-day kindergarten activities, we investigated the spontaneous facial behavior of 3-year-old children in order to explore associations between context and facial activity and verify the degree of matching between the well-known adult prototypes and facial configurations actually produced by children. When taken individually, most facial actions matched those that comprise the respective emotion prototypical face, but full facial configurations with all characteristic facial actions were scarce but for joy.

  • 49. Gaspar, Augusta
    et al.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    On Prototypical Facial Expressions Versus Variation in Facial Behavior: What Have We Learned on the “Visibility” of Emotions from Measuring Facial Actions in Humans and Apes2014In: The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates / [ed] M. Pina & N. Gontier, Springer, 2014, p. 101-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been recognized that behavior evolves as do other traits and that it may have great impact on evolution. It tends to be conservative when survival and fast responding are at stake, and because of that, similar patterns can be found across populations or species, typical in their form and intensity, and often also typical in context and consequence. Such fixed stereotypic patterns that evolved to communicate are known as displays, and their phylogenies can virtually be traced. In this chapter, we contrast and discuss two coexisting trends in the study of the meaning and origins of human facial expression: one, with a tradition of exploring cross-cultural commonalities in the recognition of facial expression, that may indicate species-specific displays of emotion (prototypical facial expressions) and another that builds upon the growing evidence that such expressive prototypes are outnumbered by a diversity of facial compositions that, even in emotional situations, vary in relation to culture, context, group, maturation, and individual factors. We present behavioral studies that look at links between basic emotion and facial actions in both human and non-human primates and discuss the role of multiple factors in facial action production and interpretation.

  • 50.
    Gaspar, Augusta
    et al.
    ISCTE-IUL.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emauz, Ana
    ISCTE-IUL.
    Us humans, them dogs and the others: assessing affective empathy towards humans and other animals from facial expression, using facial EMG2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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