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  • 1.
    Gynnild, Astrid
    et al.
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Simonsen, Anna Hege
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo and Akershus University College for Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Weselius, Hanna
    Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture, Finland.
    Introduction: Photojournalism and editorial processes: Global similarities, local differences2017In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 38, no Special Issue 2, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    A faster kind of photojournalism?: Image-selection processes in a Swedish newsroom2017In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 38, no Special Issue 2, p. 41-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines factors influencing the editorial processing of photographs, the impact of photojournalistic practices on those processes as well as perceptions of images. Perspectives on visual gatekeeping and the news value of photographs were applied to a newsroom and interview study with a specific focus on photographs for the main news section of a Swedish newspaper. Findings identified routines, publication formats and resources as key factors, with some challenges posed by mobile publication formats and a focus on routine news. Photo editors were found to have a key function asserting expertise in a shared and interactive process. Yet changing routines and a reduced visual expertise on weekends were found to result in some lower image quality. While the ‘observed moment’ appeared to remain a photojournalistic ideal among visual gatekeepers, there were divergent perceptions found of the current and future functions of the news photograph. 

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. University of Iowa.
    A Photographer’s View of the Transition: An Interview with Pilar Aymerich2006In: Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies, ISSN 1096-2492, E-ISSN 1934-9009, Vol. 10, p. 251-265Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Against the Grain: Photojournalism in Transition-era Spain2004In: The 90th annual convention of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL, November 19, 2004.: Winner of a top paper recognition awarded by the Visual Communication Division, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the fascist dictatorship (1939-1975) in Spain, photojournalism was circumscribed by censorship, as were all other aspects of media and culture.  In the early 1970s, however, in tandem with a growing opposition movement, pro-democracy journalists and periodicals sought to push the boundaries of censorship by giving voice and visibility to critics of the government.  In this context, photography became a tool for denouncing and critiquing the regime.  This essay traces this shift by examining photographs of a pro-democracy demonstration held in Barcelona in February of 1976, three months after the death of dictator Francisco Franco.  Drawing on personal interviews with photojournalists and analysis of photographs and publication context, this essay analyzes photographic practices and the relationship between politics and aesthetics in photographs.  The essay concludes that the examined photographs and practices during a period of censorship in Spain were effective tools for advocacy.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Iowa.
    Against the Grain: Photojournalism in Transition-era Spain2004In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 440-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the fascist dictatorship (1939-75) in Spain, photojournalism was circumscribed by censorship, as were all other aspects of media and culture. In the early 1970s, however, in tandem with a growing opposition movement, pro-democracy journalists and periodicals sought to push the boundaries of censorship by giving voice and visibility to critics of the government. In this context, photography became a tool for denouncing and critiquing the regime. This article traces this shift by examining photographs of a pro-democracy demonstration held in Barcelona in February of 1976, three months after the death of dictator Francisco Franco. Drawing on personal interviews with photojournalists and analysis of photographs and publication context, the author analyzes photographic practices and the relationship between politics and aesthetics in photographs, and concludes that the examined photographs and practices during a period of censorship in Spain were effective tools for advocacy.

  • 6.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Bildjournalistikens innehåll2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson Jesper Strömbäck, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 283-297Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science. University of Iowa, USA.
    Going Nowhere: Photographic Representations of Tourists in Small World by Martin Parr2001In: Journeys, ISSN 1465-2609, E-ISSN 1752-2358, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 79-97Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Going Nowhere: Tourist Practices and the Photographic Representation of Tourists in Small World by Martin Parr2000In: The 86th national convention of the National Communication Association, Seattle, WA, November 10, 2000.: Paper presented with an award for top paper, by the Visual Communication Division, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the fascist dictatorship (1939–75) in Spain, photojournalism was circumscribed by censorship, as were all other aspects of media and culture. In the early 1970s, however, in tandem with a growing opposition movement, pro-democracy journalists and periodicals sought to push the boundaries of censorship by giving voice and visibility to critics of the government. In this context, photography became a tool for denouncing and critiquing the regime. This article traces this shift by examining photographs of a pro-democracy demonstration held in Barcelona in February of 1976, three months after the death of dictator Francisco Franco. Drawing on personal interviews with photojournalists and analysis of photographs and publication context, the author analyzes photographic practices and the relationship between politics and aesthetics in photographs, and concludes that the examined photographs and practices during a period of censorship in Spain were effective tools for advocacy. 

  • 9. Nilsson, Maria
    Introduction: On Photography, History and Memory in Spain2011In: Hispanic Issues On Line, ISSN 1931-8006, no 3, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Not So Safe Europeans: Interrogating Identities and Photographic Conventions in Pelle Kronestedt’s Safe European2007In: Inter European Cultural Studies Conference in Sweden, Norrköping, 11-13 juni, 2007.: Linköpings Universitet Electronic press conference proceeding publication series. Inter, Linköping, 2007, p. 449-455Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the intersection of European photography and European identity through a discussion of Safe European; a photographic project on identity and youth unemployment by Swedish photographer Pelle Kronestedt. In an analy¬sis informed by semiotics and work on the political rhetoric of photography; the author argues that; through display in an unusual exhibition locale and an unexpected focus for a documentary photographic project on such a subject; Safe European subverts expectations and raises questions about photographic repre¬sentation and cultural attitude

  • 11. Nilsson, Maria
    Review of Visualizing Spanish Modernity2007In: Letras Peninsulares, p. 254-257Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The (Hi)story of a Suitcase: A Recovered Photographic Archive from the Spanish Civil War2009In: The 95th annual convention of the National Communication Association (NCA), Chicago, IL, November 13, 2009.: Paper presented on the Visual Communication Division, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the Spanish Civil War photographs of Agustí Centelles i Ossó (1909-1985) a Spanish exile and photographer whose archive was recovered after the Franco’s dictatorship and whose work has been compared to Robert Capa. The paper addresses the 2009 NCA Convention theme--discourses of stability and change--by reading the archive in context of shifting discursive formations about history and memory. 

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    The return of the photo book: Materiality as a vehicle for storytelling in the digital era2016In: 3d International Photomedia conference, "Photographic materialities" at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture, March 29-31, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The photography book dates back to the infancy of the photographic medium as an important form of image presentation. Fast forward to the mid 20th century when the photo essay was popularized in book form: think Robert Frank The Americans as a prime example of the sequenced visual story. In today’s digital culture, in turn, there is a resurgence of interest in the photo book as a tool for image-makers to present their work. Indeed, there are perhaps more photo books published today than ever before, the design and distribution of the work facilitated by digital technologies. The current interest is also visible in scholarship and literature, such as in the multi-volume The Photobook: A History (Parr and Badger, Eds.), and in university courses focusing on topics such as the concept, design and process of making a photo book.

    This study explores the reasons why image-makers turn to the photo book as a way of presenting work, a current trend perhaps eclipsing the exhibition. A second line of inquiry is how the photo book may structure visual story telling and a third how the photo book is perceived. Empirically, the study examines examples of two phenomena. The first phenomenon is the photo book in the realm of photojournalism and social documentary where an examination of current examples suggests that the failure of the news media to support in-depth stories has contributed to a resurgence of the photo book as an alternative way of presenting sustained visual narratives. The second phenomenon is the function of social media, where image-makers reach potential readers and, by extension, publishers for the work.

    A combination of methods are used, including interviews with image-makers, designers and users of photo books, as well as analyses of the presentation of books on social media sites and analyses of narrative in visual storytelling drawing on tools from rhetoric. 

    The study focuses in part on the impetus of image-makers to turn to the photo book as a tool, be it as a form of self-expression or the communication of social issues. A second, theoretical focus is the materiality of the book. The question addressed here is whether the popularity of the photo book indicates a yearning in an ephemeral, digital culture for the material object and, specifically in this case, for the presentation of photographs in durable, printed form. 

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    The Visual Face of the News: Front-page Photographs in the Newsroom Process2015In: Nordmedia Media Presence-Mobile Modernities 2015 conference, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper abstract

    Recent research has shown that photographs dominate over text in newspapers, especially but not exclusively on page one. However, a widespread shift to tabloid-format newspapers, new design concepts, and a pre-planned template and shifting reading habits, contribute to placing new demands on front-page images. At the same time, the emergence of digital editions in the past two decades and the introduction of video and web-TV updated on a 24-7 basis have made newsroom practices more complex.

     

    Such recent and ongoing shifts raise questions that are the point of departure for this paper, specifically concerning decision-making processes about visual journalism and the characteristics of news photographs. Thus, through newsroom observations and interviews, and drawing from theories of news judgment, gatekeeping and commercialization, this study analyzes discursive practices and routines in two Swedish newsrooms. The specific focus is the process for page-one photographs and visual content in digital newspaper editions. A second aim is to examine what the increased visualization of the news means for photojournalism or, simply put, what constitutes photojournalism on page one. This is addressed through an aesthetic analysis of how images construe news value.

     

    The purpose is to learn how visual journalism is discussed, framed, understood and valued, how decisions about images are made and who makes them, and how the chosen images adhere to journalistic ideals. The study is currently underway with results forthcoming in the spring of 2015.

     

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Traveling in the Aural Sense: Sound and Cultural Representations in the Radio Show The Savvy Traveler2001In: The 87th annual convention of the National Communication Association, Atlanta, GA. November 2, 2001.: Paper presented on American Studies Panel, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Lindblom, Terje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Wadbring, Ingela
    Nordicom Göteborgs universitet.
    Visuella nyhetsmedier2016In: Journalistik i förändring: Om mediestudiers innehållsanalys 2007 och 2014 / [ed] Lars Truedsson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2016, p. 135-144Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Wadbring, Ingela
    Nordicom Gothenburg University.
    Not Good Enough?: Amateur Images in Print and Online Mainstream News Media2015In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 484-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing flow of amateur images of global crises presents challenges and opportunities for mainstream news media. Furthermore, many news organizations now solicit eyewitness reports for near-instant upload to Web editions. Yet, there is a lack of empirical research on amateur images in the regular news flow, in particular in newspapers. Thus, this case study examines the general frequency of amateur content, the gatekeeping process and the opinions of editors making decisions about images for publication in the online and print editions of four Swedish newspapers. Our findings, based on quantitative content analyses and interviews, indicate that a majority of the content falls in the hard-news category in contrast to findings in previous research about user-generated text content. Moreover, it appears regularly but in small numbers in a tabloid-content daily and a regional paper but hardly ever in broadsheet-content papers, and that opinions in the newsroom about amateur images vary from a lack of interest to a stated need for them in the regular news coverage. The low impact of amateur content may be due to the gatekeeping process and professional standards of photography, as well as a lack of audience interest and difficulties in implementing new structures in the newsrooms. In sum, the findings disprove predictions in the literature of a near-paradigmatic rise of amateur content in the mainstream news media. 

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Wadbring, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Not Good Enough?: Amateur Images in the Regular News Flow of Print and Online Newspapers2017In: Photojournalism and Citizen Journalism: Cooperation, Collaboration, and Connectivity / [ed] Stuart Allan, Abingdon & New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 30-47Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Wadbring, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science. Nordicom Göteborgs Universitet.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    En bild säger mer är tusen ord? Bildjournalistikens förändring i svensk dagspress 1995-20132016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to analyze the development of the journalistic image over time. The study starts in 1995 and ends in 2013; a period characterized by digitalization and paradigmatic changes in the media industry. This project is the first of its kind studying a Swedish context and thus fills a blank spot on the research map, as research on journalism in the digital age has primarily focused on text journalism.

    In chapter one, we introduce the purpose and the three research questions of the study: (1) the amount, form and appeal of the images; (2) the content of the images; and (3) who has taken the picture. In chapter two, we provide a background to today’s photojournalism, and here we bring up the historically prominent role of the magazines, as well as technological, cultural and economic factors behind the emergence of the news image and also media convergence, where journalism is said to become increasingly visual while the professional role is undergoing changes.

    Chapter three presents three theoretical perspectives used in the study. The first represents critical perspectives on tabloidization, where the image is considered having low value as a less important form of journalism compared to texts. The second perspective concerns visual framing, the news value of the image and photojournalistic ideals and norms, whereas the third theoretical perspective brings up the credibility of the image, the changed professional role in today’s journalism and the emergence of amateur images in journalism.

    Methods and limitations are presented in chapter four. In the study, we analyze photojournalism in four newspapers: Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Aftonbladet and Helsingborgs Dagblad. In 2013, we also analyze the digital editions of each newspaper. A quantitative content analysis has been used for the overall survey (a total 17,400 images), whereas a qualitative content analysis has been carried out with regard to the front pages of newspapers, both in printed and digital form. In addition, we have interviewed editors to complement the content studies.

    In chapter five, we answer the research questions using a descriptive rundown of the results. The main findings are the following: The number of images has increased significantly, especially in the evening paper Aftonbladet, whereas feature material rather than news images account for the increase in the other newspapers. The morning papers’ transition to the tabloid format has affected the use of images, which was particularly noticeable on the front pages. However, mainly the very small, stamp-sized images account for the largest increase in the newspapers as a whole. People are the focus of the images, but the change over time is moderate. A noticeable change, however, is an increased number of portraits and posed images, as well as images with eye contact, in particular on the front pages. A large proportion of the pictures are taken by a photographer with a byline. Amateur images are almost entirely absent, and their presence in the general news flow has not increased. All three questions may therefore be answered by there being both changes and continuity over time.

    Finally, in chapter six, the results are linked to the theoretical perspectives used in the study. The results are in line with previous research in the sense that the number of images has increased significantly. On the other hand, the results contradict the widespread perception that journalism has become increasingly visual, due to the fact that the very small, frequently generic and hard-to-read images are what account for the largest increase in the four newspapers.

    A higher degree of visualization and an increase in the use of a visual design where the image forms a part of graphics, which according to previous studies may be an indication of tabloidization, was found on the front pages, but not inside the newspapers in the same way. The qualitative analysis of the front pages showed that the morning papers are focusing more and more on feature material, which is possibly a sign of a shift in news value, where news events are no longer the most important on the front pages as they are already “old” by the time the newspapers are printed.

    Inside the newspapers, feature images have increased the most over time. This development, in addition to a large proportion of portraits and posed images but few unposed images, may be seen as an intimate and personified appeal, which in turn may be a sign of soft journalism. However, the proportion of unposed images has not dropped significantly over time.

    The literature has continuously predicted that amateur images will play an increasingly important role in journalism. This has not happened. Amateur images are only marginally important in the general news flow in the studied newspapers. They may, however, be very important for individual news events, but that is an entirely different matter.

    In conclusion, previous studies have shown that the number of images in journalism has increased. This study provides a more complex picture of the scope, function and content of photojournalism, and thus provides additional knowledge concerning the development and conditions for the journalistic image in Swedish daily press over the past two decades.

  • 20.
    Wadbring, Ingela
    et al.
    Nordicom Göteborgs universitet.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Människor tycker om bilder2015In: Fragment: SOM-undersökningen 2014: SOM-rapport nr 63 / [ed] Annika Bergström Bengt Johansson Henrik Oscarsson & Maria Oskarson, Förlag Göteborgs Universitet, 2015, p. 451-462Chapter in book (Other academic)
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