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  • 1.
    Gidlund, Katarina L
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Undisclosed Practices of Digitalization - A critical analysis of representational practice and powerManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to study governmental expert advisory groups on digitalization in order to see if there are some common characteristics inside the group and some relevant characteristics left out that would significantly influence the shared understandings’ and translations of digitalization. The underpinnings are that it is important to study digital representational practices at all levels and that this level often escapes scrutiny. Furthermore, we need to stay close to material performances in order to open up a discussion whether, as a consequence, some translations might come to dominate others, if meanings converge and the technological frame is stabilized, or maybe even closed. The chosen analytical framework stretches from a link in between historical contextuality and technological culture (as in how and where myths and symbolic narratives are constructed), the focus on the process of interpretation (as in the flexibility in how digitalization could be translated and attached to different political goals and values) and a dimension of professional identities and communities of practice when addressing historical contextuality (as in using education and professional experiences and position to explore dominance and power aspects). The results show a homogeneity that is problematic and raises questions of the frames for interpreting what digitalization could and should be and do. We argue that the strong placing of digitalization in the knowledge base disclosed in this study hinders digitalization to be more knowledgeably translated. 

  • 2. Samstad, Anna
    et al.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Assessing Stakeholder Preferences in Urban Planning: A Multi-Attribute Utility Approach2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In urban planning, decision makers often need to take a variety of aspects into account, including stakeholder attitudes. The purpose of this paper is to compare how decision makers and the public assess different criteria in an urban planning project. The study was carried out through interviews and a survey about an urban planning project. By compiling data using multi-attribute utility theory, it was possible to reveal similarities and differences between the decision makers and the public. The findings reveal that the perceived value of the project differed greatly between these two perspectives: The public’s opinion was closer to a status quo perspective, while the decision makers were more optimistic about the project. While some of the differences can partly be explained by uncertainty about the project and the criteria, the results reveal the importance of including thepublic in an early stage of these initiatives. Furthermore, the multi-attribute utility approach is a useful tool for compiling assessments, but additional data is needed for gaining further understanding of stakeholder preferences. Therefore, a mixed-methods approach to collecting stakeholder preferences is suggested.

  • 3.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Decision Making and Value Realization in Multi-Actor e-Government Contexts2016In: The IOS conference proceedings for the Dual IFIP EGOV and ePart 2016 / [ed] Hans Jochen Scholl, 2016, Vol. 23, p. 147-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last two decades, governments around the world have been implementing electronic services in order to create a range of public values and meet new demands from a variety of stakeholders. Such activities fall within the scope of the e-Government research field. Developing large-scale information systems has proven to be a challenging task and many initiatives have ended in failure. This paper explores uncertainty in the e-Government context. How is it related to the various actors in the public sector, and how can decision making be adapted here to improve value realization? Using actor-network theory as an analytical lens, the collaboration of five Swedish municipalities in creating common e-services is examined as a case study. The results indicate that factors beyond decision makers’ control, such as relations outside of a project, create a high degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty can be reduced by creating durable relations between local and global socio-technical actors. Inscribing values into generic software that has a high grade of interoperability should help to strengthen these networks beyond projects and regional borders.

  • 4.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Digitalization: Rise of the (Mega)machines2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon the work of Lewis Mumford, this paper discusses the use of digital technology in terms of polytechnics and monotechnics. The research is conducted by performing a study of prior literature on the history of digital technology in Sweden together with an analysis of Swedish government documents on digitalization. The findings reveal how digital technology was developed for military and scientific needs and then implemented in the public sector, supported by a bureaucratic structure in the 1960s. After a period of pessimism and decentralization in the 1970s and 1980s, digital technology was subject to increased expectations through renewed leadership and additional networked capabilities in the 1990s. After a setback following the dot-com crash, the terminology shifted again: through digital agendas in 2010–2011, digitalization became a dominant term for the use of digital technology in government documents. This paper concludes by presenting five contrast pairs (decentralization and centralization, pluralism and convergence, tool and force, democracy and efficiency, and a serving technology versus a technology that demands adaptation), which can be utilized to analyze what views on technology that become dominant in policies, and practice.

  • 5.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Electronic government: Towards e-democracy or democracy at risk?2019In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 118, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic government (e-Government) is a research field that studies the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the public sector. Such initiatives are often associated with promises of transformational government, which is more efficient and utilizes modern technology to increase democratic engagement. However, research shows that several e-Government initiatives fail to deliver the promised benefits and attract a large portion of citizens. Some researchers argue that many initiatives have been driven by technology rather than by the core values of government, which has resulted in weakened democracy. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this paper is to achieve a greater understanding of risk in the e-Government field. Through a literature study, research papers were analyzed and divided into categories based on their unit of analysis, and ontological and epistemological properties. Four themes were identified in the material: IT security, user adoption, implementation barriers, and policy and democracy. This paper concludes by suggesting these themes would provide a suitable point of departure for a risk management framework in e-Government. Thus, future research should explore ways to converge these different strands of literature in multi-disciplinary research.

  • 6.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Enablers for Interoperability in Decentralized e-Government Settings2018In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age (dgo '18), Delft, Netherlands. / [ed] Anneke Zuiderwijk and Charles C. Hinnant, ACM Digital Library, 2018, article id 29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability is considered a success factor to effectively implement electronic government. Interoperability can conceptually be understood as properties of a system and its context. The properties of democratic systems are often ill-suited for interoperability and, as such, enablers for interoperability might disrupt a country's constitutional design. Hence, there is a need to advance our knowledge on how to achieve 'democratic interoperability'. The purpose of this paper is to identify interoperability enablers that minimally interfere with a country's democratic constitution. Qualitative data has been collected via interviews and documents from a Swedish case study that involves several organizations and systems. The findings include four enablers: open source software, legal interpretations, tailored resource allocation, and a dedicated agency to manage national infrastructure. These enablers managed to balance demands on increased efficiency and effectiveness with respect for privacy and security of the individual and the jurisdiction and autonomy of government agencies. The results contribute to current discussions about governance related to the implementation of technology in the public sector. The paper concludes by suggesting that interoperability in the public sector must be subject to careful multi-disciplinary decision making to ensure balance within the constitutional setting.

  • 7.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    From Automatic Data Processing to Digitalization: What is Past is Prologue2019In: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Ida Lindgren, Marijn Janssen, Habin Lee, Andrea Polini, Manuel Pedro, Rodríguez Bolívar, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, 2019, p. 31-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments across the world are intensifying their use of digital technology. One way to generate an understanding of the effects of technology in the public sector is to study values. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how values in the Swedish national e-Government have developed over time. This research studies Swedish government documents between 1961 and 2018 during three periods of computerization: Automatic Data Processing, Information Technology, and Digitalization. A theoretical framework that consists of four value positions (i.e. professionalism, efficiency, service, and engagement) is utilized. The findings suggest that technological paradigms tend to generate value congruence in policy documents, followed by value divergence in evaluations. Currently, digitalization is perceived as the enabler of several values. While both IT and digitalization are referred to as tools or means, the development towards an information, knowledge, or data-driven society is also described as inevitable. The service ideal became dominant through the use of internet-based technology, while efficiency is often prioritized in large-scale projects. Engagement values are associated with a futuristic form of democracy in government documents, but rarely converted into practice. The role of professionalism is two-fold: it acts both as an enabler and as a constraint to the other values. The paper concludes with suggesting that the current development of adapting laws and regulations to enable digitalization might lead to an eroded bureaucracy, with uncertain value.

  • 8.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    If Digitalization is the Solution, What is the Problem?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of policies on different levels of government (including EU, national, regional and local) concerns the use of digital technology. Drawing upon prior research that suggests that many e-Government policies contain myths and visionary images about technology, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the discourse on digitalization through an analysis of a Swedish digitalization policy. The research utilized a theoretical framework which describes four views on technology. The methodology used was interpretative, based on a "What’s the problem represented to be?" (WPR) approach. The findings suggest that the discourse on digitalization in the policy shifts between describing a serving, and a dictating technology. Digitalization is presented as a solution to external problems, based on the condition that we adapt to a future, data-driven society. The policy remains silent about groups and individuals that do not want take part in the digital society, since the proposed solution is that everyone should embrace the technology. The paper concludes with suggestions of alternative perspectives on technology. As such, this paper contributes to the current literature with critical reflections of how technology is represented in a digitalization policy.

  • 9.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Public Values and Decision Making in the Swedish e-Government Context2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses topics of public values and decision making in relation to the use of technology in the public sector. The research is conducted in the Swedish government context. A range of values that is specific to the public sector has been defined and classified in prior research. These public values can be defined as normative agreements of how a government should act. The Swedish government spends SEK 46.5 billion on information technology every year. Some of these funds are invested in improvements that are intended to increase efficiency and openness, as well as to make it easier for citizens to use government services. Such ambitions are studied in the e-Government research field. The literature suggests that reasons to question the promised values of implementing technology in the public sector exist and that many initiatives ultimately fail. The public sector has some unique features that may increase complexity, such as the variety of stakeholders and multitude of organizations that are both involved in the development process and affected by the outcomes. The purpose of this thesis is to explore public values and decision making in the Swedish e-Government context by posing three research questions. 1: How can public values be utilized in decision making? 2: Under what conditions are decisions made in the studied context? 3: How can value-based decision making be adopted by e-Government practice? The thesis is based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered from case studies and a survey. Its theoretical contribution is a comparison of theoretical concepts from decision theory and public values, which are then applied to e-Government. Several fragmented concepts from e-Government can be tied together under decision theory. The study’s results show that many decisions are taken under a great deal of uncertainty due to the absence of formal support mechanisms. The Swedish public administration leans toward a variety of project models in its work with e-Government, and these models constitute the arena in which decisions are made and risk analysis is performed. However, many risks as well as opportunities reside beyond the studied projects’ control. Holistic stakeholder inclusion and risk analysis are suggested as practices beneficial for increasing value and reducing uncertainty. The thesis concludes by suggesting that further research should continue to apply concepts from decision theory on e-Government. This includes revealing the motivations and values behind digitalization of the public sector.

  • 10.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Risk and Decision in Collaborative e-Government: An Objectives-Oriented Approach2016In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 35-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Developing e-services in the public sector is a demanding task that involves a variety of stakeholders and values. Further complexity is added by organizational and institutional challenges, especially when specialized government agencies are expected to collaborate to create seamless, integrated services. This paper focuses on decision making and risk analysis in two Swedish collaborative e-Government cases. Empirical material consists of semi-structured interviews and project documentation, which are analyzed using an objectives-oriented Logical Framework Approach (LFA). The results highlight two factors that influence the outcomes of the projects; governance for collaboration and financial models for distributing resources between government agencies. When these formal support mechanisms are not provided, they become risks for the projects and create uncertainties in decision processes. While the studied government context has matured enough to develop fully functional platforms for e-services, these uncertainties become issues when public values are to be measured and evaluated. The paper concludes by suggesting the use of public values as objectives together with measurable indicators in order to create a common language for decision making and risk management across government agencies.

  • 11.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Shaping up e-Participation Evaluation: A Multi-criteria Analysis2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): 10th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018 / [ed] Edelmann, N., Parycek, P., Misuraca, G., Panagiotopoulos, P., Charalabidis, Y., Virkar, S., Springer, 2018, Vol. 11021, p. 3-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-Participation is the use of internet-based technology to empower and include citizens in government decision making processes. The United Nations has evaluated e-Participation around the globe on a regular basis. This evaluation has been criticized for not corresponding to reality, thus allowing non-democratic regimes to gain high positions simply by offering web services. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this paper was to develop a method for evaluating e-Participation, which takes into account a nation’s democratic system. Multi-criteria decision analysis was utilized to create a new index by combining datasets of democracy and equality with the UN e-Participation Index 2016. In the new index, authoritarian regimes have lower ranks, and it performed better than UN’s index when testing it towards perceived corruption. The paper concludes by suggesting that the proposed method should be accompanied by indicators of the actual use and impact of e-Participation processes. The results of this study contribute to the improvement of e-Participation evaluation practice by introducing normative criteria of good governance.

  • 12.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Teaching Fundamental Concepts of Industrial Engineering and Management by Using Examples from the Video Game Industry2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experiences from using examples from the video game industry to teach fundamental concepts and theories of Industrial Engineering and Management. The video game console Dreamcast, which was released by SEGA in Japan in 1998, and discontinued in 2001, was used as a case to let engineering students analyze the trajectory of the console. A framework based on First Principles of Instruction was used to analyze the learning situation. The material consists of students’ assignment and evaluations, and the responsible teacher’s reflections. Students generally appreciated the opportunity to apply skills to explain a real-world problem. Pre-knowledge of the context was different between male and female students, which needs to be taken into consideration in future variants of the course. Teacher’s reflections summarized advantages in using an example from a differentiated market that many students are familiar with and that has a history related to engineering and economics. Disadvantages included formal limitations in course duration and evaluation, but also lack of peer-reviewed material, and the reputation of video-games asjust being “toys”.

  • 13.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    The Relation Between Digital Technology and Values: Thinking Through Multiple Technologies2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses two topics: technology and values. More specifically, the studied technology is an ensemble of digital technologies that is often referred to as “digitalization,” and the values are gathered from empirical material from the Swedish (digital) government. The purpose of the thesis is to generate an enhanced understanding of the relation between digital technology and values. The study is motivated by, a) a need to theorize digital government research, b) a need to establish a link between narratives of technology and research on values, and c) a need to disclose how investments in digital technology are legitimized. The research question of this thesis is, “how can we understand the relation between digital technology and values?” To answer this question, theoretical concepts that are rooted in philosophy of technology are used: polytechnics and monotechnics, externalism, and internalism. Moreover, a theory of four value positions, namely professionalism, efficiency, service, and engagement is used. The thesis revolves around five papers, and its methodological approach is characterized by pragmatism. Data were gathered from relevant literature and document studies, an analysis of expert groups, and survey results from national and local government entities. The findings from the papers were subject to a narrative analysis. This analysis generated three conclusions, which constitute the theoretical contribution of the thesis. The relation between digital technology and values can be understood from these three key conclusions:

    The first regards convergence, and incorporates two narratives of digital technology: as a polytechnic tool, and as a monotechnic force: a machine. Digital technology is pluralistic in the sense that it may enable several values through multiple technological frames. In parallel, it relies on uniformity and standardization. The technology is therefore subject to several tensions. The story of the machine tends to become dominant through calls for action: it emphasizes the need for rapid adaptation of both individuals and society. In digital government, such adjustment would include an uncertain transformation of professionalism values. The legitimacy of this transformation is highly dependent on which story of technology it is based on.

    The second conclusion concerns technology as a paradigm. The digital paradigm, as studied in this thesis, is characterized by a story about a technological society for everyone. However, this story stems from a narrow range of actors with respect to educational and geographical context. A broadened view of digital technology and values would require a more symmetrical range of norms, since how values manifest themselves is dependent on the properties of the paradigm.

    The third and final conclusion regards congruence and divergence. The relation between digital technology and values is shifting between value congruence, and value divergence. When digital technology becomes associated with a narrative of progress that suggests that its value lies in the future while the present is ”transformative,” it can develop in a seemingly self-augmented and autonomous manner. Contrasting stories of value divergence can be found in evaluations from practice. However, this divergent narrative is repositioned as a story of “barriers”, which tells us that values can be realized if society adapts. The interplay between these narratives has implications for how we perceive value realization.

    The thesis concludes with the following summarizing contributions. Theoretically, it produces an enhanced understanding of the relation between digital technology and values, as described above. Through this theoretical understanding, a link between narratives of technology and values is established empirically. By doing so, this thesis has revealed how values are legitimized, manifested and perceived, depending on what technology ”is”. Finally, a societal need is fulfilled by suggestions for policy making. Democratization of the norms associated with digital technology would improve governance in the sense that policy makers would have to actively choose between incommensurable views. As a result of this, accountability would increase, together with transparency concerning the narratives that inform policy.

  • 14.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Value Positions and Relationships in the Swedish Digital Government2019In: Administrative Sciences, ISSN 2076-3387, E-ISSN 2076-3387, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments across the world spend vast resources on implementing digital technology. Electronic, or digital, government is the use and study of Internet-based information and communication technology in the public sector. A point of departure in this study is that investments in technology are not value-free; they require allocation of limited resources and trade-offs between values. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how values are prioritized in the Swedish digital government. This research was conducted by using quantitative data from a survey administered to Swedish municipalities and national agencies. In addition, qualitative data from a database was used to exemplify value operationalization. The research utilized a theoretical framework based on four value positions: professionalism, efficiency, service, and engagement. The findings reveal that service and quality, and productivity and legality have a high priority, while engagement values are less prioritized. Differences based on organization type and size are also discussed. Moreover, the study suggests that professionalism and efficiency are distinct value positions, while service and engagement are closely related through citizen centricity. The qualitative material suggests that citizen centricity can manifest itself as a form of service logic, but also in the form of educational digital inclusion activities for vulnerable groups. The paper concludes by suggesting that future research should further refine the concept of citizen centricity in relation to digital government values, since its current meaning is ambiguous.

  • 15.
    Sundberg, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Katarina L
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Towards Industry 4.0?: Digital Maturity of the Manufacturing Industry in a Swedish Region2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the digital maturity of the manufacturing industry in a Swedish region. Data is collected using a survey conducted among the manufacturing industry in the region. Variables are based on prior research on digital maturity and Industry 4.0, and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. An initial finding was that several of the small organizations within the manufacturing industry does not have a basic digital presence in the form of a website, email or social media accounts, which calls for alternative approaches when assessing and developing digital maturity among these actors. The results from the survey reveal that perceived potential of digitalization and organizational enablers are ranked higher than actual operationalizations in the form of technology implementations and projects. Moreover, the digital maturity varies on variables such as organization size, location of customer base, and level of technological output. Organizations with a high degree of female employees perceive a higher digital maturity concerning some variables, which is an interesting subject for further studies. The overall conclusion is that a large part of the industrial sector in the region has not implemented anything that resemble the concept of Industry 4.0 in the literature.

  • 16.
    Sundberg, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    The Impact of Formal Decision Processes on e-Government Projects2017In: Administrative Sciences, ISSN 2076-3387, E-ISSN 2076-3387, Vol. 7, no 2, article id UNSP 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies associations between the use of formal decision-making processes in e-Government projects and the outcomes of these projects. By doing so, this study contributes to the decision sciences as well as to the fields of e-Government, information systems and public administration. Data were collected using a survey conducted among Swedish national government agencies and municipalities. Variables that have been investigated are the defining and weighting of objectives, resource allocation and assessment of whether objectives are met, as well as to what extent risk analysis was conducted. The results reveal that successful projects distinguish themselves by involving more activities related to formal decision-making procedures, especially with respect to stakeholder inclusion and weighting of objectives. These initiatives also manage more types of risks, including organizational issues. Future research should continue to explore the possible benefits of formal decision-making and risk analysis in e-Government.

  • 17.
    Sundberg, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lindblad-Gidlund, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Value-Based Decision Making: Decision Theory Meets e-Government2017In: Electronic Government: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M., Axelsson, K., Glassey, O., Klievink, B., Krimmer, R., Lindgren, I., Parycek, P., Scholl, H.J., Trutnev, D., Springer, 2017, p. 351-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic government, or e-Government, is the use of information and communication technology in the public sector. As a research field, it is characterized as multi-disciplinary with heritage from both the information systems and public administration fields. This diverse background may be beneficial, but it may also result in a fragmented theoretical base and conceptual vagueness. This paper applies decision theory to e-Government to tie a number of theoretical and practical concepts together. In particular, five concepts from decision theory (i.e. objectives, stakeholder inclusion, weighting and resource allocation, risk analysis, and outcomes assessment) are compared with counterparts in e-Government. The findings have both theoretical and practical implications. First, they add to and unite e-Government theory. Second, practical methods for operationalizing the theoretical concepts are proposed. This operationalization includes using a holistic approach to e-participation throughout decision processes.

  • 18.
    Sundberg, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Mitt - Ditt - Vårt universitet2017In: Mitt, ditt och vårt universitet: Att förstå något gemensamt / [ed] Katarina Giritli Nygren & Katarina L. Gidlund, Sundsvall / Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 17-30Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 18 of 18
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