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  • 1. Amenitsch, Hans
    et al.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Khan, Ali
    Marques, Eduardo
    La Mesa, Camilo
    Bile Salts Form Lyotropic Liquid Crystals2003In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 213, no 1, p. 79-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reinvestigation of the phase diagrams relative to some conjugated and non-conjugated bile salts in water has demonstrated the formation of lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, in contradiction with generally accepted statements. The phase behaviour is complex and the phase diagrams are unusual, compared to most surfactants and lipids. In particular, coexistence of liquid crystalline phases with crystals has been observed. The formation of liquid crystalline phases requires very long equilibration times and the thermal stability of the lyotropic phases is moderate. The observed structure is tentatively assumed to be of the reverse hexagonal type. Structural relations with currently accepted models for the organisation of bile salts into micelles and solid form have been found.

  • 2. Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Wassgren, A.-B.
    Anderbrant, O
    Fägerhag, Jonas
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Geri, C
    Auger, M. A.
    Varama, M
    Hansson, B. S.
    Löfqvist, J
    Sex pheromone of the pine sawfly Diprion pini (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae): Chemical identification, synthesis and biological activity1995In: Experientia, ISSN 0014-4754, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 370-380Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Boija, Susanne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Almesåker, Ann
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Determination of conditional stability constants for some divalent transition metal ion-EDTA complexes by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry2014In: Journal of Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 1076-5174, E-ISSN 1096-9888, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 550-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditional stability constants of coordination complexes comprising divalent transition metals, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were determined utilizing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The deviation of signal response of a reference complex was monitored at addition of a second metal ion. The conditional stability constant for the competing metal was then determined through solution equilibria equations. The method showed to be applicable to a system where Co2+ and Zn2+ competed for EDTA at pH 5. When Cu2+ and Ni2+ competed for EDTA, the equilibrium changed over time. This change was shown to be affected in rate and size by the type of organic solvent added. In this work, 30% of either methanol or acetonitrile was used. It was found that if calibration curves are prepared for both metal complexes in solution and the measurements are repeated with sufficient time space, any change in equilibrium of sample solutions will be discovered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 4.
    Bydén Sjöbom, Malin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dependence of Alkyl Chain Asymmetry on the Phase Equilibria of Three Catanionic Surfactant Mixtures Containing Dodecyltrimethylammonium Chloride-Sodium Alkylcarboxylate-Water2002In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, Vol. 18, no 22, p. 8309-8317Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bydén Sjöbom, Malin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Birger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    BinaBinary Phase Equilibria and Structure of the Two α-Methyl-Substituted Surfactants Sodium (R)-2-Methyldecanoate and Racemic Sodium 2-Methyldecanoate ry Phase Exuilibria and Structure of the Chiral α-Methylsubstituted Surfactants Sodium (R)-2-Methyldecanoate and Racemic Sodium 2-Methyldecanoate1999In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 2654-2660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we present the binary phase diagrams for the aqueous systems of the alkyldecanoic salts racemic sodium 2-methyldecanoate and sodium (R)-2-methyldecanoate, respectively. Both systems form a micellar solution phase, as well as a normal hexagonal, a cubic, and a lamellar liquid crystalline phase. They also form a very narrow intermediate phase, situated between the hexagonal and cubic liquid crystalline phases. The methods used for characterization were crossed polaroids, polarizing optical microscope and 2H NMR quadrupolar splittings combined with SAXS studies. The cubic phase gave a well-resolved SAXS diffraction pattern, with eight peaks present, which establishes the bicontinuous cubic structure as Ia3d. A significant difference in these two phase diagrams, compared to those of unsubstituted alkanoates with the same chain length, is the very low Krafft boundary.

  • 6.
    Bydén Sjöbom, Malin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Binary Phase Equilibria of Three alfa-Methylsubstituted Sodium Alkanoate Surfactant Systems.2003In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, Vol. 257, no 2, p. 333-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we continue our study of methyl -substituted surfactants and present the aqueous binary phase diagrams of racemic sodium 2-methyloctanoate, -nonanoate, and -dodecanoate, respectively. All systems have very low Krafft temperatures within the solution phase, between 1 and 4 degreesC. The phase sequences of the two shorter surfactants are very similar to those of the unsubstituted sodium octanoate, although with somewhat different range of existence for the phases formed. The sodium 2-methyldodecanoate system is different from the unsubstituted sodium dodecanoate system, as the former seems to lack a hexagonal phase. The surfactant systems were delineated using H-2 NMR splittings and crossed polarizers, and combined with SAXS for determination of phase structure. 

  • 7.
    Bydén Sjöbom, Malin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Eduardo
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Khan, Ali
    Phase Equilibria of the Mixed Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide-Taurodeoxycholate-Water System with a Large Solution Region.2005In: Colloids and Surfaces, ISSN 0166-6622, E-ISSN 1873-4340, Vol. 269, no 1-3, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase behavior over the entire concentration range for the system didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)-sodium taurodeoxycholate (STDC)-water, at 25 degrees C, has been investigated, with emphasis on the DDAB-rich part. Polarizing microscopy, SAXS, H-2 NMR and H-1 self-diffusion NMR have been used in combination as probing techniques for phase behavior and microstructure. The system forms four major phases, all deriving from the respective binary surfactant systems. The two lamellar phases originating from the binary DDAB-water axis (D-I and D-II, at 3-30 and 83-91 wt.% DDAB, respectively) are only able to incorporate small amounts of STDC. The D-II phase solubilizes a comparatively higher amount of bile salt (up to ca. 6 wt.%), while the D, phase takes up less than 0.25 wt.%. From the STDC-water axis, a solution phase and a "hexagonal-like" liquid crystalline phase are derived, at 0-26 and 37-60 wt.% of STDC, respectively. Heterogeneous regions are also indicated on the basis of NMR and SAXS data. The most striking feature is the large extension of the isotropic solution phase, which originates from the water corner and curves toward the DDAB-rich side of the phase diagram. Even though at the upper limit of the solution phase the amount of water is reduced to 10 wt.%, the measured water and DDAB self-diffusion coefficients exclude the possibility of reverse-type structures.

  • 8. Carlsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Persson, Gerd
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Lindström, Birger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Competition Between Monovalent and Divalent Counterions in a Surfactant / Water System1996In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 180, no 2, p. 598-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competition between mono- and divalent ions in the association of counterions to the headgroups of amphiphiles was studied in one surfactant system with organic counterions (piperidine+/piperazine2+octanesulfonate) and one with inorganic counterions (Na+/Ca2+octyl sulfate). By conductivity and13C NMR chemical shift measurements the critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to decrease drastically when small amounts of divalent counterions were present in the system. Self-diffusion coefficients of surfactant ions and organic counterions were measured in the micellar phase by the Fourier transform pulsed-gradient spin-echo (FT-PGSE) NMR method. The degree of counterion binding in the micellar system with piperidine+/piperazine2+counterions was obtained from FT-PGSE NMR measurements. It was observed that the divalent counterions were more strongly bound than the monovalent counterions. The experimental results were compared with theoretical Poisson–Boltzmann calculations. The cell model was used to study the electrostatic effects. Good agreement between electrostatic theory and experiment was observed; however, an attractive force exists between the monovalent piperidine counterions and the micelle, probably because of hydrophobic interactions.

  • 9.
    Costa, Carolina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Mira, Isabel
    RISE, Stockholm.
    Benjamins, Jan-Willem
    RISE, Stockholm.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Interfacial activity and emulsion stabilization of dissolved cellulose2019In: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 292, article id 111325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some aspects of the interfacial behavior of cellulose dissolved in an aqueous solvent were investigated. Cellulose was found to significantly decrease the interfacial tension (IFT) between paraffin oil and 85 wt% phosphoric acid aqueous solutions. This decrease was similar in magnitude to that displayed by non-ionic cellulose derivatives. Cellulose's interfacial activity indicated a significant amphiphilic character and that the interfacial activity of cellulose derivatives is not only related to the derivatization but inherent in the cellulose backbone. This finding suggests that cellulose would have the ability of stabilizing dispersions, like oil-in-water emulsions in a similar way as a large number of cellulose derivatives. In its molecularly dissolved state, cellulose proved to be able to stabilize emulsions of paraffin in the polar solvent on a short-term. However, long-term stability against drop-coalescence was possible to achieve by a slight change in the amphiphilicity of cellulose, effected by a slight increase in pH. These emulsions exhibited excellent stability against coalescence/oiling-off over a period of one year. Ageing of the cellulose solution before emulsification (resulting in molecular weight reduction) was found to favour the creation of smaller droplets. 

  • 10.
    Duan, Ran
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Foamed Materials from Renewable Sources2014In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 53, no 45, p. 17597-17603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, lightweight biobased foamed materials were successfully synthesized by the modification of renewable polysaccharides, such as starch and microcrystalline cellulose. Low-cost and nontoxic organic acids were utilized as catalysts in the first-step esterification reaction of the synthesis. The effects of different reaction conditions on the water absorbency and weight loss of freeze-casted polysaccharide–citrate–chitosan foams are discussed. Physical properties, such as pore-size distributions and compressive stress–strain curves, of the foams were determined. The characterization results show that the amide bonds formed between the carboxylic acid groups of polysaccharide–citrate and the amino groups of chitosan are crucial to the foamed material’s performance.

  • 11.
    Duan, Ran
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Novel foamed materials from renewable sources2012In: 9th European Conference on Foams, Emulsions and Applications, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Duan, Ran
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    New approaches toward producing foamed materials from renewable sources.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Edlund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Berglund, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jensen, M
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Resolution of 2-Methylalkanoic Acids: Enantioselective Esterification with Long Chain Alcohols Catalysed by Candida rugosa Lipase1996In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 666-671Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Edlund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bydén, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Birger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Khan, Ali
    Phase Equilibria and Structure of the 1-dodecyl Pyridinium Bromide-Dodecane-Water System1998In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 204, no 2, p. 312-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The isothermal ternary phase diagram for the 1-dodecylpyridinium bromide/dodecane/water system was determined at 40°C by 2H NMR and polarizing microscopy methods. Two liquid crystalline phases, a large cubic area and a normal hexagonal phase, and one isotropic normal micellar solution phase were characterized, and their ranges of existence were determined. The micelles were found to be probably small and spherical at lower concentrations of surfactant, and were found to grow at higher concentrations and on addition of oil. The two-phase areas, L1 + H1 and H1 + I, are both very narrow. The comparatively large cubic area, containing 43-63 wt% surfactant and 3-10 wt% dodecane, is probably consistent of more than one structure. SAXS experiments indicate two different structures built of discrete micellar aggregates.

  • 15.
    Edlund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bydén, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Birger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Khan, Ali
    Ternary Phase Equilibria of the 1.dodecyl Pyridinium Bromide-Dodecanol-Water System1997In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 196, no 2, p. 231-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The isothermal ternary phase diagram for the 1-dodecylpyridinium bromide (1-DPB)–water–dodecanol system was determined at 40°C, using2H NMR, polarizing microscopy, and SAXS methods. All of the phases were characterized, and their ranges of existence were determined. The surfactant is easy to dissolve in water, yielding a normal micellar solution phase. After the normal micellar phase, on the binary surfactant–water axis, a normal hexagonal liquid crystalline phase is found at higher surfactant concentrations. On addition of dodecanol, four more phases are formed, i.e. a cubic, a lamellar, and a reverse hexagonal phase, followed by a reverse micellar solution phase. The lamellar liquid crystalline phase dominates the ternary phase diagram. The structures of the liquid crystalline phases were further examined using SAXS measurements, and the results are discussed in terms of the critical packing parameter, cpp, and electrostatic forces. The SAXS experiments show a pronounced swelling of the rods in the hexagonal phase, from 28.5 to 33 Å on addition of dodecanol, whereas the cylindrical aqueous core of the reverse hexagonal phase has a diameter of 18–21 Å, depending on sample composition. The average bilayer thickness of the lamellar phase is about 24 Å.

  • 16.
    Edlund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Khan, A
    La Mesa, C
    Formation of a Liquid Crystalline Phase in the Sodium Taurodeoxycholate-Water System1998In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 14, p. 3691-3697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The binary phase equilibria for the system sodium taurodeoxycholate-water have been studied. The system forms a liquid crystalline phase in addition to the previously known isotropic solution phase at 22 °C. 2H (water) NMR quadrupole splitting, SAXS data in combination with the polarizing microscopic texture observed for the liquid crystal indicate that the liquid crystalline phase consists of a hexagonal-type aggregate structure. A metastable liquid crystal, probably with lamellar-type structure, also appears to exist prior to the formation of the stable hexagonal phase. A micellar growth is measured with the NMR self-diffusion method for the isotropic solution phase. Electrical conductance experiments are used to determine the liquid crystal-solution thermal transition.

  • 17.
    Edlund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Different Types of Aggregation and Aggregate Structures in Aqueous Kraft Lignin Solutions. 2002In: Proceedings. 7th EWLP, 2002, p. 297-300Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 18.
    Edlund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ion Specific Differences in Salt Induced Precipitation of Kraft Lignin2002In: Proceedings 7th EWLP, Turku, Finland, Aug 26–29, 2002, 2002, p. 75-78Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Edlund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sadaghiani, Alireza
    Khan, Ali
    Phase Behaviour and Phase Structure for Catanionic Surfactant Mixtures: DoTAC-SN-Water System1997In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 13, p. 4953-4963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase behavior and phase structure of catanionic surfactant mixtures of DoTAC (dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride) and SN (sodium nonanoate) with water are studied by combined 2H NMR, SAXS, and microscopy techniques at 40 °C. The system forms a large isotropic micellar solution phase with excess water. As the concentration of total surfactant is increased, the solution phase coexists with different liquid crystalline phasesa lamellar phase at equimolar ratio of the two surfactants and hexagonal phases with excess DoTAC and excess SN. The lamellar and hexagonal liquid crystalline phases formed by the binary DoTAC system extensively swell with water on adding the anionic surfactant, and the swelling is more dramatic for the lamellar phase which extends to an equimolar ratio of the two surfactants. The mesophase of the short alkyl chain is incapable of solubilizing any substantial amounts of the long chain DoTAC molecules. SAXS data shows a decrease in bilayer thickness and an unchanged average area per polar group on adding SN into the lamellar phase. For the DoTAC-rich hexagonal phase, the diameter of the cylinder remains unchanged and the average area per polar headgroup is decreased in catanionic mixtures. The 2H NMR quadrupolar splitting values in the hexagonal liquid crystalline phase indicate that the polar headgroups are less extensively hydrated in catanionic mixtures compared to the hydration of the headgroups in the single surfactant systems. The 2H splitting value in the lamellar phase first decreases, going through a zero splitting value, and then the splitting increases again on a continuous decreasing of the total surfactant concentrations. Alkyl chain asymmetry is found to play a dominant role in the formation and stability of aggregates in catanionic surfactant mixtures.

  • 20.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    One-pot synthesis of cellulose-templated copper nanoparticles with antibacterial properties2017In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 187, p. 170-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a facile in situ synthesis of spherical copper nanoparticles (NPs) templated by a gelled cellulose II matrix under alkaline aqueous reaction conditions. In under 20 min, the hybrid material could be obtained in a one-pot reaction. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed that the polycrystalline NPs of 200–500 nm were well distributed in the regenerated cellulose matrix. The average Cu crystallite size was of the order of 20 nm, as estimated from both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FE-SEM. XRD data also indicated that the composite contained up to approximately 20% Cu2O. In suspensions containing the hybrid material, growth of Escerichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains was inhibited by 80% and 95%, respectively, after 72 h. The synthesis procedure offers a general approach to designing various low-cost hybrid materials of almost any shape, and the concept could be extended to utilization areas such as catalysis, functional textiles, and food packaging as well as to electronic applications.

  • 21.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Electrochemical recovery of copper complexed by DTPA and C12-DTPA from aqueous solution using a membrane cell2018In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 1421-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The electrochemical recovery of copper from DTPA and C12-DTPA (a surface-active derivative of DTPA) complex solutions was investigated in a membrane flow cell. Electrolysis time, solution flow rate, applied current density, and solution pH were evaluated.

    RESULTS

    The chelating surfactant C12-DTPA can promote the kinetics of copper electrodeposition more than DTPA depending on the experimental conditions. At a current density of 30 A m–2, a solution flow rate of 0.6 L min–1, and pH 10 after 180 min treatment, the copper recovery and current efficiency were 50% and 43.3%, respectively, in the Cu(II)-DTPA system and about 65% and 53.6%, respectively, in the Cu(II)-C12-DTPA system. The differences in the amount of recovery could be explained in terms of differences in the diffusion of copper complexes with DTPA and C12-DTPA to the cathode, as well as their solution behavior and pH-dependent conditional stability constants (log10 K’CuDTPA3-).

    CONCLUSION

    Electrochemical methods could be effectively combined with foam flotation for the chelating surfactant C12-DTPA, to recover copper and C12-DTPA. This makes the overall treatment more sustainable, and can be helpful in complying with the increasingly stringent environmental regulations

  • 22.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Influences of the operational variables on electrochemical treatment of chelated Cu(II) in alkaline solutions using a membrane cell2017In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 1436-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The electrochemical recovery of copper and chelating agent from their complex solution using a membrane flow cell was investigated. The parameters electrolysis time, solution pH, current density, and temperature were investigated.

    RESULTS

    Electrochemical investigation indicated that chelating ligands can be recovered by the electrodeposition of copper ions on the cathode. For copper and EDTA recovery, the results indicated that recovery efficiency was affected by time, current density, and temperature. The recovery process was not influenced by pH in the range studied (pH 8–12), which can be explained by the low variation in the conditional stability constant, i.e. Δlog10 K' ≤ 0.7, over the pH range. However, when NTA, EDTA, and DTPA were compared, the results indicated that the recovery efficiency decreased as the conditional stability constant of the chelating agent–Cu(II) complex increased. The maximum current efficiency of copper and EDTA recovery after 5 h of treatment was approximately 85%, whereas the recovery was 80% of the initial concentration (0.05 mol L−1) at a current density of 1 A dm−2, temperature of 333 K, and pH of 10.

    CONCLUSION

    Relatively high recovery efficiency makes the process fairly sustainable and hinders the discharge of copper ions and chelating ligands as pollutants into the environment. 

  • 23.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Controlled Synthesis of Cu and Cu2O NPs and Incorporation of Octahedral Cu2O NPs in Cellulose II Films2018In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized through chemical reduction of soluble copper-chelating ligand complexes using formaldehyde as a reducing agent. The influence of various chelating ligands, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and a surface-active derivative of DTPA (C12-DTPA), as well as surfactants (i.e., hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DoTAC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and dimethyldodecylamine-N-oxide (DDAO)), on morphology and the composition of produced NPs was investigated. In the absence of surfactants, spherical copper particles with polycrystalline structure could be obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that, in the presence of EDTA, the synthesized NPs are mainly composed of Cu with a crystallite size on the order of 35 nm, while with DTPA and C12-DTPA, Cu2O is also present in the NPs as a minority phase. The addition of ionic surfactants to the copper–EDTA complex solution before reduction resulted in smaller spherical particles, mainly composed of Cu. However, when DDAO was added, pure Cu2O nano-octahedrons were formed, as verified by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) and XRD. Furthermore, a hybrid material could be successfully prepared by mixing the octahedral Cu2O NPs with cellulose dissolved in a LiOH/urea solvent system, followed by spin-coating on silica wafers. It is expected that this simple and scalable route to prepare hybrid materials could be applied to a variety of possible applications.

  • 24.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Svanedal, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    On chelating surfactants: Molecular perspectives and application prospects2019In: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 278, p. 688-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chelating agents, molecules that very strongly coordinates certain metal ions, are used industrially as well as in consumer products to minimize disturbances and increase performance of reactions and applications. The widely used sequestering agents, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) belong to this branch of readily water-soluble compounds. When these chemical structures also have hydrophobic parts, they are prone to adsorb at air-water interfaces and to self-assemble. Such bifunctional molecules can be called chelating surfactants and will have more extended utilization prospects than common chelating agents or ordinary ionic surfactants. The present review attempts to highlight the fundamental behavior of chelating surfactants in solution and at interfaces, and their very specific interactions with metal ions. Methods to recover chelating surfactants from metal chelates are also described. Moreover, utilization of chelating surfactants in applications for metal removal in environmental engineering and mineral processing, as well as for metal control in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics, is exemplified and discussed.

  • 25.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Tejera, Javier
    Chemical Engineering Department, Complutense University of Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Svanedal, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Blanco, Angeles
    Chemical Engineering Department, Complutense University of Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Removal of Cd2+, Zn2+, and Sr2+ by Ion Flotation, Using a Surface-Active Derivative of DTPA (C12-DTPA)2017In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 56, no 38, p. 10605-10614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion flotation was studied for the removal of cadmium, zinc, and strontium ions from aqueous solutions at pH 5–9 in a customized flotation cell, using an aminopolycarboxylic chelating surfactant, 2-dodecyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (C12-DTPA) in combination with two foaming agents: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DoTAC) and dimethyldodecylamine-N-oxide (DDAO). The results from experiments showed that both Zn2+ and Cd2+ could be removed via ion flotation to 100% at pH 5, and Sr2+ could be removed via ion flotation to 60%–70% at pH 7–9. The removal of metal ions from the flotation cell was seen to vary with pH, but this was not exclusively related to the magnitudes of the formed metal ion-chelating surfactant conditional stability constants. The removal was also dependent on the foam properties of the samples that were found to vary over the investigated pH interval. The outcome of the investigation points to the chelating surfactant C12-DTPA having excellent chelating properties for all of the studied ions above pH 7. In combination with correctly chosen foaming agents, the optimized surfactant system could be expected to provide very efficient remediation of waters polluted with metal ions via ion flotation.

  • 26.
    Engqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andreasson, B
    Karlsson, O
    Lund University.
    Interactions between single latex particles and silica surfaces studied with AFM2007In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 302, no 1-3, p. 197-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spreading of single styrene-acrylic latex particles on silicon oxide surfaces was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three latexes with different glass transition temperature (Tg) were used and the effects of temperature, time and preparation method were investigated. Particle sizes and shape were measured with AFM and the contact angles were calculated. The observed rate for the spreading of latex particles was low and it took several days before the particles reached steady state, even at temperatures well above their Tg. The experimental particle spreading results deviated with two orders of magnitude from predictions using the WLF equation for polymer diffusion. The deviation could be attributed to polymer-surface interactions that slowed down the particle spreading. The work of adhesion was calculated using two models. The results from using the regular Young-Dupré equation and a modified version of this equation that also included the mechanical properties (E-modulus and Poisson�s ratio) of the latexes, were compared. For soft latex particles the results from the two models agreed well and were of the order of 75 J/m2, but for glassy latexes the Young-Dupré equation underestimated the work of adhesion.

  • 27.
    Halvarsson, Sören
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Manufacture of High-Performance Rice-Straw Fiberboards2010In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 1428-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rice straw, a waste agriculture material grown and harvested in Willows, CA, was used,is a raw material in the production of thin medium- and high-density fiberboards (MDFs and HDFs). The rice straw was cleaned, size-reduced, and soaked in water before being refined. Defibration was performed in it pressurized pilot-plant single-disk refiner, OHP 20". The fiber production capacity reached a level of 63 kg/h. and the proper fiber quality for MDF/HDF production was established. Analysis of the produced fiber showed an average fiber length of approximately 0.9 mm, in average fiber width of 31 mu m, a shive weight of below 24%, and a dust content of less than 30%. Production of fiberboards was performed by addition of 3%, 4%, and 5% methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The flexural properties, internal bond strength, and thickness swelling of the produced fiberboards were evaluated according to ASTM methods. The finished fiberboards based on rice straw and MDI resin showed excellent properties. The internal bond (IB) reached levels of 2.6 MPa, and the modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) showed levels comparable to those of wood-based fiberboards and were acceptable according to the requirements or medium-density fiberboard (MDF) for interior applications (American National Standards Institute, ANSI A208.2-2002). The water-repelling properties of the 3-min rice-straw fiberboards were encouraging; the thickness swelling, (TS) was in the range of 15-30%. Two different methods to avoid adhesion between the press plates and the resinated fiber material during hot pressing were investigated: protective paper sheets were placed between the fiber mat and press plates, or a press-release agent was sprayed oil steel plates that were then placed ill the press before pressing Satisfactory results were obtained with both methods, and no adhesion was observed between the fiberboard and the steel plates. The method of using press-release agent during pressing had no notable negative effects oil the fiberboard properties.

  • 28.
    Halvarsson, Sören
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Manufacture of non-resin wheat straw fibreboards2009In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 29, no 2-3, p. 437-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat straw was used as raw material in the production of fibreboards. The size-reduced straw was pretreated with steam, hot water and sulphuric acid before the defibration process to loosen its physical structure and reduce the pH. No synthetic binder was added. Adhesive bonding between fibres was initiated by activation of the fibre surfaces by an oxidative treatment during the defibration process. Fenton’s reagent (ferrous chloride and hydrogen peroxide) was added. Two different levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 2.5% or 4.0% were used. The resulting fibres were characterized in terms of fibre length distribution, shive content, pH and pH-buffering capacity. The properties of finished fibreboards were compared with medium-density fibreboard (MDF) with density above 800 kg/m3 produced from straw and melamine modified UF resin. The modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and internal bond (IB) were lower than those of conventional manufactured wheat straw fibreboards but close to the requirements of the MDF standard (EN 622-5: 2006). The water absorption properties for the H2O2 activated straw fibreboards were relatively high, but were reduced by 25% with the addition of CaCl2 into the defibrator system as a water-repelling agent. Increased levels of hydrogen peroxide improved the mechanical and physical properties of the straw fibreboard.

  • 29.
    Halvarsson, Sören
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Properties of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) based on Wheat straw and Melamine Modified Urea Formaldehyde (UMF) Resin2008In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat straw was investigated as a raw material for manufacturing of medium density fibreboard (MDF) in a fully equipped pilot-plant. Commercial urea melamine formaldehyde (UMF) and a mixture of UMF-resin and urea melamine phenol formaldehyde (UMPF) adhesives were used as binders in manufacturing of high performance MDF. The study evaluated the quality of MDF produced of straw (i.e., SMDF). Different qualities of wheat straw and different resin contents (14–17%) were used. Moreover, the SMDF was produced at different thicknesses of 9 and 16 mm and densities of 750–1000 kg/m3. The properties of the resulting SMDF were evaluated by analysing mechanical and water absorption (anti-swelling) properties as a function of density. Internal bond (IB), modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), thickness swelling (TS), and water absorption (WABS) were the properties analysed. SMDF-panels produced with densities above 780 kg/m3 and resin contents above 14% met the requirements for wood-based MDF standard EN 622-5:1997.

  • 30.
    Halvarsson, Sören
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wheat straw as raw material for manufacture of medium density fiberboard (MDF)2010In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1215-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat straw was used to produce medium-density fiberboard (MDF). The chemical and physical characteristics of fractionated size-reduced wheat straw were investigated. The pH, pH-buffering capacity, ash, and silicon content increased as wheat straw particle size decreased. Ash of the finest straw, <0.2 mm, had high ash (15%) and silicon (18%) contents. The outer and inner parts of size-reduced straw were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs revealed a complex ultrastructure containing a notable portion of thin-walled cells approximately 1 mu m thick. Pressurized defibration of size-reduced wheat straw produced lignocellulosic fibers nearly 1.0 mm long combined with approximately 24% of small particles and dust. The high water uptake of straw-based MDF was significantly reduced using melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin and removing wheat straw particles and dust by screening. UF resin was added at levels of 12.5%, 13.1%, and 14%. In terms of water resistance, 12-mm-thick straw MDF displayed thickness swelling below 10%, acceptable according to the EN 622-5 MDF standards. It was concluded that manufacturing wheat straw MDF entails straw size reduction (hammer-milling), removing small particles and dust, and adding melamine-modified UF resin to attain necessary MDF quality standards.

  • 31.
    Halvarsson, Sören
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Manufacturing of fiber composite Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) based on annual plant fiber and Urea Formaldehyde Resin2004In: Proceedings of ICECFOP1: 1st International Conference on Environmentally-Compatible Forest Products, EDICOES UNIV FERNANDO PESSOA , 2004, p. 131-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of fiber composite materials such as Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) and particleboard (PB) is in general based on wood as a raw material. However, cereal straws and other annual agriculture waste materials have regained an interest as a potential raw material for production of MDF. The cereal straws are among the most common lignocellulosic materials that are easily accessible, non-expensive and renewable. The aim of this investigation was to produce high performance MDF based on wheat straw and urea formaldehyde (UF) resin. The usage of UF-resin for wheat straw MDF-panels has so far resulted in acceptable strength properties but poor moisture resistance and thickness swelling (TS). Application of melamine modified UF-resin for wood based MDF has improved the moisture resistance of produced MDF panels. In this investigation two commercial melamine modified UF-resins were used as binders (adhesives) in the production of wheat straw MDF. Hammer milled wheat straw was treated with water and sulfuric acid (0.6 %) before refining. The reason was to improve the curing, conditions of the UF-resins by a reduction of the pH and the pH-buffering capacity of refined wheat straw fiber. Refining of wheat straw was performed at slightly lower pressure and retention time compared with refining of wood material. However, a lot of fines and dust (wheat straw fibers < 0.5 mm) were generated during refining. A hi-h resin content of the melamine modified UF-resin was necessary (15 %) to compensate for the high ratio of wheat straw fines and dust. Final panel properties of wheat straw MDF could meet the requirements of the MDF standard (EN 622-5:1997), including the TS. Strength properties as internal bond (IB) and modulus of rupture (MOR) were increased as a function of density. Thickness swelling was reduced as a function of density. The usage of wheat straw as a raw material in combination with a melamine modified UF-resin, as an adhesive, is a possible route for manufacturing of high performance Medium Density Fiberboard.

  • 32.
    Halvarsson, Sören
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Manufacturing of Non-Resin Wheat Straw MDF/HDF2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat straw was used as raw material in production of medium density fibreboard (MDF) and high-density fibreboard (HDF). The straw fibreboard process was performed without addition of synthetic binders. Adhesive bonding between fibers was initiated by activation of the fibre surfaces by an oxidative pre-treatment in the defibration process. Hydrogen peroxide was added into the blowline to get a fast and effective process. Adhesive bonding between the activated fibres were later formed when pressing. The fiber quality and pH and pH buffering capacity was analysed at different hydrogen peroxide loadings. The effects of mechanical and physical properties of the non-resin wheat straw MDF/HDF were evaluated. Mechanical bending properties, Modulus of Rupture (MOR), Modulus of Elasticity (MOE), and Internal Bond (IB) were generally lower than conventional wood-based MDF/HDF but close to the requirements of the MDF-standard. Modulus of Elongation (MOE) was surprisingly high and exceeded the levels in the MDF-standard. Moreover, the thickness swelling of the non-resin wheat straw MDF was high but was reduced by the addition of a hydrophobic agent (metallic ion). Increased level of hydrogen peroxide improved the panel properties and the usage of the hydrophobic agent reduced the thickness swelling.

  • 33.
    Halvarsson, Sören
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Processing of Wheat Straw Materials for Production of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) 2005In: 59th Appita Annual Conference, Aukland, New Zealand 16-19 May 2005, Brunswick East Victoria 3057, Australia: New Genaration Print & Copy , 2005, p. 623-629Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat straw waste materials were processed in a fully equipped pilot-scale MDF-process. Hammermilled wheat straw was used as a raw material in combination with a commercial melamine modified Urea Formaldehyde (UF) resin. Approximately 15 wt % of the wheat straw particles smaller than 0.7 mm was removed in a sifting operation. Medium density fiberboard was produced in the range of 790 to 860 kg/m3 average densities and at a resin content of 12.5, 13.1 and 14 wt %. The panels produced were approved according to the European Standard for MDF (EN 622-5:1997). Four different wheat straw fractions were investigated and sifted at 1.0 mm, 0.6 mm and 0.2 mm screen hole diameter, including the fine particles less than 0.2 mm. The ash content of the four wheat straw fractions varied between 7 wt % and 15 wt %. The maximum level of ash (15 wt %) was observed for the finest particle fraction based on materials less than 0.2 mm. The silicone (Si) content in corresponding ash samples of the sifted wheat straw was analysed by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis, EDX. The silicone content increased from 18 % to 24 % at a reduced particle size. Moreover, the pH-buffering capacity of the four wheat straw fractions was reduced as the particle size of the specific fractions was increased.

  • 34.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Berglund, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fägerhag, Jonas
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundh, Mårten
    Nordin, Ove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Servi, S
    Vörde, Carin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Biocatalysis As A Useful Tool In Pheromone Synthesis: Enantiomerically Pure Building-Blocks From Bakers-Yeast Reductions And Enzyme-Catalyzed Resolutions1994In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 591-606Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Berglund, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Water Activity Influences Enantioselectivity in a Lipase Catalysed Resolution by Esterification in an Organic Solvent1993In: Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, ISSN 0957-4166, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 2123-2126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Högberg, Ida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    The Interaction Parameter in Binary Surfactant Mixtures of a Chelating Surfactant and a Foaming Agent.2010In: TRENDS IN COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE XXIV, Berlin: Springer, 2010, 138, p. 17-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The micellisation in binary mixed surfactant systems of a chelating surfactant and a foaming agent has been studied by surface tension measurements in order to calculate the interaction parameter (beta). 2-dodecyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, 4-C(12)-DTPA, is an amphoteric chelating surfactant applicable for removing disturbing metal ions from industrial processes, or for heavy metal decontamination of soil or leachate. 4-C(12)-DTPA contains multiple donor atoms and forms very stable coordination complexes with metal ions. The metal complexes can easily be recovered from water by flotation, if the foaming is enhanced by a foaming agent with strong interactions to the chelating surfactant. Two foaming agents were examined, one cationic and one anionic. As expected, strong interactions were found between the negatively charged 4-C(12)-DTPA and the cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride, DTAC. The influence of metal ion chelation, as well as pH, on the interaction parameter was also investigated.

  • 37.
    Högberg, Ida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Wikman, Bengt
    SCA Rand D Centre, Box 716, SE-851 21 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Brightness development of a hydrogen peroxide bleached spruce TMP. Comparisons of pre-treatments with DTPA and a separable chelating surfactant2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation a new type of recoverable complexing agent (chelating surfactant) has been compared with a conventional complexing agent; diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), in the metal ion sequestering of thermomechanical pulps (TMP) to be hydrogen peroxide bleached. After different degrees of washing of the pulps, bleaching experiments at different total alkali charges were performed with and without sodium silicate additions, and the ISO brightness of hand-made sheets was measured. The residual hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching liquor was also determined. No significant difference in either the brightness development or the residual hydrogen peroxide content could be detected between the pulps treated with equivalent molar ratios of the different complexing agents. Furthermore, the recovery of the chelating surfactant-manganese complexes from laboratory made white water by froth flotation was also studied. Two different foaming agents; sodium dodecyl sulphonate (SDS) and dimethyldodecylamine oxide (DDAO), were tested in the froth generation. After an addition of 160 ppm of DDAO, more than 80% of the manganese chelates could be recovered in the foam, containing 3% of the initial water mass.

  • 38.
    Högberg, Ida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wikman, Bengt
    SCA R&D, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Use of chelating surfactants as complexing agents for removal of manganese from mechanical pulp fibres prior to hydrogen peroxide bleaching.2011In: 16th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry - Proceedings, ISWFPC / [ed] Wang, L.; Kuang, S.; Hou, Q.; Cao, C.;Si, C.; Zhang, H., Tianjin: China Light Industry Press , 2011, p. 682-686Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation a new type of recoverable complexing agent (chelating surfactant) has been compared with a conventional complexing agent (DTPA) in the metal ion management of thermomechanical pulps (TMP) to be hydrogen peroxide bleached. After different degrees of washing of the pulps, bleaching experiments at different total alkali charges were performed with and without sodium silicate additions, and the ISO brightness of hand-made sheets was measured. The residual hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching liquor was also determined. No significant difference in either the brightness development or the residual hydrogen peroxide content could be detected between the pulps treated with equivalent molar ratios of the different complexing agents. Furthermore, the recovery of the surfactant-manganese complexes from laboratory made white water by foam flotation was also studied. Two different foaming agents, SDS and DDAO, were tested. After an addition of 160 ppm of the latter surfactant, about 80% of the manganese chelates could be recovered in the foam, containing 3% of the initial water mass.

  • 39.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem
    Stockholm University.
    Verho, Oscar
    Stockholm University.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Olsén, Peter
    Stockholm University.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Johnston, Eric V.
    Sigrid Therapeutics, Universitetsvägen 8 (Villa Bellona), Stockholm.
    Copper Nanoparticles on Controlled Pore Glass and TEMPO for the Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols2018In: ChemNanoMat, ISSN 2199-692X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 71-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we report on the facile synthesis of a heterogeneous copper nanocatalyst and its combination with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds. This low cost copper nanocatalyst was found to exhibit excellent recyclability, making it a highly attractive catalytic system from an economical and environmental point of view. Extensive characterization of the catalyst by a number of techniques revealed that it was comprised of well-dispersed Cu(I/II) nanoparticles with an average size of around 6nm.

  • 40.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Karlsson, Ola
    Changes with aging in the surface hydrophobicity of coated paper2010In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 40-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-dependent changes in the surface properties of coated papers were studied as the evolution of surface hydrophobicity of laboratory and commercially coated papers. We measured the apparent contact angles on the papers during several weeks post-production. Hydrophobicity upon aging increased for all samples made from traditional coating colors on mechanical base stock and on base stock made from cotton linters. Accelerated aging by heat treatment intensified the increase of the apparent contact angles and accelerated the time-dependent behavior. A key mechanism in these changes may be the spreading of latex particles in a coating.

  • 41.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ola. J.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Notley, Shannon M.
    Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The adhesive behavior of extracted Latex polymers towards Silicon oxide and Cellulose2013In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 44, p. 250-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective with this work is to compare the adhesive behavior for latex polymers of different Glass transition Temperatures (Tg) at different length scales and with different contact times. This is accomplished by two techniques: AFM colloidal probe force measurements and JKR-measurements. The aim is to compare the results from these two techniques and relate them to the interaction of the latex polymers towards oxidized silicon wafers and silica/cellulose probes. Theory suggests that altering the short timeframes used in the colloidal probe technique does not affect the ranking of the adhesion for the different polymers, but for the macroscopic JKR-technique it influences the measured work of adhesion. It is therefore important to let the system reach a steady state before assuming complete spreading and adhesion. AFM and JKR measurements showed the same trends where the polymer with lowest content of styrene has the lowest Tg and the highest adhesion, due to the larger polymer chain mobility.

  • 42.
    Lindman, Björn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Lunds Universitet.
    Medronho, Bruno
    University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Alves, Luís
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Costa, Carolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    The relevance of structural features of cellulose and its interactions to dissolution, regeneration, gelation and plasticization phenomena2017In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, no 35, p. 23704-23718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer and a very important renewable resource. Since cellulose cannot be shaped by melting, a major route for its use for novel materials, new chemical compounds and renewable energy must go via the solution state. Investigations during several decades have led to the identification of several solvents of notably different character. The mechanisms of dissolution in terms of intermolecular interactions have been discussed from early work but, even on fundamental aspects, conflicting and opposite views appear. In view of this, strategies for developing new solvent systems for various applications have remained obscure. There is for example a strong need for using forest products for higher value materials and for environmental and cost reasons to use water-based solvents. Several new water-based solvents have been developed recently but there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanisms. Here we wish to address the most important mechanisms described in the literature and confront them with experimental observations. A broadened view is helpful for improving the current picture and thus cellulose derivatives and phenomena such as fiber dissolution, swelling, regeneration, plasticization and dispersion are considered. In addition to the matter of hydrogen bonding versus hydrophobic interactions, the role of ionization as well as some applications of new knowledge gained are highlighted.

  • 43.
    Lundberg, Mathias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. PulpEye AB.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Crill Measurements For Improved Fines Material Control2018In: IMPC 2018, Trondheim, Norway, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the characterization method that best matches the pulping process is crucial in enabling the monitoring and control of pulp and final-product properties. Control of optimal process parameters in the production line are thus dependent on reliable and valid results. The Crill method is an analogue method based on the relationship between the interactions of lights of two different wavelengths (UV and IR) with the particles in the pulp. By comparing the specific UV and IR surfaces, the crill value is calculated. The crill method has been used in two studies with the aims to validate the crill measurement in a high yield pulping (HYP) process by focusing on refining and control of crill value of different pulp streams. The results indicate that the crill method can be used to monitor fibre treatment in refining processes. Moreover, by controlling pulp streams with regards to crill value, improvements of pulp strength and retention on the paper machine (PM) can be achieved.

  • 44.
    Lundberg, Mathias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. PulpEye AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Validation of crill measurements in a high-yield pulp refining process for improved fines material control2018In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 200-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In high-yield pulp (HYP) refining, fine material is created by peeling action on the fibre surface. This fine material is usually characterized using conventional camera technology and image analysis. The smallest particles, the crill, also created in the refining process are too small to be visible in a camera image, and are therefore measured using light sources in the UV and IR wavelength spectrum. This research sought to determine whether the crill could be characterized in the presence of large fines material in a HYP refining process, and the results indicated that the larger fines material had little impact. In addition, the variation in crill measurements declined as the fibre treatment increased and remained low and stable during an extended period. Due to the great need to monitor and control pulp processes using rapid online measurements, cost-reduction actions at mills running close to specification targets put high demands on the measuring devices characterizing the production. The outcome of this study enables the use of the crill method to improve our knowledge of fibre treatment and its contribution to fibre adhesion in complex refining processes. Finally, combining conventional camera technology and the crill method could improve the overall fines material control.

  • 45. Marques, Eduardo F.
    et al.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    La Mesa, Camilo
    Khan, Ali
    Liquid Crystals and Phase Equilibria Binary Bile Salt-Water Systems2000In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 5178-5186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase behavior of several binary sodium bile salt-water systems is investigated over the entire concentration range, with emphasis on concentrated regions beyond the isotropic solution phase. The studied bile acid salts comprise the free salt sodium deoxycholate (SDC), the taurine conjugates sodium taurocholate (STC), sodium taurodeoxycholate (STDC), and sodium taurochenodeoxycholate (STCDC) and the glycine conjugate sodium glycodeoxycholate (SGDC). A combination of classical techniques is used, including phase diagram determination, polarizing microscopy, 2H NMR, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The aggregation behavior in the isotropic micellar solutions of STC and STDC is also investigated by pulsed-field gradient NMR self-diffusion. The optical textures and the data from SAXS and 2H NMR clearly point to the formation of hexagonal liquid crystals, possibly of the reverse type, beyond the micellar solution for all the bile salts. Several unusual kinetic effects, such as very slow equilibration times and the formation of transient spherulitic crystals in biphasic regions, are observed. The phase diagrams and structural data are qualitatively discussed in terms of the molecular structure and solubility of the different salts. The formation of lyotropic liquid crystals by bile salts, which has remained unknown for decades, is clearly demonstrated in this work.

  • 46. Marques, Eduardo
    et al.
    Regev, Oren
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Khan, Ali
    Micelles, Dispersions and Liquid Crystals in the Catanionic Mixture Bile Salt-Double-Chained Surfactant. The Bile Salt-Rich Area2000In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, Vol. 16, no 22, p. 8255-8262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase behavior and phase structure for the catanionic pair sodium taurodeoxycholate - didodecyl-dimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) are investigated, at 25 degreesC. A combination of techniques is used including light and electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and pulsed field gradient NMR self-diffusion. The bile salt micellar solution incorporates large amounts of the double-chained amphiphile, with the solution region extending to equimolarity. On the contrary, the hexagonal liquid-crystalline phase is destabilized by the addition of small amounts of DDAB. At equimolarity, coacervation instead of precipitation is observed, with formation of a viscous isotropic solution and a very dilute one. In the water-rich part of the phase diagram, a peculiar type of phase separation occurs, involving the formation of very fine bluish dispersions and a region of coexistence of two dispersions (double dispersion region). Microscopy and self-diffusion data for the solution region indicate limited growth of the mixed micelles. Large domains in which the micellar structure appears to be maintained are imaged in the bluish dispersions by electron microscopy. No other type of aggregate such as vesicles or precipitates is observed in the dilute bile salt-rich area of this mixture.

  • 47.
    Medronho, B.
    et al.
    University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Filipe, A.
    University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Costa, Carolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Romano, A.
    University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Microrheology of novel cellulose stabilized oil-in-water emulsions2018In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 531, no 1 December 2018, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) is a powerful optical technique suitable to investigate turbid samples in a nondestructive and reproducible way, providing information on the static and dynamic properties of the system. This includes the relative displacement of emulsion droplets over time and changes in the viscoelastic properties. Here, novel and promising cellulose-based oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were prepared and studied, for the first time, by DWS. Cellulose plays the role of a novel eco-friendly emulsifying agent. The hydrolysis time of cellulose was observed to affect the average size of the emulsion droplets and their stability; the longer the hydrolysis time, the more dispersed and stable the emulsions were found to be. Additionally, a good complementarity between the microrheology (DWS) and macrorheology (mechanical rheometer) data was found. Our work suggests that DWS is a highly attractive method to investigate the stability, aging and microrheology properties of cellulose-based emulsions, providing valuable insights on their microstructure. This technique is thus highly appealing for the characterization and design of novel emulsion formulations.

  • 48.
    Norgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ion Specific Differences in Salt Induced Precipitation of Kraft Lignin2003In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 400-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin (KL) precipitation, measured as turbidity, in alkaline solutions (pH = 10.5) at 70 'C in presence of various salts was investigated. Special concern was devoted to study ion specific effects on KL from monovalent cations and anions belonging to the so-called Hofmeister or lyotropic series. Thus, in the study the stability of KL solutions containing different inorganic and organic anions as well as various quaternary ammonium bromides were tested. In the case of inorganic anions, C1 and Br induced a higher degree of KL precipitation compared to NO, and SCN . The effects of the two tested sodium uronates were found to diverge and, on a short time-scale, galacturonate showed a better KL stabilizing capacity than C' . The influence of various tetraalkyl ammonium bromides was compared with the effects of different alkali metal bromides. As the length of the alkyl chain was increased the KL stability was found to be decreasing. However, at equal concentrations, (CH,),NBr was found to induce a lower degree of KL precipita- tion than NaBr. From the outcome of the investigation it can be seen that the effects of different cations on KL precipitation follows the mutual order stated by the classical Hofmeister series, whereas the anionic effect has a reversed correspondence.

  • 49.
    Norgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Ion specific differences in salt induced precipitation of kraft lignin2002Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Norgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Lignin: Recent advances and emerging applications2014In: Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, ISSN 1359-0294, E-ISSN 1879-0399, Vol. 19, p. 409-416Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on the recent advances on the physical chemistry of lignin. Emerging trends of incorporating lignin in promising future applications such as controlled release, saccharification of lignocelluloses, bioplastics, composites, nanoparticles, adsorbents and dispersants, in electro-chemical applications and carbon fi bers, arealso reviewed. We briefl y describe the complexity of the lignin structure that influences the solution behavior, both as a macromolecule and a col loid, as well as the potential of being a renewable precursor in the development of high-value applications. Special attention is paid on summarizing the present knowledge on lignin colloidalstability and surface chemistry.

12 1 - 50 of 77
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