miun.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 23 of 23
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Engman, Frida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Obalans mellan arbetet och privatlivet bland offentliganställda: betydelsen av kontroll och socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen2017In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 610-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived imbalance between work and private life might lead to ill health and sickness absenteeism at work. Research support the fact that two factors: job control and social support can reduce individuals’ perception of imbalance. In this study we investigate the relationships between job control, social support and imbalance between work and private life focusing on additive and mul-tiplicative effects. Data is collected in public sector (care and school) in mid Sweden. The questionnaire was send to 743 employees and response rate was 51 per cent. A linear regression was conducted.Results show that job control and social support buffer against imbalance bet-ween work and private life. There exist an additive effect, social support and job control jointly has a higher effect on imbalance and the two factors separately.

  • 2.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sweden’s welfare state: Human cost or contribution to humanity?2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The juggle and struggle of everyday life. Gender, division of work, work-family perceptions and well-being in different policy contexts.2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This thesis explores the division of work, work-family perceptions and well-being in different policy contexts. Work (both paid and unpaid) is an arena where gender order is emphasised. Work task specialisation is often based on our ideas of femininity and masculinity. A gender order results in different chances and possibilities in life for men and women, influencing for example access to paid work. Genders are constructed differently across contexts, and countries policies and norms seem to play an important role in for instance the possibilities to combine work and children. Also, gender is important for the understanding and for the experiences of health and well-being. Two main research question are investigated in this thesis. First, how do gendered work division and work-family perceptions relate to well-being? Second, what are the contextual differences (policies and norms) with regard to gendered time use, gender attitude, work-family perceptions and well-being? Methods The thesis is based on data from three sources: the European Social Survey (ESS), the International Social Survey programme (ISSP) and Multinational Time Use Data (MTUS). With these sources, the aim is to capture patterns of behaviours, attitudes and perceptions on both individual level and national level. The methods used are logistic regression (Study I), OLS regression (Study III) and two different types of multilevel analyses (Studies II and IV). Results The results indicate that work-family perceptions are more important for individuals' well-being than actual time spent on paid and unpaid work. Further, the relationship between experiences of imbalance between work and family and low well-being differs by country. In countries where labour markets are more gender-equal the experience of imbalance to a higher degree relate to lower well-being, indicating that those who do experience imbalance in these gender-equal countries report lower levels of well-being than in countries which are less gender-equal. There have been changes in division of work and attitudes towards women's employment over the last few decades. Institutions and policies play a role for the division of work, and to some extent for changes in work task specialisation, as well as attitudes towards women's employment. Conclusion Central findings in this thesis show that it seems as if the experience of balance in life is more important for individuals' well-being than time use. The context in which gender is constructed is important for the relationship between paid work and family life imbalance and well-being and should be taken into consideration in cross-country studies. The fact that individuals in more gender-equal countries report lower well-being when experiencing imbalance could be a result of the multiple burden for both men and women in more gender-equal contexts. Also, the role of context and policies for attitudes and behaviours in relation to work is complex, and although this thesis adds to previous knowledge more research is needed. From a gender perspective the conclusion is that there are dual expectations in relation to work. In more gender-equal countries, women are expected to be equal to men by participating in the labour market. Meanwhile women still have the main responsibility for the home. Thus, it seems as if the equality of work is based on a masculine norm where paid work is highly valued.

  • 4.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Toward gender equality in practice? Cross-national patterns of change in the gendered division of housework over two decades2018In: Journal of Comparative Family Studies, ISSN 0047-2328, E-ISSN 1929-9850, Vol. XLIX, no 3, p. 355-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on cross-sectional data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) repeated at three time points, this article studies whether and how the gendered division of housework changed between 1994 and 2012 across 21 countries. Large transformations toward greater gender equality at the societal level during this period (i.e., gender equality norms, the share of women with higher education, and women’s employment rate) are analyzed in relation to potential changes in the division of housework at the individual level. The results reveal a general change toward an equalization in the division of housework over the two studied decades. To a certain extent, these changes are related to corresponding changes at the societal level, particularly in relation to increases in the employment rate of women. In addition, the pace of change over time varies across countries clustered in different family-policy models. The models became increasingly similar to one another during the analyzed period. Demonstrating a greater change in the conservative models in relation to the dual earner countries.

  • 5.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Gender Perspectives on Self-Employment Focusing on Work - Life Balance and Working Conditions2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Political decisions and influences steer individuals toward greater entrepreneurship and self-employment (European Commission, 2004; Verheul, Wennekers, Audretsch, & Thurik, 2002), and for example the increasing share of women in self-employment has been a major development in the world economy since the 1980s (Ahl, 2006). However, knowledge about self-employed individuals’ work and living conditions from a gender perspective is limited (Brush & Brush, 2006), since still today, women are underrepresented in self-employment and also widely ignored in research about self-employment. Additionally, the political agenda concerning self-employment is to a great extent set in a masculine norm (Holmquist & Sundin, 2002). This lead to great gender inequality in self-employment and thus, we need to unravel the unwritten rules and norms related to starting and running one’s own business.Reasons for choosing self-employment may vary but seem to be linked to gender role expectations. Men more often than women cite work-related reasons to become self-employed (Marler & Moen, 2005). Fathers are less likely than mothers to report family reasons to choose self-employment (Hilbrecht & Lero, 2014). Rather, they emphasize employment opportunity, job control and high job satisfaction for choosing self-employment (Ibid.). Mothers of young children choose self-employment as a way to manage the “second shift” and more often than fathers use self-employment as a strategy for work-life balance (Marler & Moen, 2005; Walker & Webster, 2007). However, self-employed individuals seem to experience more conflict between work and family than employees (Johansson Sevä & Öun, 2015; Nordenmark, Vinberg, & Strandh, 2012), even though the variation is large. The phenomenon often labled work-family conflict is ‘a form of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures from work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect’ (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985). There is no cocensus on whether men or women reort higher levels of conflict, but clearly gender norms are important for perceptions of work-family conflict (Hagqvist, 2016). Self-employed individuals, due to more job control, seem to be able to distribute their time better than employees (Nordenmark et al., 2012). Meanwhile, self-employed individuals state that they are always on, constantly developing the company, marketing, seeking new opportunities or worrying about income (Hilbrecht & Lero, 2014). Possibilities to successful combine work and family demands when self-employed also differ depending on economic resources. Self-employed persons who experience dependence on clients and few possibilities to adapt working hours and amount of work experience work-family conflict more often than self-employed persons with low dependency on clients but high autonomy (Annink & den Dulk, 2012; Kunda, Barley, & Evans, 2002). Thus, the benefits gained by choosing self-employment as opposed to organisational employment may be outweighed by costs that can affect the ability to balance work and family (Bunk, Dugan, D’Agostino, & Barnes-Farrell, 2012). Also, the ability to fend of conflicts between work and family is ingrained ingendered constructions and experiences of balance among self-employed individuals (Loscocco, 1997).The fact that self-employment is based on a masculine norms is reflected in studies of working conditions. Working conditions of the self-employed are often characterized by high work load (Stephan & Roesler, 2010) and working more hours per week than the average employee (Eurofound, 2014), especially among men (Hagqvist, Toivanen, & Vinberg, 2016). However, being self-employed has also been related to a situation of high control, in terms of entrepreneurial autonomy and decision making, and the allocation of time and other resources for each of the work tasks (van Gelderen, 2016). Work characteristics function as a recourse for one person and a demand for another (Annink, Den Dulk, & Amorós, 2016). As the typical working conditions for self-employed are masculine (Connell, 2008), it can be stipulated that they are foremost a resource for men and not women. Thus, we need emphasise the role of gender in working conditions among self-employment.Some studies have employed the well-known job control-demand-support model (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) to compare working conditions of the self-employed with wage earners, but results have been contradictory. In some studies, self-employed individuals were found to have more control but also more demands than employees (Nordenmark et al., 2012; Stephan & Roesler, 2010), and these factors explained, at least in part, differences in work-family balance and well-being but also job satisfaction between the self-employed and wage earners. Other studies have discussed the so called “paradox” of the self-employed meaning that although there is clear evidence that the self-employed have more demands, more risks and responsibilities for business success vs failure, and higher work-family conflict, they also often are more satisfied with their job and life in general (Obschonka & Silbereisen, 2015). Several ideas have been brought forward to explain this paradox. For example, it may be that the self-employed are less restricted by organizational regulations or agreements with unions, and thus, there job control differs from that of employees not only in terms of its amount, but also its meaning. This may for example also include employing sub-contractors to do extra work, or being able to work anywhere and at any time. Others suggest that several important factors are overlooked when only studying control and demands, since for instance, it has been found that self-employed with and without employees differ (Johansson Sevä, Vinberg, Nordenmark, & Strandh, 2016), or that conditions vary depending on the economic cycle. The overall financial situation of the business is another salient factor: those in needs for clients and contracts do not find self-employment offers them a lot of freedom and feel forced to work even during free time and vacation days (Annink & den Dulk, 2012). Meanwhile, there is a gender gap in amount and perception of availability in and spillover of work, which is linked to provider status norm (Loscocco, 1997). Clearly, when studying working conditions of the self-employed, the scope has to be extended beyond aspects such as control and demands related to work tasks, to include also questions pertaining to the economic situation (e.g. threat of bankruptcy, business prospects such as security in amounts of clients and contracts) and the overall size and conditions of the business (e.g. number of employees, sector or occupation), but also developments over time (longitudinal studies). Also, perhaps most important, evidence on gendered working conditions in self-employment is still scarce and needs to be put in the spot light.This stream aims to foster a discussion and dialog on the role of gender in self-employment with a focus on working conditions and work-family balance. We welcome multidisciplinary contributions on the following topics:

    - Research focusing on motivating factors for men and women to become self-employed.

    - Studies of gender identities in self-employment

    - Research employing a gender perspective when studying work-family balance for self-employed individuals.

    - Studies emphasising the role of gender in working conditions for self-employed individuals.

    - Research taking new angles to inquire how working conditions, business circumstances and resources differ for women and men in self-employment.

  • 6.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Claudia, Bernhard-Oettel
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Balancing work and life when self-employed: the role of gender contexts2018In: Gender perspectives on self-employment focusing on work - life balance and working conditions, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Division of labor, perceived labor-related stress and well-being among European couples2012In: Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2162-2485, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 452-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective of this study was to analyze how involvement in paid and unpaid work and perceived labor-related stress are re- lated to the well-being of married or cohabiting men and women in Europe. Methods: Data from the European Social Survey round two has been used. The sample consists of 5800 women and 6952 men, aged between 18 - 65 years. Exposure variables were divided into labor involvement, time spent on paid and unpaid work, and la- bor-related stress. Multiple logistic regressions with 95 % confidence interval were used. Re- sults: Women spent more hours on housework than men did, but fewer hours on paid work. Women tended to perceive higher degrees of housework-related stress than men did. Fur- thermore, women who experienced housework- related stress tended to have higher odds of reporting a low level of perceived well-being than men, while men had higher odds of report- ing a low level of perceived well-being when they experienced work/family conflicts. Conclu- sion: For both men and women, the perceptions of labor involvement are of more importance for the well-being than the actual time spent on paid and unpaid work. This implies that, when study- ing the relationship between labor involvement and well-being, perceived stress should be con- sidered.

  • 8.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work-family conflict and well-being across Europe: The role of gender context2017In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 785-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed whether gender context is important to differences in therelationship between work–family conflict (WFC) and well-being across Europe. Wehypothesised that in countries that support equality in work life and where norms supportwomen’s employment, the relationship between WFC and low well-being is weaker than incountries with less support for gender equality. Cohabiting men and women aged18–65 years from 25 European countries were selected from the European Social Survey.A multilevel analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between well-being andWFC, and two measurements were used to represent gender context: gender equality inwork life and norms regarding women’s employment. Contrary to the hypothesis, theresults showed that the negative relationship was stronger in countries with high levels ofgender equality in work life and support for women’s employment than in countries with arelatively low level of gender equality in work life and support for traditional genderrelations. The context in which gender is constructed may be important when studying therelationship between WFC and well-being. In addition, emphasis should be placed onpolicies that equalise both the labour market and the work performed at home.

  • 9.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Perez, G.
    Trujillo Aleman, S.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Are changes in parental leave policies related to gendered time use?: A case study of Spain and SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pérez, Glória
    Barcelona Agency of Public Health.
    Trujillo Alemán, Sara
    Barcelona Agency of Public Health.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Parental leave policies and time use for mothers and fathers: A case study of Spain and Sweden2017In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 2-12, article id 1374103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    States play an important role in gender equality through policy structuring. In this case study, the aim is to explore whether changes in parental leave policies over two decades trickle down to changes in gendered time use in two polarised countries: Sweden and Spain, represented by the Basque Country. Sweden represents dual-earner countries with high relative gender equality, whereas Spain represents a south European policy model supporting a breadwinning/homemaker ideal. The results show that changes in the gendered time use among mothers and fathers in both countries are associated with changes in parental leave policies. Changes in policies directed towards increasing gender equality reduce the gender gap in time use among mothers and fathers and seem to increase gender equality within a country. From these results, the conclusion is that parental leave policies that are structured to promote or enable gender equality could reduce the gender time gap in work among mothers and fathers.

  • 11.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm Universitet.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Balancing Work and Life When Self-Employed: The Role of Business Characteristics, Time Demands, and Gender Contexts2018In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores individual and contextual risk factors in relation to work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and well-being among self-employed men and women. Drawing on data from the fifth round of the European Working Conditions Survey, a sample of self-employed men and women with active businesses was extracted. After applying multilevel regressions, results show that although business characteristics are important, the most evident risk factor for WIL and LIW is time demands. Both time demands and business characteristics also seem to be important factors in relation to gender differences in level of interference. There is a relationship between well-being and both WIL and LIW, and time demands is again an important factor. Gender equality in the labor market did not relate to level of interference, nor did it affect the relationship between interference and well-being. However, in gender-separated analyses, LIW and LIW interacted with gender equality in the labor market in different ways for women’s and men’s well-being. In conclusion, gender relations are important in interference and how interference relates to well-being.

  • 12.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    CHESS, Stockholms universitet.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The gender time gap: Time use among self-employed women and men compared to paid employees in Sweden2019In: Time & Society, ISSN 0961-463X, E-ISSN 1461-7463, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 680-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors set out to study the time use of men and women in Sweden, comparing self-employed and employed individuals. Previous studies indicate that there are reasons to believe that both gendered time use and mechanisms related to time use might differ between the self-employed and employees. Employing time use data, the aim was to study whether there are differences in gendered time use between self-employed individuals and employees in Sweden, and furthermore, which mechanism relates to gendered time use among self-employed individuals and employees. The results show that self-employed men and women distribute their time in a more gender-traditional manner than employees. In addition, relative resources are found to be an important factor related to gendered time use among the self-employed. For employees, gender relations tend to be a mechanism related to gendered time use. The conclusion is that working conditions are important for gendered time use and should be considered in future studies.

  • 13.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    CHESS, Stockholm University.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Time strain among employed and self employed women and men in Sweden2015In: Society, Health & Vulnerability, ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 6, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual-earner families are common in Sweden, and most women are involved in the labour market. It has been shown that employees and self-employed individuals perceive their working conditions differently: self-employed individuals are more likely to experience an imbalance between work and family, higher job demands, and the feeling that they must be ‘‘always on.’’ Thus, there may also be a difference between employees and self-employed individuals in terms of perceived time strain. Previous studies have identified differences in time-use patterns among men and women who are employed and self-employed. This study uses time-use data to examine potential gender differences among men and women who are self-employed and those who are employees with regard to time strain effects related to time spent on paid and unpaid work in Sweden. The results show that self-employed individuals, particularly self-employed women, report the highest levels of time strain. For self-employed women, an increase in the time spent on paid work reduces perceived time strain levels, whereas the opposite is true for employees and self-employed men. It is primarily individual and family factors, and not time use, that are related to time strain. The results provide evidence that gender differences in time strain are greater among self-employed individuals than among employees.

  • 14.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The leader identity - a means to experience conflict and constructing balance2018In: Gender, Work and Organisation International Interdisciplinary Conference ABSTRACTS BOOKLET, 13-16 JUNE 2018, 2018, p. 120-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature shows that self-employed individuals seem to experience more conflict between work and family demands than employees but variation is great, especially among self-employed men and women. For instance, studies suggest that women chooses self-employment as a strategy to balance work and family while men uses self-employment as a way to find employment and earnings. Many self-employed individuals describe a feeling of being always on. Self-employment is closely related to masculine values giving emphasis to long work hours and high job demands. Self-employment is an identity and impede men and women to draw a line between work and private life. It is often argued that this is not a problem in the Nordic countries because of high gender equality. However, quantitative data shows rather the opposite.Sparse literature suggest that both men and women use self-employment as a way to ease conflict between work and family. In recent years the concept of work-life enrichment has grown as an explanation how one role can improve quality in other roles easing conflicts. Research suggest that high job control for self-employed men and women eases conflict demand and perhaps create enrichment.In this study, we analyzed interview data from managers in 18 small scale enterprises (SSE), of which 8 were women and 10 men, in the central regions of Norway and Sweden aiming to gain a deeper understanding of how they men and women construct and relate to work and private life in their role as managers of SSEs.Preliminary results show that self-employed men and women narrate a strong identification in their leader identity resulting in a duality in relation to work and family. We identify that interviewees describe that conflict seams to part of the deal of being a leader. They describe how the strong leader identity legitimate a high level of conflict among both men and women. This is in line with the notion that self-employment builds on masculine values and women, though being the main responsible of the home, seem to construct these male values. Meanwhile, the strong leader identity is used as a way to construct balance. In their role as managers and leaders they are allowed to be flexible, more flexible than their employees. However, this flexibility is often used as a way to fit work around family. Lastly, interviewees describe how managerial identity contribute to a work-life enrichment. High job identification gave the leader self-esteem, skills and perspectives which produced a positive affect in relation to work.

  • 15.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Is the gap between experienced working conditions and the perceived importance of these conditions related to subjective health?2018In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the gaps between experienced working conditions (WCs) and the perceived importance of these conditions in relation to subjective health in Swedish public sector workplaces.

    Design/methodology/approach

    In total, 379 employees answered questions concerning WCs and health. Nine WC areas were created to measure the gap between the experienced WCs and the perceived importance of each condition. These WC areas were: physical work environment, social relationships, communication, leadership, job control, recognition, self-development, workplace culture and work/life satisfaction. Subjective health was measured using mental ill health, well-being and general health.

    Findings

    The results indicated relatively large gaps in all nine WC areas. Leadership, physical work environment and work/life satisfaction in particular seemed to be problematic areas with relatively large gaps, meaning that employees have negative experiences of these areas while perceiving these areas as very important. Additionally, all WC areas were significantly related to subjective health, especially regarding mental ill health and well-being; the larger the gaps, the worse the subjective health. The WC areas of work/life satisfaction, self-development, social relationships, communication and recognition had the highest relationships and model fits. This indicates that it is most problematic from an employee’s point of view if there are large gaps within these WC areas.

    Originality/value

    This study improves the understanding of workplace health by exploring the gap between experienced WCs and the perceived importance of these conditions.

  • 16.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences. Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tritter, Jonathan Q
    Aston University, UK.
    Wall, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Nord-Tröndelag Hospital Trust, Norway.
    The Same, Only Different: Doing Management in the Intersection between Work and Private Life for Men and Women in Small-scale Enterprises2019In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to elucidate how male and female managers of small-scale enterprises in Norway and Sweden relate to and experience the intersection between work and private life. A qualitative content analysis was adopted to explore interviews with 18 managers. The analysis resulted in three primary categories: conflict as a part of the deal, using management to construct balance, and management identity contributing to enrichment. A key theme that emerged was doing management. Both men and women reproduced masculine values in describing their management identities and in explaining how they enacted management. This clear identification was used to legitimate conflict, construct balance and explain the interaction between work and private life as enriching. How the managers enacted gender emerged primarily in how they related to family responsibilities and their feelings of guilt in relation to home and children.

  • 17.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Öun, I.
    Changing gender relations, fact or fiction?: Patterns of change in the gendered division of housework and attitudes toward gender equality over two decades in 21 countries.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18. Malmusi, Davide
    et al.
    Borrell, Carme
    Suhrcke, Marc
    Toffolutti, Veronica
    O´Campo, Patricia
    Muntaner, Carles
    Mitchell, Christiane
    Freiler, Alix
    Julià, Mireia
    Vanroelen, Christophe
    Tarafa, Gemma
    Ollé, Laia
    Sánchez, Esther
    Artazcoz, Lucía
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Benach, Joan
    Melis, Giulia
    Tabasso, Matteo
    Kunst, Anton
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Palència, Laia
    Camprubí, Lluís
    Díaz, Fernando
    Bosch, Jordi
    Salvador, Maria
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa
    Pérez, Glòria
    Bosáková, Lucia
    Belak, Andrej
    Social and economic policies matter for health equity: Conclusions of the SOPHIE project2015Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sickness Presenteeism among the Self-employed and Employed in Northwestern Europe—The Importance of Time Demands2019In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 224-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job creation. It can be assumed that health and well-being among the self-employed and managers in small-scale enterprises are particularly crucial in this enterprise group because the smallness of the enterprise makes its members vulnerable. Earlier studies have indicated that the self-employed have a high working pace and work for long and irregular hours, indicating that it can be difficult to stay at home because of sickness. The purpose of this study is to investigate the occurrence of sickness presenteeism among the self-employed in relation to the organizationally employed and to analyze whether any differences can be explained by higher work demands among the self-employed. Methods: The study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (2010) and includes the northwestern European countries in the survey. The questions cover a wide range of topics designed to meet the European Union's political needs. The main variables in this study are sickness presenteeism and several indicators of time demands. Results: The results show that the self-employed report a higher level of sickness presenteeism than the employed: 52.4 versus 43.6%. All indicators of time demands are significantly related to the risk for sickness presenteeism, also when controlling for background characteristics. Conclusion: The results confirm that the level of sickness presenteeism is higher among the self-employed and that high time demands are a major explanation to this. 

  • 20.
    Palència, Laia
    et al.
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain ; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain ; Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain.
    De Moortel, Deborah
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium .
    Artazcoz, Lucía
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain ; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain ; Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain ; Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Salvador, Maria
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain ; Training Unit in Preventive Medicine and Public Health PSMar-UPF-ASPB, Barcelona, Spain.
    Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain ; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain ; Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pérez, Glòria
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain ; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain ; Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain ; Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ruiz, Marisol E
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain ; Grup de Recerca en Desigualtats en Salut – Employment Conditions Network (GREDS-EMCONET), Barcelona, Spain.
    Trujillo-Alemán, Sara
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain ; Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain ; Preventive Medicine Service, Hospital General de Fuerteventura, Puerto del Rosario, Spain.
    Vanroelen, Christophe
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium ; Grup de Recerca en Desigualtats en Salut – Employment Conditions Network (GREDS-EMCONET), Barcelona, Spain .
    Malmusi, Davide
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain ; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain ; Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain ; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain ; Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain ; Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain .
    Gender Policies and Gender Inequalities in Health in Europe: Results of the Sophie Project.2017In: International Journal of Health Services, ISSN 0020-7314, E-ISSN 1541-4469, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 61-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to explain the results of the SOPHIE project regarding the effect of gender policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe. We start with the results of a systematic review on how gender regimes and gender equality policies at the country level impact women's health and gender inequalities in health. Then, we report on three empirical analyses on the relationship between different family policy models existing in Europe and gender inequalities in health. Finally we present four case studies on specific examples of gender policies or determinants of gender inequalities in health. The results show that policies that support women's participation in the labor force and decrease their burden of care, such as public services and support for families and entitlements for fathers, are related to lower levels of gender inequality in terms of health. In addition, public services and benefits for disabled and dependent people can reduce the burden placed on family caregivers and hence improve their health. In the context of the current economic crisis, gender equality policies should be maintained or improved.

  • 21.
    Tjulin, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Prerequisites and hindrance in a health-promoting leadership educational intervention: - learning experinces from first line public sector managers2018In: Implementing health promotion in the life course: - user involvement in practice and research / [ed] Siw Tone Innstrand, Geir Arild Espnes, Bjarne Bruun Jensen, Rapportserie Senter for helsefremmende forskning , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Tjulin, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Managers’ learning process during a health-promoting leadership intervention2019In: Health Education, ISSN 0965-4283, E-ISSN 1758-714X, Vol. 119, no 5/6, p. 350-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose

    The increasingly demanding psychosocial working conditions in Swedish public sector workplaces call for implementation of workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions. There is a need to increase first-line public sector managers’ capacities for health-promoting leadership. The purpose of this paper is to investigate first-line managers’ experiences of participating in an intervention aimed at strengthening health-promoting leadership. More precisely, the aim is to study what obstacles and prerequisites the intervention have for their learning processes to become health-promoting managers.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A qualitative study in Northern Sweden at workplaces in the county council and municipalities was conducted. The data were gathered through individual interviews with 18 participating first-line managers. Inductive-content analysis was used to analyse the data.

    Findings

    The results identify time for reflection and collegial discussions about leadership as prerequisites for learning about health-promoting leadership. Managers experienced the intervention as a confirmation of the leadership behaviours already gained. However, the health-promoting leadership intervention was seen as a contradiction, since organisational prerequisites to implement WHP measures were perceived to be lacking. The managers were not involved in the planning of the intervention and questioned why the organisation did not involve them more when the educational activities were created.

    Originality/value

    When the organisation understands how and when its managers learn, what they need and want to learn about WHP, and what they already know, tailored participatory interventions can be facilitated that consider the unique prerequisites for the particular organisation.

  • 23.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Department of Public Health Sciences Stockholm University.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sickness Presence Among Self-Employed In Western Europe – The Importance Of Psychosocial Working Conditions2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-employed is an interesting category when it comes to the phenomenon of sickness presence. To our knowledge, there are few studies of sickness presence among self-employed. In addition, earlier studies have indicated that self-employed have a high working pace and work many and irregular ours (Gunnarsson, Vingård, & Josephson, 2007; Nordenmark, Vinberg & Strandh, 2012; Parasuraman & Simmers, 2001), indicating that it can be problematic and frustrating to stay at home because of illness. Also, self-employed can be seen as a group with low replace ability, which can contribute to high sickness presence (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005).  Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the occurrence of sickness presence among self-employed in relation to employees, and to analyse if possible differences between the groups can be explained by different psychosocial working conditions related to work demands and time pressure.

    European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job-creation (Eurofound, 2017). The proportion of self-employed individuals in the employed labour force in Europe is around 15 percent. Most of the self-employed choose to become self-employed and have good working conditions and job quality. However, around one of five of the self-employed report that they have no alternative for work and they have lower levels of job quality and worse well-being compared to the former group of self-employed (ibid.). Several studies show that the self-employed have very high decision authority and control how work is organised (Hundley, 2001; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). Conversely, most research on the characteristics of the self-employed finds that they report higher job demands and a higher workload than employees do (Nordenmark et al., 2012; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). In general, research show that self-employment is associated with a higher degree of job satisfaction than regular employment (Benz & Frey, 2004; Blanchflower, 2004: Lange, 2012). Research show that high adjustment latitude can contribute to fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence (Gerich, 2014). However, according to a recent review research concerning other health outcomes among self-employed show contradictory results (Stephan, 2017). Although, research about sickness presence has increased during the last decade relatively few organizational scholars are familiar with the concept (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005; Johns, 2010). Sickness presence can cause productivity loss and higher organizational costs than sickness absence (Cooper & Dewe, 2008) and increase the risk for illness among individuals (Bergström et al., 2009). It can be assumed that sickness presence and health among self-employed are particularly crucial in this enterprise group due to that the smallness make them vulnerable.

    This present study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (EWCS) 2015, which has become an established source of information on working conditions and employment in EU Member States. The independent variable – employment type consists of the categories self-employed (with and without employees) and employees. The main independent variable is sickness presence and is measured by the following question: Over the past 12 months did you work when you were sick (1=Yes, 0=No). Several indicators of work demands, time pressure and background variables are used in the analysis.

     

    Preliminary study results show that self-employed report a higher level of sickness presence than employed; 52.4 verses 43.6 percent. The mean number of working hours is 43.5 among self-employed and 35.4 among employed. Self-employed have worked in the evenings on average nearly 7 days a month, which is more than twice as many times as for employees. It is also twice as usual that self-employed have worked on a Sunday compared to employees.  Self-employed have on average worked in the free time once or twice a month and employees have on average worked on their free time less often. All the differences between self-employed and employed are clearly significant and indicate a higher level of sickness presence and time pressure among self-employed. In a bivariate analysis, self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence. When controlling for the indicators of time pressure this relationship becomes insignificant. This means when holding the indicators of time pressure on a constant level there is no significant difference between self-employed and employed regarding the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicator that explains the most of the difference in sickness presence between self-employed and employed is work in free time. All indicators of time pressure are significant related to the risk for sickness presence; the more hours worked and the more often worked in evenings, on Sundays and in the free time, the higher the risk for reporting sickness presence. All these variables are also significant associated to the risk for sickness presence when controlling for background characteristics. Age is significantly associated to sickness presence in the way that a higher age reduces the risk for reporting sickness presence. Women more often report sickness presence than men do. Civil status is not significantly associated to sickness presence. Having children increases the risk for sickness presence and having household economic difficulties increases the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicators of time pressure contribute most to the level of explained variance in all performed regression models.

    The results show that self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence than employed have. This difference is explained by the variables measuring time pressure, which indicates that the self-employed have a higher risk of reporting sickness presence because they experience more time pressure. In the extended paper, we will include other psychosocial working conditions as e.g. job control and consider different clusters of self-employed. The contribution to the small group meeting will be knowledge about sickness presence among different groups of self-employed and implications for researchers and practitioners.

1 - 23 of 23
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf