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  • 1. Bildt, Carina
    et al.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fjell, Ylva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Arbetsmiljöutveckling inom offentlig sektor - Friskare arbetsplatser i Jämtlands län2005In: Arbetsliv i omvandling, ISSN 1404-8426, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Björk, Annette
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rönngren, Ylva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Selander, John
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hellzen, Ove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Perspectives on Everyday Suffering among People with Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Concurrent Mental Disorders2017In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 7, p. 583-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of everyday suffering among adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid mental disease. Directed content analysis guided by Eriksson’s theory on human suffering was performed on data from 20 individual interviews. Expressions of both suffering and well-being were identified; the former centred on loneliness and related to life, illness, and care, which supported Eriksson’s theory, whereas expressions of well-being related to ADHD diagnosis and supportive social relationships. Nevertheless, results indicate the need to expand those expressions in order to better contribute to developing a supportive rehabilitation regimen that can provide more interpersonal care.

  • 3.
    Björk, Annette
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rönngren, Ylva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Selander, John
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. County Council of Västernorrland, Sundsvall.
    Health, lifestyle habits, and physical fitness among adults with ADHD compared with a random sample of a Swedish general population2018In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 9, no 1, article id UNSP 1553916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persons with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) represent a high-risk population according to health and lifestyles. In the present study, 48 adults with ADHD were recruited to a forthcoming lifestyle intervention. The ADHD sample was matched to a random sample of 42 persons from a Swedish general population that was selected from LIV (a Lifestyle-Performance-Health project).

    Objective: To identify potential differences in health, lifestyle habits, and physical fitness between adults with and without ADHD.

    Method: Self-reported questionnaires and physical fitness tests.

    Results: The ADHD group show worse health outcomes with higher odds ratios for bad general health (OR;13 CI; (3,4–50)), and poorer lifestyle habits with higher odds ratios for low weekly exercise (OR; 3,8 CI; (1,2–13)). When adjusting for education, employment status, and cash margin, the ADHD sample did not show decreased aerobic fitness (OR; 0,9 CI; (0,8–1,0), but lower odds ratios for doing less sit-ups (OR; 0,6 CI; (0,4–0,9)) compared to the general population group.

    Conclusion: It is not possible to prove that the ADHD diagnosis itself cause the worse health and lifestyle. Other lifestyle factors may have negative consequences of adult ADHD, such as lower levels of education, less succeed in working life, and minor financial margins.

  • 4.
    Gelin, Gunnar
    et al.
    Daphne Research.
    Vinberg, Stig
    National Institute of Working Life, Östersund, Sweden.
    Networks, ICT-levels and work conditions as determinants of developmental processes in SMEs2000In: Proceedings NES-2000 - At the gateway to Cyberspace - ergonomic thinking in a new millenium / [ed] Knut Inge Fostervold och Tor Endestad, 2000, p. 181-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how social networks and ICT-structures in combination mayinfluence and set conditions for work environment/work organisation changeprocesses in small and medium sized enterprises. To begin with an integrativemodel is presented, followed by some empirical illustrations from an ongoingresearch and development project including about sixty small enterprises in thenorthern part of Norway and Sweden. An underlying theme is that many workplace change processes are context specific: goals, how the processes aremanaged, and participation tend to differ between different company types.

  • 5.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    CHESS, Stockholms universitet.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The gender time gap: Time use among self-employed women and men compared to paid employees in Sweden2019In: Time & Society, ISSN 0961-463X, E-ISSN 1461-7463, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 680-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors set out to study the time use of men and women in Sweden, comparing self-employed and employed individuals. Previous studies indicate that there are reasons to believe that both gendered time use and mechanisms related to time use might differ between the self-employed and employees. Employing time use data, the aim was to study whether there are differences in gendered time use between self-employed individuals and employees in Sweden, and furthermore, which mechanism relates to gendered time use among self-employed individuals and employees. The results show that self-employed men and women distribute their time in a more gender-traditional manner than employees. In addition, relative resources are found to be an important factor related to gendered time use among the self-employed. For employees, gender relations tend to be a mechanism related to gendered time use. The conclusion is that working conditions are important for gendered time use and should be considered in future studies.

  • 6.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    CHESS, Stockholm University.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Time strain among employed and self employed women and men in Sweden2015In: Society, Health & Vulnerability, ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 6, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual-earner families are common in Sweden, and most women are involved in the labour market. It has been shown that employees and self-employed individuals perceive their working conditions differently: self-employed individuals are more likely to experience an imbalance between work and family, higher job demands, and the feeling that they must be ‘‘always on.’’ Thus, there may also be a difference between employees and self-employed individuals in terms of perceived time strain. Previous studies have identified differences in time-use patterns among men and women who are employed and self-employed. This study uses time-use data to examine potential gender differences among men and women who are self-employed and those who are employees with regard to time strain effects related to time spent on paid and unpaid work in Sweden. The results show that self-employed individuals, particularly self-employed women, report the highest levels of time strain. For self-employed women, an increase in the time spent on paid work reduces perceived time strain levels, whereas the opposite is true for employees and self-employed men. It is primarily individual and family factors, and not time use, that are related to time strain. The results provide evidence that gender differences in time strain are greater among self-employed individuals than among employees.

  • 7.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The leader identity - a means to experience conflict and constructing balance2018In: Gender, Work and Organisation International Interdisciplinary Conference ABSTRACTS BOOKLET, 13-16 JUNE 2018, 2018, p. 120-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature shows that self-employed individuals seem to experience more conflict between work and family demands than employees but variation is great, especially among self-employed men and women. For instance, studies suggest that women chooses self-employment as a strategy to balance work and family while men uses self-employment as a way to find employment and earnings. Many self-employed individuals describe a feeling of being always on. Self-employment is closely related to masculine values giving emphasis to long work hours and high job demands. Self-employment is an identity and impede men and women to draw a line between work and private life. It is often argued that this is not a problem in the Nordic countries because of high gender equality. However, quantitative data shows rather the opposite.Sparse literature suggest that both men and women use self-employment as a way to ease conflict between work and family. In recent years the concept of work-life enrichment has grown as an explanation how one role can improve quality in other roles easing conflicts. Research suggest that high job control for self-employed men and women eases conflict demand and perhaps create enrichment.In this study, we analyzed interview data from managers in 18 small scale enterprises (SSE), of which 8 were women and 10 men, in the central regions of Norway and Sweden aiming to gain a deeper understanding of how they men and women construct and relate to work and private life in their role as managers of SSEs.Preliminary results show that self-employed men and women narrate a strong identification in their leader identity resulting in a duality in relation to work and family. We identify that interviewees describe that conflict seams to part of the deal of being a leader. They describe how the strong leader identity legitimate a high level of conflict among both men and women. This is in line with the notion that self-employment builds on masculine values and women, though being the main responsible of the home, seem to construct these male values. Meanwhile, the strong leader identity is used as a way to construct balance. In their role as managers and leaders they are allowed to be flexible, more flexible than their employees. However, this flexibility is often used as a way to fit work around family. Lastly, interviewees describe how managerial identity contribute to a work-life enrichment. High job identification gave the leader self-esteem, skills and perspectives which produced a positive affect in relation to work.

  • 8.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Is the gap between experienced working conditions and the perceived importance of these conditions related to subjective health?2018In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the gaps between experienced working conditions (WCs) and the perceived importance of these conditions in relation to subjective health in Swedish public sector workplaces.

    Design/methodology/approach

    In total, 379 employees answered questions concerning WCs and health. Nine WC areas were created to measure the gap between the experienced WCs and the perceived importance of each condition. These WC areas were: physical work environment, social relationships, communication, leadership, job control, recognition, self-development, workplace culture and work/life satisfaction. Subjective health was measured using mental ill health, well-being and general health.

    Findings

    The results indicated relatively large gaps in all nine WC areas. Leadership, physical work environment and work/life satisfaction in particular seemed to be problematic areas with relatively large gaps, meaning that employees have negative experiences of these areas while perceiving these areas as very important. Additionally, all WC areas were significantly related to subjective health, especially regarding mental ill health and well-being; the larger the gaps, the worse the subjective health. The WC areas of work/life satisfaction, self-development, social relationships, communication and recognition had the highest relationships and model fits. This indicates that it is most problematic from an employee’s point of view if there are large gaps within these WC areas.

    Originality/value

    This study improves the understanding of workplace health by exploring the gap between experienced WCs and the perceived importance of these conditions.

  • 9.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. The Swedish Sports Confederation.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Workplace Health Interventions and Physical Fitness Status among Managers of Small-Scale Enterprises in Norway and Sweden2016In: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, E-ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 8, p. 1697-1712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background : The ability of managers of small-scale enterprises (SSEs) to prioritize health, working conditions, and their own physical fitness is an important issue for workplace health promotion in Norway and Sweden, where most owner-manager positions are in SSEs. Aim : To assess the physical fitness status of SSE managers compared to a norm population and to study changes in physical fitness status, self-reported physical activity, and sickness outcomes after workplace health interventions. Methods : The study allocated SSE managers to either an intervention or a reference group. The intervention, over twelve months, consisted of motivational input related to lifestyle and physical activity through tests and feedback, individual support, and courses on health and psychosocial working conditions. The participants (N = 28) completed health screening checks, questionnaires and testing before and after the intervention. Results : SSE managers in the study had positive outcomes for BMI levels and strength compared to the norm population, while percentage of fat for both men and women indicated poor results. There were no further improvements in the intervention group after comparison with the reference group. Separately, both groups seemed to improve strength and body composition. Conclusion : Workplace health interventions with essentially motivational components may increase SSE managers’ attention to physical fitness, but appear to have limited effects on objective and subjective physical fitness outcomes.

  • 10.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gundersen, Kjell Terje
    Faculty of Education, Nord University, Norway.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leader-Based Workplace Health Interventions — A Before–After Study in Norwegian and Swedish Small-Scale Enterprises2016In: International Journal of Disability Mangement Research, ISSN 1833-8550, E-ISSN 1834-4887, Vol. 11, no e5, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to knowledge about leader-based workplace health interventions by investigating changes in psychosocial working conditions and health in Norwegian and Swedish small-scale enterprises (SSEs). The study also aims to investigate whether there are differences between position, and countries. In total, 30 leaders and 149 coworkers in 34 SSEs participated in two intervention and two reference groups. Leaders and coworkers completed the validated questionnaires (Nordic Questionnaire on Positive Organizational Psychology ([N-POP]), Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), and Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), which cover different psychosocial working conditions and health outcomes. The interventions were carried out by advisors from occupational health services (OHSs) over a one-year period and consisted of analyses of health and psychosocial working conditions, company visits, education and networking meetings, including information and tools on issues such as leadership, work environment and health, and leadership support. The statistical methods used included principal component analyses, reliability tests, paired sample t tests and three-way ANOVA. The results indicate a significant positive development concerning external job performance in the intervention groups. Regarding internal job performance, both the Norwegian intervention group and the reference group showed positive improvements. However, there were negative or nonsignificant developments for several of the psychosocial working conditions and health outcomes in the intervention groups. With regard to associations and interactions between the studied variables, there were significantly positive developments with regard to external job performance and sickness absences in the total intervention group. The study indicates that more thorough procedures and testing of leader-based interventions in SSEs are required.

  • 11.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ledarfokuserade hälsofrämjande insatser i små företag: resultat och erfarenheter (Leader-based workplace health interventions in small enterprises: results and experiences)2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv - Book of abstracts - FALF 2016, Östersund, 2016, p. 43-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leader-based workplace health interventions in small-scale enterprises: a pre post Study. Introduction Leader’s competence about health and working environment issues is of particular importance in small scale enterprises (SSEs). Studies indicate lack of tools for 44 Book of abstracts – FALF 2016implementation of working environment improvements and support from occupationalhealth services to develop such services towards SSE`s. The aim of the study was to investigate organizational-, psychosocial working environment- and health outcomes among leaders and employees in SSEs before and after workplace health interventions, and to contribute to knowledge about tools suited for implementation. Description Data presented is part of a research project concerning leader-based workplace health interventions in SSEs. 179 subjects, intervention group (103) and control group (76), from 32 SSE ́s in the middle part of Norway and Sweden participated. Leaders (N=30) and Employees (N=149) answered validated questionnaires (WEMS, SHIS and N-POP) covering organizational outcomes, psychosocial working conditions and health. The interventions were carried out by advisers from occupational health services, and consisted of courses, meetings including information, advices and tools for working on issues like leadership, working environment, and health during a one year period. Results Organizational outcomes as Job Performance indicatedan interaction in favor of intervention group compared to control group, and for leaders compared to employees. For Psychosocial working conditions, the Swedish leaders reported a positive change concerning pressure of Time. Regarding Health outcomes the Norwegian leaders reported a more positive development concerning sleep problems compared to employees in Norway, and leaders in Sweden. The Intervention group reported lower Sickness absence. Conclusion Leader-based interventions in SSE`s seems effectively to a limited extent. Time between pre and post intervention including measure points, might be too short to detect improvements over time.

  • 12.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work Experience and Health before and after interventions among leaders and employees in small-scale enterprises2016In: Decent Work: 4th Conference Disability Management, Olten, 2016, p. 26-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Workplace-based prevention and rehabilitation programs including strategy to change might contribute to increase employee health. The importance of leader competence in small scale enterprises (SSE´s) to prioritize health and adjusting the work-environment are important. Some studies indicate associations between psychosocial work environment factors and mental health, but contradicting findings suggest that good leadership does not substantially ameliorate any effects of emotional demands at work on employee mental health. The cost-effect for the society as whole, the enterprise alone and the workers employed e.g. regarding sick leave, injury rates, stable employment levels and other factors are complex. Traditionally there has been a focus on these factors mostly in large workplaces, but a broader understanding, sustainable standards, procedures, implementing methods, and more knowledge regarding leadership, health, work-environment, stress and health promoting interventions towards SSE´s is needed. Purpose and method: The aim of the study is to investigate Work Experience (WEMS) and Salutogenic Health (SHIS) changes among leaders and employees in SSEs pre-post intervention. Present study analyzed data from two questionnaires (WEMS, and SHIS) based on established theories regarding work and health. Leaders (N=30) and employees (N=149) from 32 small scale enterprises in the middle part of Norway and Sweden participated. The interventions were carried out by work environment advisers and consisted of meetings including information, advices and tools towards leaders and employees during a one year period. The methodology used to identify any pre-post changes, and changes between groups (ex. Norway-Sweden, leaders-employees) involved SPSS analyses with descriptive statistics, univariate analysis of variance and t-tests. Findings: The analysis revealed no positive significant changes from pre to post intervention for the total Index of SHIS, nor the total Index of WEMS. Some indications of changes however could be detected, were the main tendency was a negative development after intervention. The subindex of WEMS regarding Management (MT) though, yielded a significant effect of mean for leaders compared with employees after intervention. Conclusions: Present interventions towards leaders and employees regarding Work environment and Salutogenic health in SSE`s seems not to be sufficient. More knowledge regarding leadership, work-environment and health are crucial, and even more thorough procedures and testing of interventions in SSE´s needs to be carried out to improve these parameters.

  • 13.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gundersen, Kjell Terje
    Faculty of Education, Nord University, Levanger, Norway.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway.
    Resistance Training in People at Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes and Their Experience of Health-Related Quality of Life2016In: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, Vol. 8, p. 1323-1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background : Research indicates an association between impaired glucose metabolismand overweight, a serious public health problem involving an increased risk ofType 2 diabetes, related hypertension, and a reduced quality of life. Aim: The firstaim is to assess different dimensions of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) inoverweight individuals at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes compared to a normalpopulation. The second aim is to examine the impact of resistance training on thepre-post HRQoL dimension scores of the intervention group. Methods : Eighteenparticipants were randomly assigned to one of the two resistance training groups.Group 1 engaged in supervised maximal resistance training (Bernstein inverted pyramidsystem: 5× 3 - 4, 60% - 85% of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM)), three days/weekover four months, and Group 2 performed endurance resistance training (includinglower weight loads and more repetitions over four months). The intervention consistedof eight exercises involving the entire body. The subjects completed theShort-Form Health Survey (SF-36) on HRQoL. The HRQoL scores of the norm populationwere higher than those of people at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, andresistance training seemed to have a limited significant positive effect on the differentHRQoL dimensions.

  • 14.
    Hedlund, Marianne
    et al.
    Nord University and NTNU.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tightrope walking - external impact factors on workplace health management in small-scale enterprises2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale enterprises (SSEs) are important for ensuring growth, innovation, job creation, in addition to social integration in working life. Research shows that SSEs pay little attention to and have insufficient competence in workplace health management. From the perspective of managers, this study explores how external factors influence the development of this management. The article refers to a case study between eight Norwegian and ten Swedish managers of SSEs in the middle part of Norway and Sweden. We used a stepwise qualitative approach to analyse data, using an interpretive indexing of main categories. Two main categories were found to have an influence on the development of workplace health- management: (1) Restricted leeway and (2) Commitments. Concerning the first main category, areas that managers highlight as important comprise the legal framework and regulations; workforce and market situation, production, finances; and occupational safety and health issues. Areas related to the second main category were advice from the board, guidance from mentors, work-related networks, and family and friends as buffers. One conclusion is that despite limited scope for developing workplace health anagement, managers find supportive guidance and inspiration from environments that are committed to helping them and their enterprise.

  • 15.
    Hedlund, Marianne
    et al.
    Faculty of Nursing and Health Science, Nord University, Levanger, Norway; bDepartment of Social work, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tightrope walking: external impact factors on workplace health management in small-scale enterprises2017In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, no Sup 1, p. 53-66, article id 1350551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale enterprises (SSEs) are important for ensuring growth, innovation, job creation,and social integration in working life. Research shows that SSEs pay little attention to andhave insufficient competence in workplace health management. From the perspective ofmanagers, this study explores how external factors influence the development of thismanagement. The article refers to a case study among eight Norwegian and ten Swedishmanagers of SSEs in the middle part of Norway and Sweden. We used a stepwisequalitative approach to analyse data, using an interpretive indexing of main categories.Two main categories were found to have an influence on the development of workplacehealth management: (1) restricted leeway and (2) commitments. Concerning the first maincategory, areas that managers highlight as important comprise the legal framework andregulations; workforce and market situation, production, economy; and occupationalsafety and health issues. Areas related to the second main category were advice fromthe board, guidance from mentors, work-related networks, and family and friends asbuffers. One conclusion is that despite limited scope for developing workplace healthmanagement, managers find supportive guidance and inspiration from environments thatare committed to helping them and their enterprise.

  • 16.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Subjective well-being among the self-employed in Europe - macroeconomy, gender and immigrant status2016In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 239-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that the selfemployed generally experience a higher degree of jobsatisfaction compared to regular employees. However, our knowledge of subjective well-being among the self-employed, the differences between various groups of self-employed and the potential influence of contextual factors is somewhat limited. The purpose of the present paper is to address this gap by taking macroeconomic conditions, gender and immigrant status into consideration. The results show that selfemployment is positively related to subjective wellbeing, but there are also differences between groups of the self-employed; self-employed with employees report a higher level of life satisfaction than the selfemployed without employees. Economic growth is more important for the level of life satisfaction among the self-employed than among employees. The analyses also point to different patterns for female and male self-employed without employees: only women experience a higher level of life satisfaction compared to employees. The results also show that the relationship is stronger among immigrants than natives. The results of this study confirm the importance of considering potential heterogeneity when examining subjective well-being among the self-employed.

  • 17.
    Julià, Mireia
    et al.
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ollé-Espluga, Laia
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Vanroelen, Christophe
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    De Moortel, Deborah
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Mousaid, Sarah
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona.
    Sánchez, Esther
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona.
    Muntaner, Carles
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain and Division of Social and Behavioural Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Artazcoz, Lucia
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona.
    Benach, Joan
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Employment and Labor Market Results of the SOPHIE Project: Concepts, Analyses, and Policies2017In: International Journal of Health Services, ISSN 0020-7314, E-ISSN 1541-4469, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 18-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports evidence gained by the SOPHIE Project regarding employment and labor market-related policies. In the first step, quality of employment and of precarious and informal employment in Europe were conceptualized and defined. Based on these definitions, we analyzed changes in the prevalence and population distribution of key health-affecting characteristics of employment and work between times of economic prosperity and economic crisis in Europe and investigated their impact on health outcomes. Additionally, we examined the effects of several employment and labor market-related policies on factors affecting health equity, including a specific analysis concerning work-related gender equity policies and case studies in different European countries. Our findings show that there is a need to standardize definitions and indicators of (the quality of) employment conditions and improve information systems. This is challenging given the important differences between and within European countries. In our results, low quality of employment and precarious employment is associated with poor mental health. In order to protect the well-being of workers and reduce work-related health inequalities, policies leading to precarious working and employment conditions need to be suspended. Instead, efforts should be made to improve the security and quality of employment for all workers.

  • 18. Julià, Mireia
    et al.
    Vanroelen, Christophe
    Tarafa, Gemma
    Ollé, Laia
    Sánchez, Esther
    Artazcoz, Lucia
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Benach, Joan
    High quality employment in a regulated labour market is beneficial to workers´health and reduces inequality2015In: Social and economic policies matter for health equity: Conclusions of the SOPHIE project, Barcelona: Addenda , 2015, , p. 9p. 23-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Källmén, Håkan
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden .
    Hermansson, Ulric
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The Prevalence of Alcohol Prevention Efforts in Swedish Workplaces2013In: International Journal of Disability Mangement Research, ISSN 1833-8550, E-ISSN 1834-4887, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents results from a survey aimed at identifying the extent of alcohol prevention efforts in Swedish workplaces focusing on the dissemination of a model for secondary prevention — the 'Risk Drinking model'. From a random sample of 929 human resource managers at Swedish workplaces, 374 answered a web-based questionnaire (response rate = 40%). Results showed that about 70% had an alcohol policy at their workplace, 51% were engaged in alcohol prevention efforts and about 19% used the Risk Drinking model. Regression analyses showed that large workplaces, workplaces where employees received training on alcohol, public sector and female-dominated workplaces were significantly associated with alcohol prevention activities. We conclude that training is important for the implementation of alcohol prevention at Swedish workplaces, and is of particular importance in small enterprises.

  • 20.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gelin, Gunnar
    Malmquist, Claes
    Vinberg, Stig
    Department of Human Work Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, .
    A statistical human resources costing and accounting model for analysing the economic effects of an intervention at a workplace2002In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 764-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study had two primary aims. The first aim was to combine a human resources costing and accounting approach (HRCA) with a quantitative statistical approach in order to get an integrated model. The second aim was to apply this integrated model in a quasi-experimental study in order to investigate whether preventive intervention affected sickness absence costs at the company level. The intervention studied contained occupational organizational measures, competence development, physical and psychosocial working environmental measures and individual and rehabilitation measures on both an individual and a group basis. The study is a quasi-experimental design with a non-randomized control group. Both groups involved cleaning jobs at predominantly female workplaces. The study plan involved carrying out before and after studies on both groups. The study included only those who were at the same workplace during the whole of the study period. In the HRCA model used here, the cost of sickness absence is the net difference between the costs, in the form of the value of the loss of production and the administrative cost, and the benefits in the form of lower labour costs. According to the HRCA model, the intervention used counteracted a rise in sickness absence costs at the company level, giving an average net effect of 266.5 Euros per person (full-time working) during an 8-month period. Using an analogue statistical analysis on the whole of the material, the contribution of the intervention counteracted a rise in sickness absence costs at the company level giving an average net effect of 283.2 Euros. Using a statistical method it was possible to study the regression coefficients in sub-groups and calculate the p-values for these coefficients; in the younger group the intervention gave a calculated net contribution of 605.6 Euros with a p-value of 0.073, while the intervention net contribution in the older group had a very high p-value. Using the statistical model it was also possible to study contributions of other variables and interactions. This study established that the HRCA model and the integrated model produced approximately the same monetary outcomes. The integrated model, however, allowed a deeper understanding of the various possible relationships and quantified the results with confidence intervals.

  • 21.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hedlund, Marianne
    Nord Universitet, Norge.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How managers of small-scale enterprises can create a health promoting corporate culture2017In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 228-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Small-scale enterprises are important for sustainable development in Europe and account for a significant proportion of private enterprises and their large contribution to employment. The overall research aim of the study is to explore workplace health management from the perspective of managers in small-scale enterprises (SSEs) in Norway and Sweden. Methodology – In-depth interviews with 18 managers in SSEs were conducted and a stepwise qualitative analysis was used. Findings – The findings are presented as two main patterns 1) Interorganisational dynamics and 2) Participative leadership. Managers discussed opportunities for workplace health management to foster solidarity and flexibility in the workplace, the potential of employees for self-governance, and a cultural environment at the workplace characterized by safety,trust, care, loyalty and humour. The managers employed a process-oriented communicato style, were all-rounders, and demonstrated dedicated and distinct management. Managers in small-scale enterprises were lonely problem-solvers and experienced high and conflicting work demands and work-family conflicts. Research limitations – The findings should be interpreted with caution concerning representation of small-scale enterprises generally. The enterprises were recruited from an intervention project focusing on workplace health management and might therefore have a positive attitude. Originality – This study adds important knowledge regarding the preconditions for creating health-promoting workplaces in SSEs, an area for which limited research exists. The findings provide insights and knowledge about managers’ possibilities and obstacles in workplace health management. The findings could be transferrable to management in similar contexts if managers develop more awareness and knowledge. Practical implications – The managers obtain recommended information about what to doand how to address workplace health management in SSEs.

  • 22.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hedlund, Marianne
    Nord University and NTNU.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How managers of small-scale enterprises can create a health promoting corporate culture2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Small-scale enterprises are important for sustainable development in Europe and account for a significant proportion of private enterprises and their large contribution to employment. The overall research aim of the study is to explore workplace health management from the perspective of managers in small-scale enterprises (SSEs) in Norway and Sweden. Methodology – In-depth interviews with 18 managers in SSEs were conducted and a stepwise qualitative analysis was used. Findings – The findings are presented as two main patterns 1) Interorganisational dynamics and 2) Participative leadership. Managers iscussed opportunities for workplace health management to foster solidarity and flexibility in the workplace, the potential of employees for self-governance, and a cultural environment at the workplace characterized by safety, trust, care, loyalty and humour. The managers employed a process-oriented communicator style, were all-rounders, and demonstrated dedicated and distinct management. Managers in small-scale enterprises were lonely problem-solvers and experienced high and conflicting work demands and work-family conflicts. Research limitations – The findings should be interpreted with caution concerning representation of small-scale enterprises generally. The enterprises were recruited from an development project focusing on workplace health management and might therefore have a positive attitude. Originality – This study adds important knowledge regarding the preconditions for creating health-promoting workplaces in SSEs, an area for which limited research exists. The findings provide insights and knowledge about managers’ possibilities and obstacles in workplace health management. The findings could be transferrable to management in similar contexts if managers develop more awareness and knowledge. Practical implications – The managers obtain recommended information about what to do and how to address workplace health management in SSEs.

  • 23.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hedlund, Marianne
    Nord-Trøndelag University College.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leader´s view of health promotion workplaces in small-scale enterprises2016In: Decent Work: 4th Conference Disability Management, Olten, Schweiz: Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz , 2016, p. 25-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Small-scale enterprises (SSEs) are regarded as important contributors to economic development. However, there is a limited understanding about the importance of the psychosocial working conditions, the work-life balance, health and well-being in these enterprises. Research on psychosocial working conditions in SSEs is polarized and shows contradictory results, and it is often stated that SSEs have trouble with workplace health and disability management processes due to their limited resources, and lack of support from human resource consultants. According to the Luxemburg Declaration of Workplace Health Promotion health in the workplace can be achieved by monitoring a wide range of factors; e.g. management principles, organizational culture, involvement of all the workforce and balance between job demands and control in work. ‘Disability Management’ is an approach which goes beyond traditional vocational rehabilitation due to its focus on prevention of injury as well as return to work assistance following injury, and the importance of using the workplace for interventions at all levels of the organization. Purpose and method: The overall aim of the study is, from a leader perspective, to explore small scale enterprises (SSEs) conditions for managing health promoting workplaces. This study analyzes data from interviews with leaders in 18 small scale enterprises in the middle part of Norway and Sweden. The methodology used to study conditions to create health promoting workplaces was based on a step-wise inductive method. Findings: The analyses revealed two main categories as important for creating health-promoting workplaces: conditions for managing workplace health promotion and conditions for a health promoting leadership. Each category contained several sub-themes that were related to solidarity and flexibility among employees, self-steered task management, good and joyful working conditions and managing leadership role essential for developing a healthy workplace. Conclusions: The leader’s view of health promoting workplaces point at great consciousness and maturity in their approach to create a health-promotive workplace. The premises for healthy work conditions in small-scale enterprises seem to be favorable despite obstacles and limited resources available.

  • 24.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hedlund, Marianne
    Nord University Norway.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ledares perspektiv på hälsofrämjande arbete i små företag (Leaders' perspective on workplace health promotion in small enterprises)2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale enterprises (SSEs) are important for sustainable development at national development and regional levels, and account for a large part of private enterprises and their large contribution to employment. Earlier research shows that SSEs are limited with respect to personnel, economic resources and competence for creating health-promoting workplaces. This study explores the premises for managing health-promoting workplaces from a leadership perspective in eight Norwegian and ten Swedish SSEs. A stepwise qualitative approach and analysis were used to analyze data. The analysis shows two main categories: corporative health promotion workplaces and cultivating health-promoting leadership.

    The leader’s experience of solidarity and flexibility, self-steered task management, safety, trust and care, job satisfaction, loyalty, humor and recruitment indicates these as important components related to a health-promoting workplace. They point to the importance of being a process-oriented communicator, an all-rounder, and the need to make use of a dedicated and distinct leadership style. However, they also indicate problems with being a lonely problem solver, high and conflicting work demands and work-family conflicts. One conclusion is that leaders exhibit an awareness of the importance of applying a holistic approach for creating health-promoting workplaces. Another conclusion, which is not in line with previous research, is that the leaders exhibit a maturity about the importance of combining individual and organizational health promotion measures and that they have a high motivation to work with these areas.

  • 25.
    Landstad, Bodil J
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Olsson, Inger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Millet, Patrick
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Personal Perspectives on Vocational Rehabilitation in Singapore and Sweden2010In: The Asia Pacific Disability & Rehabilitation Journal, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to describe and analyse personal reflections on vocational rehabilitation in Singapore and Sweden as described by employees who have been on sick leave. Further, the study investigates what similarities and differences can be discerned from the accounts provided by the participants in the different countries. Interviews were conducted with five Singaporeans and five Swedes undergoing rehabilitation due to musculoskeletal problems. The most significant result is that more differences than similarities were identified; e.g. the Singaporeans had fewer days of sickness absence, they were diagnosed more swiftly, treatment and the rehabilitation process began earlier and there were no queues for treatment. The conclusion is that the Singaporean system seems to be more effective with respect to returning people to work. However, the Swedish system creates more security for all groups of people.

  • 26. Landstad, Bodil Johanne
    et al.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Ivergård, Toni
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Gelin, Gunnar
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Change in pattern of absenteeism as a result of workplace intervention for personnel support2001In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 63-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    BHT i små bedrifter - en fremtidig utfordring2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Female leaders' experiences of psychosocial working conditions and its health consequences in Swedish public human service organizations2013In: Vulnerable Groups & Inclusion, ISSN 2000-8023, E-ISSN 2000-8023, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal workplaces have high levels of sickness absence, and deterioration of the psychosocial work environment has been most pronounced for women and employees in this sector of Swedish working life. This study explores how female leaders in one rural municipality in Sweden experience their psychosocial working conditions and its health consequences. Interviews were carried out with 20 female leaders. Data were analyzed with a content analysis method using major dimensions of work stress models. These were job demands, job control, job resources, social support, and its health consequences. The analysis shows that the leaders experience high and conflicting job demands, limited possibilities to influence their work situation, insufficient job resources and social support, and limited time for their own health promotion. However, the leaders experience possibilities to develop skills in their jobs and opportunities to participate in educational programs. The analyses confirm the need for improvements in the prerequisites for female leaders in public human service organizations. It is important to improve female leaders' psychosocial working conditions by implementing a more narrow control range, increased personal and economical recourses, leadership support, and leader development programs.

  • 29.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Female leaders’ experiences of psychosocial working conditions, health and vocational rehabilitation in Swedish public human service organizations.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ivergård, Toni
    Arbetslivsinstitutet, Östersund.
    Gelin, Gunnar
    Ekholm, Jan
    Förändringar av frånvaromönster vid personalstödjande interventioner på arbetsplatser: Utveckling av en analysmodell för utvärdering av åtgärder1999Report (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    To Control with Health - From Statistics to Strategy2009In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to develop and test a generic model for workplace health management in organizations. Four private and four public organizations in northern Sweden were selected for the study. A model for health control was developed on the basis of a literature review and dialogues with the stakeholders in the workplaces. The model was then implemented at the workplaces during a two-year period. Interviews with leaders and sub-leaders were conducted on two occasions and were analyzed using content analysis and the constant comparison method. By using a grounded theory approach, three main categories were found: health closure and other health and working environment indicators, monetary accounting of health related indicators and changes in leadership behaviour and organizational practices. An important result was that the model influenced leadership values more than leadership and organizational methodologies. From the results a model for workplace health management is proposed, incorporating the planning, control, and improvement structures. The purpose of the model is to take health aspects into consideration when deciding organizational structure (work demands, control and social support). The model controls health by using health-related indicators with high frequency measuring whereas workplace health promotion is done in a structured way with a reflective model.

  • 32.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Control charts as an early warning system for workplace health outcomes2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 409-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Introduction: Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts have not been widely used to monitor workplace health and work environments. This research and effort to develop a more accurate and easy to use management control system for employee health is important from a humanistic, societal and economic standpoint, as well as complying with laws that regulate work environments. Objective: The purpose of the study is to design and discuss control charts as an early warning system for workplace health outcomes to promote workplace health management. Another purpose is to discuss relevant factors in the concept of the Out-of-Control Action Plan (OCAP) as a response when a chart warns that the workplace process may be malfunctioning. Participants: Two Swedish organizations were selected as case study organizations: a department at a university and an elderly care operation in a municipality. Methods: This study was explorative and should be seen as a starting point in learning how to use control charts for workplace health management. Self-assessed general health and new sick-cases per employee were selected as indicators for the control charts. Results: An integrated early warning system with Cumulative Sums-and Shewhart-charts are presented to show a possible method as to how an early warning system can be structured through the use of statistical control charts. Conclusions: The conclusion of this study is that control charts, along with well-designed implementation, make up a powerful and useable managerial early-warning system which promotes workplace health and helps to prevent sickness absence.

  • 33.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leadership behaviour in successful organisations: Universal or situation-dependent?: Universal or situational-dependent?2010In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 317-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership behaviour has a critical role in the creation of successful organisations. This article reviews dimensions of leadership behaviour theory and their relationship to effectiveness, productivity, quality, health and job satisfaction in organisations. The article has two purposes: (1) to identify and summarise leadership behaviours common among successful organisations; and (2) to use these common elements to discuss those theoretical implications which concern situational aspects of successful leadership behaviour. The successful organisations studied for this work were two manufacturing companies, one hospital and one retail operation. The case studies were performed in connection with two leadership research projects. They focused on quality work, effectiveness, working environment, subordinate health and perceptions of the leadership. The common leadership behaviours were explored using a comparative qualitative method. The identified common leadership behaviours were then analysed in relation to the three-dimensional leadership behaviour theory (change-, structure- and relation-orientation) to explore distributions between dimensions. Nine common groups of behaviours were identified and described. The qualitative analyses showed that the identified behaviours were in all three behaviour dimensions. Also evident was that relation-oriented leadership behaviour was by far the strongest of the three. The conclusion is that a successful leader uses high relation-orientation as a base. At the same time, this successful leader uses all three behaviour dimensions. The two additional dimensions of structure- and change-orientation can be altered by leaders according to situational factors. This conclusion implies that successful leadership behaviour includes both universal and contingency elements.

  • 34.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Så skapas attraktiva och hälsofrämjande arbetsplatser2009In: Dagens JuridikArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Leadership, quality and health: using McGregor's X and Y theory for analyzing values in relation to methodologies and outcomes2007In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 18, no 9-10, p. 1147-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has experienced an increase in sickness absenteeism, stress related health problems and a deterioration of psychosocial working conditions. Several researchers have emphasized that leadership with a focus on developing human resource practices is a necessary component of a high organizational performance. The purpose of this article is to explore whether there are patterns in leadership values and methodologies associated with subordinates´ views of leadership, health outcomes and quality aspects. Four public and four private organizations in northern Sweden were studied. McGregor´s X and Y hypotheses, plus three other hypotheses, were used as a base for the analyses. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews with the leaders, questionnaires (completed by leaders and co-workers), and assessment of selected human resource accounting data (sickness absenteeism). The leader views were mirrored with the co-worker views through a comparison of qualitative and quantitative results in a stepwise analysis process. The study´s main findings were that leaders with more X hypotheses get lower results concerning employee judged leadership and quality aspects and, to some extent, lower results concerning health outcomes. The explanatory analyses concerning leadership and health are complex with many influencing factors.

  • 36.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Leadership Values for Quality and Health - How does McGregor's X and Y Theory Influences Methodologies and Outcomes?2005In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Quality Management for Organisational and Regional Development : QMOD 2005: QMOD 2005 Palermo, Italy 29.06.2005 - 01.07.2005, Luleå, 2005, p. 691-702Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years the Swedish working life has been characterized by increased levels of sickness absenteeism, stress related health problems and a deterioration of the psychosocial work conditions. Since there are clear local variations concerning health at different workplaces, it is often stated that differences in working environment and work organizational factors constitute an important explanation. Several researchers emphasizes that leadership with a focus on developing human resource practices is a necessary component of high organizational performance. The purpose of this article is to explore if there are patterns in leadership values and methodologies connected to health outcomes and quality aspects. McGregor�s X and Y hypotheses plus three other hypotheses are used as a base for the analyses. Data has been collected by in-deep interviews with the leaders, questionnaires to both leaders and all employees, and human resource accounting figures. The leader views are mirrored with the employee views, by comparing qualitative and quantitative results in a step wise analyses process. Case study organizations are four public and four private organizations in northern Sweden. The study main findings are that leaders with more X hypotheses get lower results concerning employee judged leadership and quality aspects, and to some extent also lower results concerning health outcomes. Clear differences between the studied organizations are noted. One interesting result is that one organization (C1) positively distinguishes concerning quality and health aspects. A conclusion in this study is that Y oriented leaders work more intense with the TQM values continuous improvements, base decisions on facts, co-worker commitment and leadership commitment.

  • 37.
    Lithander, Jörgen
    et al.
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Solo- och mikroföretag i Fokuz : Aspekter på entreprenörskap, tillväxt och arbetsliv bland företag i projektet Verksamhet och kompetensanalys2007Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lithander, Jörgen
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Östersund, Sweden.
    Vinberg, Stig
    National Institute for Working Life, Östersund, Sweden.
    The King of the Forest as a Money-maker: a case study of entrepreneurship from northern Sweden.2003In: The Nordic Scottish Universities Network for Rural and Regional Development, 2003, p. 17-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common to emphasize the important role of entrepreneurship when issues like job-creation and long-term survival in rural areas are discussed. How then could such an entrepreneurship look like? Is it possible to use the characteristics of a sparsely populated area, nature and the local culture, as resources for entrepreneurial activity? In this paper I will present and analyze an unusual way of making a living, a micro enterprise in Orrviken, a rural area in the county of Jämtland. The enterprise (Moosegarden) is based upon the elk, a big wild animal in Sweden also called "the King of the Forest". It is no overstatement to say that the elk is an important part of the local and regional culture. The elk is used as a heraldic symbol and in tourist guides, and elk-hunting is almost to be considered as a popular movement in the northern part of Sweden. The entrepreneur Sune has built an elk-farm, a large enclosure with approximately ten elks of different age. The enclosure is beautifully situated with a view overlooking a big lake and a mountain area. Sune's business concept is however not only to let people (mostly tourists) get in close contact with the elks. Sune has in fact also figured out a method to produce exclusive "elk-paper" made of droppings from the elk! This paper has attracted much attention in many countries. The elk-paper is also refined and used in the production of "money", Christmas cards, business cards, etc. Even the milk from the elk-cows is taken care of and sold as an exclusive beverage, a kind of potion. In 2002 Moosegarden attracted almost 13 000 visitors. Sune, the entrepreneur, has succeeded with his idea and the elk has become a double producer of money, indirectly by attracting paying visitors and directly through the elk-paper-based money. Some relevant theories of entrepreneurship are presented and tested against the case study in order to answer questions like: How can an entrepreneurial process look like in a rural area? To what extent can and can not "classical" entrepreneurial theories explain the process? What are the driving forces, the powers that compel a person to start a company?

  • 39. Lundgren, Bernt
    et al.
    Nordberg, Mikael
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hälsa, humankapital och ekonomisk utveckling: Tre uppsatser om hälsans ekonomiska betydelse framtagna inom projektet ”Folkhälsa och regional utveckling i samverkan" En diskussionsrapport2011Report (Other academic)
  • 40. Malmquist, Claes
    et al.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Att styra med hälsa - Från statistik till strategi2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsgivarens insikt om betydelsen av god arbetsmiljö och god hälsa hos sin personal är en viktig faktor i strävan efter att skapa en effektiv och långsiktigt hållbar verksamhet. I boken Att styra med hälsa � från statistik till strategi resovisas resultat, erfarenheter och forskning från en studie om "Hälsofrämjande verksamhetsstyrning" på åtta jämtländska arbetsplatser. De verktyg som tillämpats är hälsobokslut, ekonomiska analyser, organisationsdiagnos samt nätverksträffar och processtöd. Studien har varit både praktisk och forskningningsinriktad. Boken ger konkreta råd främst till ledare, men även till andra intressenter, om hur hälsoperspektivet kan integreras i den traditionella verksamhetsstyrningen. Boken innehåller även tips om hur förändringsarbete med fokus på hälsa och arbetsmiljö kan bedrivas. Kapitelrubriker: · Varför styra med hälsa? · Vad är hälsa? · Vad är styrning? · Hälsofrämjande verksamhetsstyrning i praktiken · Resultat och analys · Forskning · Våra erfarenheter och råd Dessutom ingår ett komplett hälsobokslut, delar av verktyget organisationsdiagnos, referenser samt litteraturtips. Författare: Claes Malmquist Konsult, föreläsare och författare inom det personalekonomiska området. Stig Vinberg Forskare med lång erfarenhet av förändringsarbete på arbetsplatser. Johan Larsson Doktorand som forskar kring ledarskap, verksamhetsstyrning, kvalitet och hälsa.

  • 41. Malmusi, Davide
    et al.
    Borrell, Carme
    Suhrcke, Marc
    Toffolutti, Veronica
    O´Campo, Patricia
    Muntaner, Carles
    Mitchell, Christiane
    Freiler, Alix
    Julià, Mireia
    Vanroelen, Christophe
    Tarafa, Gemma
    Ollé, Laia
    Sánchez, Esther
    Artazcoz, Lucía
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Benach, Joan
    Melis, Giulia
    Tabasso, Matteo
    Kunst, Anton
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Palència, Laia
    Camprubí, Lluís
    Díaz, Fernando
    Bosch, Jordi
    Salvador, Maria
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa
    Pérez, Glòria
    Bosáková, Lucia
    Belak, Andrej
    Social and economic policies matter for health equity: Conclusions of the SOPHIE project2015Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Malmusi, Davide
    et al.
    Ajuntament de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health, Barceloa, Catalonia, Spain; Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Muntaner, Carles
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Borell, Carme
    CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health, Barceloa, Catalonia, Spain; Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Agencia de Salut Publica de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Social and Economic Policies Matter for Health Equity: Conclusions of the SOPHIE Project2018In: International Journal of Health Services, ISSN 0020-7314, E-ISSN 1541-4469, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 417-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, the SOPHIE project has accumulated evidence regarding the influence of social and economic policies on the level of health across the population and on health inequalities according to socioeconomic position, gender, and immigrant status. Through comparative analyses and evaluation case studies across Europe, SOPHIE has shown how these health inequalities vary according to contexts in macroeconomics, social protection, labor market, built environment, housing, gender equity, and immigrant integration and may be reduced by equity-oriented policies in these fields. These studies can help public health and social justice advocates build a strong case for fairer social and economic policies that will lead to the reduction of health inequalities that most governments have included among their policy goals. In this article, we summarize the main findings and policy implications of the SOPHIE project and the lessons learned on civil society participation in research and results communication.

  • 43.
    Millet, Patrick
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Locus of Control and its Influence on Employee health in Public and Private Organisations in Sweden2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sickness Presenteeism among the Self-employed and Employed in Northwestern Europe—The Importance of Time Demands2019In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 224-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job creation. It can be assumed that health and well-being among the self-employed and managers in small-scale enterprises are particularly crucial in this enterprise group because the smallness of the enterprise makes its members vulnerable. Earlier studies have indicated that the self-employed have a high working pace and work for long and irregular hours, indicating that it can be difficult to stay at home because of sickness. The purpose of this study is to investigate the occurrence of sickness presenteeism among the self-employed in relation to the organizationally employed and to analyze whether any differences can be explained by higher work demands among the self-employed. Methods: The study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (2010) and includes the northwestern European countries in the survey. The questions cover a wide range of topics designed to meet the European Union's political needs. The main variables in this study are sickness presenteeism and several indicators of time demands. Results: The results show that the self-employed report a higher level of sickness presenteeism than the employed: 52.4 versus 43.6%. All indicators of time demands are significantly related to the risk for sickness presenteeism, also when controlling for background characteristics. Conclusion: The results confirm that the level of sickness presenteeism is higher among the self-employed and that high time demands are a major explanation to this. 

  • 45.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Job control and demands, work-life balance and wellbeing among self-employed men and women in Europe.2012In: Vulnerable Groups & Inclusion, ISSN 2000-8023, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-employed persons and their enterprises are regarded as important to the economy for their contribution to economic development. However, an understanding of the relationship between the psychosocial working conditions, the work-life balance, and outcomes such as health and wellbeing among the self-employed and micro-enterprise is limited. The main aim of this article is to study the relationships between control and demands at work, the work-life balance and wellbeing among self-employed men and women. Data were obtained from the European Social Survey Program (ESS) 2004 which is an interview survey conducted in 26 European countries (n = 15 789). Wellbeing is measured by the WHO-Five Wellbeing Index and work-life balance is measured by an index consisting of two questions asking about work-life balance/conflict. The results show that men and women who are self-employed experience a lower level of work-life balance than the employed and this result is found more in men than women. When job control and demands are held constant for the self-employed and the employed, self-employed women experience a significantly higher level of work-life balance than do employed women, yet self-employed men experience a similar level of work-life balance as do employed men. Self-employed women have a slightly higher level of wellbeing than do employed women and the difference between the self-employed and employed men is non-significant. When controlling for the level of job control the relationship between self-employment and wellbeing is non-significant among women and is significantly negative among men. In sum, the results of this study confirm that the psychosocial working conditions are important because demands and control in work influence work-life balance and well-being among self-employed men and women.

  • 46.
    Olsson, Inger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Millet, Patrick
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Olsson, Göran
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Social welfare in Singapore and Sweden: Differences in organisational systems of health care, social security and rehabilitation.2008In: International Journal of Disability Mangement Research, ISSN 1833-8550, E-ISSN 1834-4887, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to describe and compare the health care, social security and rehabilitation systems in Singapore and Sweden. Two fundamental differences can be identified. First, the system in Singapore are strongly oriented towards a free market system, while Sweden’s demonstrates strong public control. Second, following from how the systems are oriented, Singaporeans are expected to have a higher degree of independence and control over their health care, social security and rehabilitation. It appears that Singapore has had greater success in attaining and maintaining a system of health promotion, which influences the three systems. However, the Swedish welfare system provides greater security to those who are in need of health care, social security and rehabilitation.

     

  • 47.
    Sandberg, K W
    et al.
    Lulea University of Technology.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Lulea University of Technology.
    Information technology and learning strategies in small enterprises2000In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 221-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to define and explain information technology strategic dispositions and competence development within small enterprises. Small enterprises are a heterogeneous group of firms and for that reason, a universal explanation of strategic dispositions and learning strategies makes it advisable to draw upon a diverse range of methods, practices and approaches. 'Competence ergonomics' that fosters learning, empowerment and participation offers the flexibility within which to frame this strategy description. Introduction of information technology into small enterprises is treated as being of strategic importance to the future growth and survival of a firm. Methods and theories now being used in The Swedish National Institute of Working Life's (Arbetslivsinstitutet) Balanced Information Technology Project are those described. The Project is located in the area of Ostersund, Sweden where small industries have the need to adopt information technology as a means of promoting continuing competitiveness.

     

  • 48.
    Sandberg, Karl W.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ivergård, Toni K. B.
    Vinberg, Stig
    E-service to citizens and companies in rural areas2004In: The International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, ISSN 0858-7027, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The county of Västernorrland and Jämtland, like most of the remote and rural areas in the Northern Periphery, face common challenges consisting of limited economic resources, high sickness rates and major recruitment needs in the future. Developed eservice may be one of the solutions to these problems: a solution especially well-suited to sparsely populated areas. In this paper, we have summarized the exciting current challenges and opportunities in the domain of e-governmental services and indicated some areas of special interest for promoting the transition to an information society with enhanced e-services for the rural citizens. There are increased interest in e-service and the will to improve the services offered to citizens and the business community.

  • 49. Sandberg, Karl W
    et al.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Competence Ergonomics and Learning in Enterprises1999In: Proceedings of the 10th Year Anniversary of MSc Ergonomics International Conference, 1999, p. 166-172Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Sandberg, Karl W
    et al.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Utvärdering av verksamheten på Bryggan i Piteå2003Report (Other academic)
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