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  • 1.
    Allison, Robert S.
    et al.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE AB (Acreo).
    Chandler, Damon M.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Colett, Hannah R.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Corriveau, Philip J.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Daly, Scott
    Dolby Laboratories Inc., Sunnyvale, California, United States.
    Goel, James
    Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., Display Video Processing Group, Markham, Canada.
    Long, Juliana Y.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Wilcox, Laurie M.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Yaacob, Yusizwan M.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Yang, Shun-nan
    Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon, United States.
    Zhang, Yi
    Xi’an Jiaotong University, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an, China.
    Perspectives on the definition of visually lossless quality for mobile and large format displays2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1-23, article id 053035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in imaging and display engineering have given rise to new and improved image and videoapplications that aim to maximize visual quality under given resource constraints (e.g., power, bandwidth).Because the human visual system is an imperfect sensor, the images/videos can be represented in a mathematicallylossy fashion but with enough fidelity that the losses are visually imperceptible—commonly termed“visually lossless.” Although a great deal of research has focused on gaining a better understanding ofthe limits of human vision when viewing natural images/video, a universally or even largely accepted definitionof visually lossless remains elusive. Differences in testing methodologies, research objectives, and targetapplications have led to multiple ad-hoc definitions that are often difficult to compare to or otherwise employ inother settings. We present a compendium of technical experiments relating to both vision science and visualquality testing that together explore the research and business perspectives of visually lossless image quality,as well as review recent scientific advances. Together, the studies presented in this paper suggest that a singledefinition of visually lossless quality might not be appropriate; rather, a better goal would be to establish varyinglevels of visually lossless quality that can be quantified in terms of the testing paradigm.

  • 2.
    Andrén, B.
    et al.
    NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden .
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden .
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden .
    Readability of displays in bright outdoor surroundings2014In: SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 2014, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 1100-1103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Readability of displays in bright outdoor surroundings is a problem for many types of visual displays. The wide range of lighting conditions that these displays should be able to operate in, makes the design of the test set-up very challenging. Mobile displays of today usually have LCDs with LED backlight or OLEDs, which gives the possibility to control the light levels from very low luminance or even zero luminance to very high luminance levels with good contrast and color rendering. There are many displays that can show high luminance (>1000 cd/m2) and with that are considered or claimed to have daylight or sunlight readability. However, these statements are rarely supported by scientific tests with test subjects. This paper will discuss and analyze the conditions for performing such experiments. Experimental results that the visual acuity is negatively affected by strong illuminance are presented.

  • 3. Andrén, Börje
    et al.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Characterizations of 3D TV: Active vs passive2012In: SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 2012, Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2012, p. 137-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different techniques are dominating the 3D TV market today i.e. active shutter glasses and passive film patterned retarder. Both the techniques have their pros and cons. In this paper we compare these two types of 3D TV3D TV by evaluating them with respect to some important visual ergonomic parameters such as angle dependent cross talk, luminance levels, flicker and resolution.

  • 4.
    Andrén, Börje
    et al.
    NetLab: IPTV, Video and Display Quality, Acreo AB, 16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    NetLab: IPTV, Video and Display Quality, Acreo AB, 16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Rydell, Niclas
    TCO Development AB, 11394 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fuller, Stephen
    TCO Development AB, 11394 Stockholm, Sweden.
    A comparison of visual ergonomic measurements between active and passive 3DTV2011In: SID Conference Record of the International Display Research Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers , 2011, p. 128-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two latest 3DTV types were tested; active shutter eye-glass type and passive eye-glass type with screen having film pattern retarder. Differences in vertical resolution, cross-talk and luminance were found. This difference in vertical resolution is visible for some types of objects. How this affects the image quality is unclear.

  • 5.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    et al.
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT.
    Cheng, Eva
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Hobart, Australia.
    Möller, Sebastian
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Antons, Jan-Niklas
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Review on using physiology in quality of experience2016In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2016, HVEI 2016, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2016, p. 197-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of Quality of Experience (QoE), one challenge is to design test methodologies in order to evaluate the perceived quality of multimedia content delivered through technical sys-tems. Traditionally, this evaluation is done using subjective opinion tests. However, sometimes it is difficult for observers to communicate the experienced quality through the given scale. Fur-thermore. those tests do not give insights into how the user is reacting on an internal physiological level. To overcome these issues, one approach is to use physiological measures, in order to derive a direct non-verbal response of the recipient. In this paper, we review studies that have been performed in the domain of QoE using physiological measures and we look into current activities in standardization bodies. We present challenges this research faces. and give an overview on what researchers should be aware of when they want to start working in this research area.

  • 6. Barkowsky, M
    et al.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Acreo ICT Swedish AB.
    Ebrahimi, T
    Karam, L
    Lebreton, P
    Le Callet, P
    Perkis, A
    Raake, A
    Subedar, M
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Xing, L
    You, J
    Subjective and Objective Visual Quality Assessment in the Context of stereoscopic 3DTV2013In: 3DTV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering / [ed] Yu, L., Tanimoto, M., and Zhu, C., Springer, 2013, p. 413-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective and objective visual quality assessment in the context of stereoscopic three-dimensional TV (3D-TV) is still in the nascent stage and needs to consider the effect of the added depth dimension. As a matter of fact, quality assessment of 3D-TV cannot be considered as a trivial extension of two-dimensional (2D) cases. Furthermore, it may also introduce negative effects not experienced in 2D, e.g., discomfort or nausea. Based on efforts initiated within the cost action ICT 1003 QUALINET, this chapter discusses current challenges in relation to subjective and objective visual quality assessment for stereo-based 3D-TV. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the current state of the art and some of the remaining challenges. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. All rights are reserved.

  • 7.
    Barkowsky, M
    et al.
    University of Nantes, France.
    Masala, E
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Van Wallendael, G
    Ghent University - iMinds, Belgium.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Staelens, N
    Ghent University - iMinds, Belgium.
    Le Callet, P
    University of Nantes, France.
    Objective Video Quality Assessment - Towards large scale video database enhanced model development.2015In: IEICE transactions on communications, ISSN 0916-8516, E-ISSN 1745-1345, Vol. E98-B, no 1, p. 2-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current development of video quality assessment algorithms suffers from the lack of available video sequences for training, verification and validation to determine and enhance the algorithm's application scope. The Joint Effort Group of the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG-JEG) is currently driving efforts towards the creation of large scale, reproducible, and easy to use databases. These databases will contain bitstreams of recent video encoders (H.264, H.265), packet loss impairment patterns and impaired bitstreams, pre-parsed bitstream information into files in XML syntax, and well-known objective video quality measurement outputs. The database is continuously updated and enlarged using reproducible processing chains. Currently, more than 70,000 sequences are available for statistical analysis of video quality measurement algorithms. New research questions are posed as the database is designed to verify and validate models on a very large scale, testing and validating various scopes of applications, while subjective assessment has to be limited to a comparably small subset of the database. Special focus is given on the principles guiding the database development, and some results are given to illustrate the practical usefulness of such a database with respect to the detailed new research questions.

  • 8. Barkowsky, M.
    et al.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Cousseau, R.
    Brunnstrom, K.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Le Callet, P.
    Subjective quality assessment of error concealment strategies for 3DTV in the presence of asymmetric transmission errors2010In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 18th International Packet Video Workshop (PV, 2010, p. 193-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transmission of 3DTV sequences over packet based networks may result in degradations of the video quality due to packet loss. In the conventional 2D case, several different strategies are known for extrapolating the missing information and thus concealing the error. In 3D however, the residual error after concealment of one view might leads to binocular rivalry with the correctly received second view. In this paper, three simple alternatives are presented: frame freezing, a reduced playback speed, and displaying only a single view for both eyes, thus effectively switching to 2D presentation. In a subjective experiment the performance in terms of quality of experience of the three methods is evaluated for different packet loss scenarios. Error-free encoded videos at different bit rates have been included as anchor conditions. The subjective experiment method contains special precautions for measuring the Quality of Experience (QoE) for 3D content and also contains an indicator for visual discomfort. The results indicate that switching to 2D is currently the best choice but difficulties with visual discomfort should be expected even for this method.

  • 9.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    et al.
    LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France .
    Li, Jing
    LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France .
    Han, Taehwan
    Youn, Sungwook
    Ok, Jiheon
    Lee, Chulhee
    Hedberg, Christer
    Dept. of Netlab, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Ananth, Indirajith Vijai
    Dept. of Netlab, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science. Dept. of Netlab, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Dept. of Netlab, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Le Callet, Patrick
    LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France .
    Towards standardized 3DTV QoE assessment: Cross-lab study on display technology and viewing environment parameters2013In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 864809-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective assessment of Quality of Experience in stereoscopic 3D requires new guidelines for the environmental setup as existing standards such as ITU-R BT. 500 may no longer be appropriate. A first step is to perform cross-lab experiments in different viewing conditions on the same video sequences. Three international labs performed Absolute Category Rating studies on a freely available video database containing degradations that are mainly related to video quality degradations. Different conditions have been used in the labs: Passive polarized displays, active shutter displays, differences in viewing distance, the number of parallel viewers, and the voting device. Implicit variations were introduced due to the three different languages in Sweden, South Korea, and France. Although the obtained Mean Opinion Scores are comparable, slight differences occur in function of the video degradations and the viewing distance. An analysis on the statistical differences obtained between the MOS of the video sequences revealed that obtaining an equivalent number of differences may require more observers in some viewing conditions. It was also seen that the alignment of the meaning of the attributes used in Absolute Category Rating in different languages may be beneficial. Statistical analysis was performed showing influence of the viewing distance on votes and MOS results.

  • 10.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    et al.
    LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes, France.
    Sedano, Iñigo
    TECNALIA, ICT - European Software Institute, Parque Tecnológico de Bizkaia Edificio 202 E-48170 Zamudio, Spain.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Dept. of Netlab, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden, .
    Leszczuk, Mikołaj
    AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, PL-30059 Kraków, Poland.
    Staelens, Nicolas
    Ghent University - iMinds, Department of Information Technology, Ghent, Belgium.
    Hybrid video quality prediction: Re-viewing video quality measurement for widening application scope2015In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 323-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tremendous number of objective video quality measurement algorithms have been developed during the last two decades. Most of them either measure a very limited aspect of the perceived video quality or they measure broad ranges of quality with limited prediction accuracy. This paper lists several perceptual artifacts that may be computationally measured in an isolated algorithm and some of the modeling approaches that have been proposed to predict the resulting quality from those algorithms. These algorithms usually have a very limited application scope but have been verified carefully. The paper continues with a review of some standardized and well-known video quality measurement algorithms that are meant for a wide range of applications, thus have a larger scope. Their individual artifacts prediction accuracy is usually lower but some of them were validated to perform sufficiently well for standardization. Several difficulties and shortcomings in developing a general purpose model with high prediction performance are identified such as a common objective quality scale or the behavior of individual indicators when confronted with stimuli that are out of their prediction scope. The paper concludes with a systematic framework approach to tackle the development of a hybrid video quality measurement in a joint research collaboration.

  • 11.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    et al.
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    NetLab: IPTV, Video and Display Quality, Acreo AB, 16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andrén, Börje
    NetLab: IPTV, Video and Display Quality, Acreo AB, 16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Crosstalk Measurements of Shutter Glasses 3D Displays2011In: 49th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar, and Exhibition 2011, Display Week 2011, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011, p. 812-815Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crosstalk is probably one of the main perceptual factors contributing to perceived image quality and visual comfort. The Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) within their 3D video quality project is specifying a practical measurement procedure that will produce consistent results across laboratories. This paper is part of that effort. Two different method of measuring cross talk on shutter glasses stereo displays have been studied. One is based on time average luminance measurements and the other on temporal measurements. The results show that crosstalk is roughly 0.5% but that there are differences in the crosstalk between the two eyes in the shutter glasses.

  • 12.
    Bosse, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications – Heinrich Hertz Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Research Intstitutes of Sweden AB.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Martini, Maria G.
    Kingston University, London, UK.
    Ramzan, Naeem
    University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    CSIRO Data61, Kensington, Australia.
    A common framework for the evaluation of psychophysiological visual quality assessment2019In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, E-ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of perceived quality based on psychophysiological methods recently gained attraction as it potentially overcomes certain flaws of psychophysical approaches. Although studies report promising results, it is not possible to arrive at decisive and comparable conclusions that recommend the use of one or another method for a specific application or research question. The video quality expert group started a project on psychophysiological quality assessment to study these novel approaches and to develop a test plan that enables more systematic research. This test plan comprises of a specifically designed set of quality annotated video sequences, suggestions for psychophysiological methods to be studied in quality assessment, and recommendations for the documentation and publications of test results. The test plan is presented in this article.

  • 13. Brotherton, M.D
    et al.
    Huynh-Thu, Q
    Hands, D
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Subjective Multimedia Quality Assessment.2006In: IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics Communications and Computer Sciences, ISSN 0916-8508, E-ISSN 1745-1337, Vol. E89-A, no 11, p. 2920-2932Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Brunnström, K
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    3D user experience and display performance2013In: Proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Brunnström, K
    ACREO AB.
    Percieved QoS and Test suites: keynote2008In: ETSI Workshop on Effects of transmission Performance on Multimedia QoS, Prague, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Hands, D
    BT Innovate, UK.
    Speranza, F
    Communications Research Centre, Canada.
    Webster, A
    NTIA/ITS, United States.
    VQEG Validation and ITU Standardisation of Objective Perceptual Video Quality Metrics2009In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For industry, the need to access accurate and reliable objective video metrics has become more pressing with the advent of new video applications and services such as mobile broadcasting, Internet video, and Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Industry-class objective quality- measurement models have a wide range of uses, including equipment testing (e.g., codec evaluation), transmission- planning and network-dimensioning tasks, head-end quality assurance, in- service network monitoring, and client-based quality measurement. The Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) is the primary forum for validation testing of objective perceptual quality models. The work of VQEG has resulted in International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standardization of objective quality models designed for standard- definition television and for multimedia applications. This article reviews VQEG's work, paying particular attention to the group's approach to validation testing.

  • 17.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Acreo, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, L
    Andrén, B
    Visual experience of quality degradation when viewing computer and notebooks displays from an oblique angle2011In: Journal of the Society for Information Display, ISSN 1071-0922, E-ISSN 1938-3657, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 387-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on evaluating the user experience of the viewing-angle-dependent quality of computer and notebook displays. The tests were performed in a test lab using a notebook with a prismatic display and a computer monitor with a conventional LCD. The notebook display was tilted and turned during an image-quality test and tilted during an acuity test. On the computer monitor, the turn and tilt was simulated in the image-quality test, for checking the TCO requirements. The results from the image-quality test show that the parameter used in the TCO requirement, luminance ratio, would be a reasonable predictor of image quality. However, the experiment with the notebook display shows that, in general, this is not the case, especially for larger viewing angles where the physical characteristics do not show a gradual variation in luminance. Therefore, the luminance ratio in TCO requirements shall be used with caution. In addition, the results for the notebook display show that the visual acu ity decreased faster with increasing viewing angle than predicted from the luminance decrease alone. This means that it will be harder to resolve small details and will, therefore, have a negative influence on the visual ergonomics.

  • 18.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schenkman, B
    Jacobsen, B
    Object Detection in Cluttered Infrared Images.2003In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 388-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of the Johnson criteria for infrared images is the probabilities of a discrimination technique. The inputs to the model are the size of the target, the range to it, and the temperature difference against the background. The temperature difference is calculated without taking the background structure into consideration, but it may have a strong influence on the visibility of the target. We investigated whether a perceptually based temperature difference should be used as input. Four different models are discussed: 1. a probability of discrimination model largely based on the Johnson criteria for infrared images, 2. a peak signal-to-noise ratio model, 3. a signal-to-clutter ratio model, and 4. two versions of an image discrimination model based on how human vision analyzes spatial information. The models differ as to how much they try to simulate human perception. To test the models, a psychophysical experiment was carried out with ten test persons, measuring contrast threshold detection in five different infrared backgrounds using a method based on a two-alternative forced-choice methodology. Predictions of thresholds in contrast energy were calculated for the different models and compared to the empirical values. Thresholds depend on the background, and these can be predicted well by the image discrimination models, and better than the other models. Future extensions are discussed.

  • 19.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schenkman, B.N
    Acreo AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparison of the predictions of a spatio-temporal model with the detection of distortion in small moving images2002In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 711-722Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Wang, K
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Andrén, B
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Simulator sickness analysis of 3D video viewing on passive 3DTV2013In: Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIV / [ed] Woods, A. J., Holliman, N. S., and Favalora, G. E., Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. 864802-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    SICS Swedish ICT AB.
    Lagerstedt, Christina
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Kihl, Maria
    Lund University.
    Novak, Anette
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT AB.
    Future Media Distribution: An Innovation Agenda for Digital Media Distribution2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this agenda is to create a solid research and innovation program concerning digital media distribution. It aims at groundbreaking renewal and a sustainable development for both Swedish industry and Swedish society. The agenda starts out by mapping the state of affairs in the Trends-chapter, then points out difficulties in Challenges, provides Goals, and lists the means to achieve these goals in the Activities-chapter.

  • 22.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE ICT/Acreo, Stockholm.
    Allison, R. S.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Chandler, D. M.
    Dolby Laboratories, United States.
    Colett, H.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA, United States.
    Corriveau, P.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA, United States.
    Daly, S.
    Dolby Laboratories, United States.
    Goel, J.
    Qualcomm, Display Video Processing Group, Markham, Canada.
    Knopf, J.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA, United States.
    Wilcox, L. M.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Yaacob, Y.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Yang, S. -N
    Pacific University, Forest Grove, OR, United States.
    Zhang, Y.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Industry and business perspectives on the distinctions between visually lossless and lossy video quality: Mobile and large format displays2017In: IS and T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging Science and Technology, Society for Imaging Science and Technology , 2017, Vol. F130042, p. 118-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore the mobile and business perspectives of visually lossless image quality, as well as review recent scientific advances. It is the outcome from the Special Session on Visually Lossless Video Quality for Modern Devices: Research and Industry Perspectives organized at the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2017 by IS&T at San Francisco Airport, Burlingame, California, USA, Jan 29 - Feb 2, 2017. It summarizes four presentations and a panel discussion.

  • 23.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Ananth, I. V.
    NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Hedberg, C.
    NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Andrén, B.
    NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Barkowsky, M.
    Dept. of Image and Video Communication, IRCCyN, University of Nantes, France .
    Comparison between different rating scales for 3D TV2013In: SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 2013, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 509-512Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stereoscopic 3D viewing experience has been studied quite intensively recently, but still the subjective test methods have not yet been settled. It has become clear that the 3D viewing experience cannot easily be described by just one scale. This paper describes a study where three different rating scales (Quality, Discomfort and Presence) are compared in a subjective test, combined with two viewing distances. The results shows that in a stereoscopic 3D video quality test targeting mainly coding distortions one scale such as video quality could be sufficient. © 2013 Society for Information Display.

  • 24.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista.
    Barkowsky, M.
    University of Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Balancing type I errors and statistical power in video quality assessment2017In: IS and T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging Science and Technology, Society for Imaging Science and Technology , 2017, Vol. F130042, p. 91-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how an experimenter can balance errors in subjective video quality tests between the statistical power of finding an effect if it is there and not claiming that an effect is there if the effect it is not there i.e. balancing Type I and Type II errors. The risk of committing Type I errors increases with the number of comparisons that are performed in statistical tests. We will show that when controlling for this and at the same time keeping the power of the experiment at a reasonably high level, it will require more test subjects than are normally used and recommended by international standardization bodies like the ITU. Examples will also be given for the influence of Type I error on the statistical significance of comparing objective metrics by correlation.

  • 25.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE AB Acreo.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    Deggendorf Institute of Technology (DIT), University of Applied Sciences, Deggendorf.
    Statistical quality of experience analysis: on planning the sample size and statistical significance testing2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 053013-1-053013-11, article id 053013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how an experimenter can balance errors in subjective video quality tests betweenthe statistical power of finding an effect if it is there and not claiming that an effect is there if the effect is not there,i.e., balancing Type I and Type II errors. The risk of committing Type I errors increases with the number ofcomparisons that are performed in statistical tests. We will show that when controlling for this and at thesame time keeping the power of the experiment at a reasonably high level, it is unlikely that the number oftest subjects that are normally used and recommended by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU),i.e., 15 is sufficient but the number used by the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG), i.e., 24 is more likelyto be sufficient. Examples will also be given for the influence of Type I error on the statistical significance ofcomparing objective metrics by correlation. We also present a comparison between parametric and nonparametricstatistics. The comparison targets the question whether we would reach different conclusions on the statisticaldifference between the video quality ratings of different video clips in a subjective test, based on thecomparison between the student T-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test. We found that there was hardly a differencewhen few comparisons are compensated for, i.e., then almost the same conclusions are reached. Whenthe number of comparisons is increased, then larger and larger differences between the two methods arerevealed. In these cases, the parametric T-test gives clearly more significant cases, than the nonparametrictest, which makes it more important to investigate whether the assumptions are met for performing a certaintest.

  • 26.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden AB.
    Dima, Elijs
    Andersson, Mattias
    Sjöström, Mårten
    quresh, tahir
    HIAB.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Quality of Experience of hand controller latency in a Virtual Reality simulator2019In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2019 / [ed] Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt and Jeffrey Mulligan, 2019, Springfield, VA, United States, 2019, article id 3068450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestry crane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Quality of Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for task completion, but also whether there are any discomfort related symptoms experienced during task execution. A QoE test has been designed to capture both the general subjective experience of using the simulator and to study task performance. Moreover, a specific focus has been to study the effects of latency on the subjective experience, with regards to delays in the crane control interface. A formal subjective study has been performed where we have added controlled delays to the hand controller (joystick) signals. The added delays ranged from 0 ms to 800 ms. We found no significant effects of delays on the task performance on any scales up to 200 ms. A significant negative effect was found for 800 ms added delay. The Symptoms reported in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was significantly higher for all the symptom groups, but a majority of the participants reported only slight symptoms. Two out of thirty test persons stopped the test before finishing due to their symptoms.

  • 27.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Jan-Olof
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Uhlin, Tomas
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Active fixation for scene exploration1996In: International Journal of Computer Vision, ISSN 0920-5691, E-ISSN 1573-1405, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 137-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that active selection of fixation points in humans is highly context and task dependent. It is therefore likely that successful computational processes for fixation in active vision should be so too. We are considering active fixation in the context of recognition of man-made objects characterized by their shapes. In this situation the qualitative shape and type of observed junctions play an important role. The fixations are driven by a grouping strategy, which forms sets of connected junctions separated from the surrounding at depth discontinuities. We have furthermore developed a methodology for rapid active detection and classification of junctions by selection of fixation points. The approach is based on direct computations from image data and allows integration of stereo and accommodation cues with luminance information. This work form a part of an effort to perform active recognition of generic objects, in the spirit of Malik and Biederman, but on real imagery rather than on line-drawings.

  • 28.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Eklundh, Jan-Olof
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    On scale and resolution in active analysis of local image structure1990In: Image and Vision Computing, ISSN 0262-8856, E-ISSN 1872-8138, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus-of-attention is extremely important in human visual perception. If computer vision systems are to perform tasks in a complex, dynamic world they will have to be able to control processing in a way that is analogous to visual attention in humans. Problems connected to foveation (examination of selected regions of the world at high resolution) are examined. In particular, the problem of finding and classifying junctions from this aspect is considered. It is shown that foveation as simulated by controlled, active zooming in conjunction with scale-space techniques allows for robust detection and classification of junctions.

  • 29.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Acreo.
    Josefsson, Katarina
    Acreo.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo.
    The effects of glossy screens on the visual ergonomics of flat panel displays.2008In: Journal of the Society for Information Display, ISSN 1071-0922, E-ISSN 1938-3657, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 1041-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The TCO requirements provide well-known and recognized quality labels for displays.For these requirements to remain useful, they must continuously be reviewed and updated when nec-essary. The study described here was performed in response to the market trend of designing flat-paneldisplays and notebooks with glare panels. The purpose of this study was to investigate subjectiveresponses to display screens of different gloss levels for office workers working on different tasks undernormal office-lighting conditions. The study consisted of three parts, one where the users should setan acceptable reflex level, one where the user should rate their disturbance on a category scale, andone where the visual acuity of the users were investigated whether they were affected by glare or not.The results show that increasing gloss and increasing luminance levels had negative effects on theacceptance and the disturbance of reflexes. There were statistically significant differences in theacceptance and the disturbance levels between screens with low gloss and screens with high gloss,which suggests that screens with the highest gloss levels should be avoided. The study did not showan effect on the performance based on acuity testing.

  • 30.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sedano, Iñigo
    Tecnalia Research & Innovation, Bilbao, Spain.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Barkowsky, Markus
    IRCCyN, Nantes; France.
    Kihl, Maria
    Lund University.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Le Callet, Patrick
    IRCCyN, Nantes; France.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aurelius, Andreas
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    2D no-reference video quality model development and 3D video transmission quality2012In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics VPQM-2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will target two different topics in video quality assessment. First, we discuss 2D no-reference video quality model development. Further, we discuss how to find suitable quality for 3D video transmission. No-reference metrics are the only practical option for monitoring of 2D video quality in live networks. In order to decrease the development time, it might be possible to use full-reference metrics for this purpose. In this work, we have evaluated six full-reference objective metrics in three different databases. We show statistically that VQM performs the best. Further, we use these results to develop a lightweight no-reference model. We have also investigated users' experience of stereoscopic 3D video quality by performing the rating of two subjective assessment datasets, targeting in one dataset efficient transmission in the transmission error free case and error concealment in the other. Among other results, it was shown that, based on the same level of quality of experience, spatial down-sampling may lead to better bitrate efficiency while temporal down-sampling will be worse. When network impairments occur, traditional error 2D concealment methods need to be reinvestigated as they were outperformed switching to 2D presentation.

  • 31.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE Acreo AB.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Imran, Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. HIAB AB.
    Pettersson, Magnus
    HIAB AB.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Mölndal.
    Quality Of Experience For A Virtual Reality Simulator2018In: IS and T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging Science and Technology 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestrycrane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Qualityof Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for taskcompletion, but also whether there are any discomfort relatedsymptoms experienced during task execution. The QoE test hasbeen designed to capture both the general subjective experience ofusing the simulator and to study task completion rate. Moreover, aspecific focus has been to study the effects of latency on thesubjective experience, with regards both to delays in the cranecontrol interface as well as lag in the visual scene rendering in thehead mounted display (HMD). Two larger formal subjectivestudies have been performed: one with the VR-system as it is andone where we have added controlled delay to the display updateand to the joystick signals. The baseline study shows that mostpeople are more or less happy with the VR-system and that it doesnot have strong effects on any symptoms as listed in the SSQ. In thedelay study we found significant effects on Comfort Quality andImmersion Quality for higher Display delay (30 ms), but verysmall impact of joystick delay. Furthermore, the Display delay hadstrong influence on the symptoms in the SSQ, as well as causingtest subjects to decide not to continue with the completeexperiments, and this was also found to be connected to the longerDisplay delays (≥ 20 ms).

  • 32.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Tavakoli, S.
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Søgaard, J.
    Technical University of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby, Denmark .
    Compensating for Type-I errors in video quality assessment2015In: 2015 7th International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience, QoMEX 2015, 2015, p. Art. no. 7148080-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the impact on compensating for Type-I errors in video quality assessment. A Type-I error is to incorrectly conclude that there is an effect. The risk increases with the number of comparisons that are performed in statistical tests. Type-I errors are an issue often neglected in Quality of Experience and video quality assessment analysis. Examples are given for the analysis of subjective experiments and the evaluation of objective metrics by correlation. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 33.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Dept. of NetLab, Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science. Dept. of NetLab, Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Andrén, B.
    Dept. of NetLab, Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Simulator Sickness analysis of 3D video viewing on passive 3D TV2013In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 864802-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MPEG 3DV project is working on the next generation video encoding standard and in this process a call for proposal of encoding algorithms was issued. To evaluate these algorithm a large scale subjective test was performed involving Laboratories all over the world. For the participating Labs it was optional to administer a slightly modified Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) from Kennedy et al (1993) before and after the test. Here we report the results from one Lab (Acreo) located in Sweden. The videos were shown on a 46 inch film pattern retarder 3D TV, where the viewers were using polarized passive eye-glasses to view the stereoscopic 3D video content. There were 68 viewers participating in this investigation in ages ranges from 16 to 72, with one third females. The questionnaire was filled in before and after the test, with a viewing time ranging between 30 min to about one and half hour, which is comparable to a feature length movie. The SSQ consists of 16 different symptoms that have been identified as important for indicating simulator sickness. When analyzing the individual symptoms it was found that Fatigue, Eye-strain, Difficulty Focusing and Difficulty Concentrating were significantly worse after than before. SSQ was also analyzed according to the model suggested by Kennedy et al (1993). All in all this investigation shows a statistically significant increase in symptoms after viewing 3D video especially related to visual or Oculomotor system.

  • 34.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Kulyk, Valentin
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Tavakoli, Samira
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Hedberg, Christer
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Ananth, Indirajith Vijai
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hussein, Mahir
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Folkesson, Mats
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    3D Video Quality of Experience - Influence of Scale and Crosstalk Invited2014In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics VPQM-2014, Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of three recent studies by the authors on the topic of 3D video Quality of Experience (QoE). Two of studies [1,2] investigated different psychological dimension that may be needed for describing 3D video QoE and the third the visibility and annoyance of crosstalk[3]. The results shows that the video quality scale could be sufficient for evaluating S3D video experience for coding and spatial resolution reduction distortions. It was also confirmed that with a more complex mixture of degradations more than one scale should be used to capture the QoE in these cases. The study found a linear relationship between the perceived crosstalk and the amount of crosstalk.

  • 35.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Wang, Kun
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Tavakoli, Samira
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Symptoms analysis of 3D TV viewing based on Simulator Sickness Questionnaires2017In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stereoscopic 3D TV viewing puts different visual demands on the viewer compared to 2D TV viewing. Previous research has reported on viewers' fatigue and discomfort and other negative effects. This study is to investigate further how severe and what symptoms may arise from somewhat longish 3D TV viewing.

    The MPEG 3DV project is working on the next-generation video encoding standard and in this process, MPEG issued a call for proposal of encoding algorithms. To evaluate these algorithms a large scale subjective test was performed involving Laboratories all over the world[1, 2]. For the participating Labs, it was optional to administer a slightly modified Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before and after the test. One of the SSQ data sets described in this article is coming from this study. The SSQ data from the MPEG test is the largest data set in this study and also contains the longest viewing times. Along with the SSQ data from the MPEG test, we have also collected questionnaire data in three other 3D TV studies. We did two on the same 3D TV (passive film pattern retarder) as in the MPEG test, and one was using a projector system. As comparison SSQ data from a 2D video quality experiment is also presented. 

    This investigation shows a statistically significant increase in symptoms after viewing 3D TV primarily related to the visual or Oculomotor system. Surprisingly, 3D video viewing using projectors did not show this effect.

  • 36.
    De Moor, K
    et al.
    NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Andrén, B
    Acreo Swedish ICTAB, Kista, Sweden.
    Yi, G
    Acreo Swedish ICTAB, Kista, Sweden.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICTAB, Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, K
    Acreo Swedish ICTAB, Kista, Sweden.
    Drott, A
    Volvo Cars AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hermann, D
    Volvo Cars AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Influence of high ambient illuminance and display luminance on readability and subjective preference2015In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering / [ed] Rogowitz, B., Pappas, T. N., and de Ridder, H., Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9394, p. Art. no. 93941E-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many devices, such as tablets, smartphones, notebooks, fixed and portable navigation systems are used on a (nearly) daily basis, both in in- and outdoor environments. It is often argued that contextual factors, such as the ambient illuminance in relation to characteristics of the display (e.g., surface treatment, screen reflectance, display luminance...) may have a strong influence on the use of such devices and corresponding user experiences. However, the current understanding of these influence factors is still rather limited. In this work, we therefore focus in particular on the impact of lighting and display luminance on readability, visual performance, subjective experience and preference. A controlled lab study (N=18) with a within-subjects design was performed to evaluate two car displays (one glossy and one matte display) in conditions that simulate bright outdoor lighting conditions. Four ambient luminance levels and three display luminance settings were combined into 7 experimental conditions. More concretely, we investigated for each display: (1) whether and how readability and visual performance varied with the different combinations of ambient luminance and display luminance and (2) whether and how they influenced the subjective experience (through self-reported valence, annoyance, visual fatigue) and preference. The results indicate a limited, yet negative influence of increased ambient luminance and reduced contrast on visual performance and readability for both displays. Similarly, we found that the self-reported valence decreases and annoyance and visual fatigue increase as the contrast ratio decreases and ambient luminance increases. Overall, the impact is clearer for the matte display than for the glossy display.

  • 37.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Division ICT - Acreo.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB.
    View Position Impact on QoE in an Immersive Telepresence System for Remote Operation2019In: 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX) (QoMEX 2019), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate how different viewing positions affect a user's Quality of Experience (QoE) and performance in an immersive telepresence system. A QoE experiment has been conducted with 27 participants to assess the general subjective experience and the performance of remotely operating a toy excavator. Two view positions have been tested, an overhead and a ground-level view, respectively, which encourage reliance on stereoscopic depth cues to different extents for accurate operation. Results demonstrate a significant difference between ground and overhead views: the ground view increased the perceived difficulty of the task, whereas the overhead view increased the perceived accomplishment as well as the objective performance of the task. The perceived helpfulness of the overhead view was also significant according to the participants.

  • 38.
    Engelke, U.
    et al.
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Hobart, Australia.
    Darcy, D.P.
    Dolby Laboratories, San Francisco, USA.
    Mulliken, G.H.
    Dolby Laboratories, San Francisco, USA.
    Bosse, S.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Berlin, Germany.
    Martini, M.G.
    Kingston University, London, UK.
    Arndt, S.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Antons, J.-N.
    Technische Universiat Berlin, Germany.
    Chan, K.Y.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ramzan, N.
    University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Psychophysiology-based QoE Assessment: A Survey2017In: IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing, ISSN 1932-4553, E-ISSN 1941-0484, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 6-21, article id 7569001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a survey of psychophysiology-based assessment for Quality of Experience (QoE) in advanced multimedia technologies. We provide a classification of methods relevant toQoE and describe related psychological processes, experimental design considerations, and signal analysis techniques. We summarise multimodal techniques and discuss several important aspects of psychophysiology-based QoE assessment, including the synergies with psychophysical assessment and the need for standardised experimental design. This survey is not considered to be exhaustive but serves as a guideline for those interested to further explore this emerging field of research.

  • 39.
    Garcia, M.-N
    et al.
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Germany.
    de Simone, F
    Télécom ParisTech, France.
    Tavakoli, S
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Staelens, N
    Ghent University/iMinds, Belgium.
    Egger, S
    Austrian Institute of Technology/ Innovation Systems Department/Technology Experience, Austria.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Raake, A
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Germany.
    Quality of Experience and HTTP adaptive streaming: A review of subjective studies2014In: Vol: Proc. 6th International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX 2014), Singapore, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HTTP adaptive streaming technology has become widely spread in multimedia services because of its ability to provide adaptation to characteristics of various viewing devices and dynamic network conditions. There are various studies targeting the optimization of adaptation strategy. However, in order to provide an optimal viewing experience to the end-user, it is crucial to get knowledge about the Quality of Experience (QoE) of different adaptation schemes. This paper overviews the state of the art concerning subjective evaluation of adaptive streaming QoE and highlights the challenges and open research questions related to QoE assessment.

  • 40.
    Hermann, David
    et al.
    Dept. of Driver Interaction & Infotainment, Volvo Car Corporation AB, , Göteborg.
    Djupsjöbacka, Anders
    NetLab: Visual Media RISE Acreo AB, , Kista.
    Andrén, Börje
    NetLab: Visual Media RISE Acreo AB, , Kista.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. NetLab: Visual Media RISE Acreo AB, , Kista.
    Rydell, Niclas
    TCO Development AB, Stockholm.
    Display panel certification system for the vehicle industry2017In: Digest of Technical Papers - SID International Symposium, 2017, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 471-474Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ever-increasing need for displaying in-vehicle visual information in a non-distracting way requires a high visual performance of automotive displays. For their procurement, deep technical and supply-chain knowledge is required. Therefore, based on our comparisons of in-vehicle and laboratory visual-performance measurements, we propose a certification system for automotive display panels. 

  • 41. Kulyk, V
    et al.
    Tavakoli, S
    Folkesson, M
    Brunnström, K
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Wang, K
    Garcia, N
    3D Video Quality Assessment with Multi-Scale Subjective Method2013In: Proc of Fifth International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience, IEEE Press, 2013, p. 106-111Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Kulyk, V.
    et al.
    Ericsson Research, Sweden .
    Tavakoli, S.
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain .
    Folkesson, M.
    Ericsson Research, Sweden .
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Garcia, N.
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain .
    3D video quality assessment with multi-scale subjective method2013In: 2013 5th International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience, QoMEX 2013 - Proceedings, 2013, p. 106-111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stereoscopic 3D viewing experience has been studied quite intensively recently; however the subjective test methods to assess it have not been determined. It has become clear that the 3D viewing experience cannot easily be described by just one scale. This paper describes a cross-laboratory study employing the same test setup and materials where a multi-scale rating method was used. One of the laboratories used three scales: Depth Naturalness, Visual Comfort and Video Quality; while the other laboratory used these: 3D Realism, Depth Quantity and Video Quality. The results show that the Quality of Experience (QoE) of 3D video is a multidimensional concept and therefore more than one scale is in many cases needed for subjective assessment of the QoE of 3D video. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 43. Li, W
    et al.
    Schenkman, B.N
    Brunnström, K
    Night Vision Systems in Cars: A Review of Principles, Experimental Results and Recommendations2008In: Ergonomia, ISSN 0137-4990, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of using a vision enhancement system when driving a car at night, especially those based on infrared image information are reviewed. Principles and a short technical background are given for night vision systems in cars. The following issues are discussed: Human vision at night, infrared image information, and human factors of night vision systems. A proposal is made for using the terms indirect viewing panel and direct viewing panel instead of the terms head up display and head down display. The advantages for older drivers are pointed out. Methodological aspects of how to study human factor aspects of night vision systems are also reviewed. Measures to be used as dependent variables are suggested: Speed, time to collision, eye movements, reaction time, lateral position of the car on the road, and the workload of the driver. Recommendations, based on visual ergonomics, taking into account different visual fields for where to put the image are given. Here suitable image distances, locations, and sizes are discussed.

  • 44.
    Mu, Mu
    Lancaster University.
    Takahashi, Akira (Contributor)
    NTT.
    Pinson, Margaret (Contributor)
    NTIA ITS.
    Winkler, Stefan (Contributor)
    Symmetricom.
    Brunnström, Kjell (Contributor)
    Acreo AB.
    Mauthe, Andreas (Contributor)
    Lancaster University.
    An Interview with Video Quality Experts.2009Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through previous studies in the field, SIGMM members have recognised that research in multimedia must consider aspects of human perception and user preference. Ultimately the improvement of the user level quality-of-experience is more desirable than the more easily measurable quality-of-service.

  • 45.
    Reiter, Ulrich
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    De Moor, Katrien
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Larabi, Mohamed-Chaker
    Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France.
    Pereira, Manuela
    University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.
    Pinheiro, Antonio
    University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.
    You, Junyong
    Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen, Norway.
    Zgank, Andrej
    University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Factors Influencing Quality of Experience2014In: Quality of Experience: Advanced Concepts, Applications and Methods / [ed] Möller, S. and Raake, A., Springer, 2014, p. 55-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter different factors that may influence Quality of Experience (QoE) in the context of media consumption, networked services, and other electronic communication services and applications, are discussed. QoE can be subject to a range of complex and strongly interrelated factors, falling into three categories: humansystem and context influence factors (IFs). With respect to Human IFs, we discuss variant and stable factors that may potentially bear an influence on QoE, either for low-level (bottom-up) or higher-level (top-down) cognitive processing. System IFs are classified into four distinct categories, namely content-, media-, network- and device-related IFs. Finally, the broad category of possible Context IFs is decomposed into factors linked to the physical, temporal, social, economic, task and technical information context. The overview given here illustrates the complexity of QoE and the broad range of aspects that potentially have a major influence on it.

  • 46.
    Rizek, H.
    et al.
    Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science. Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Andrén, B.
    Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Johanson, M.
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Subjective evaluation of a 3D videoconferencing system2014In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014, p. Art. no. 90110A-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortcoming of traditional videoconferencing systems is that they present the user with a flat, two-dimensional image of the remote participants. Recent advances in autostereoscopic display technology now make it possible to develop video conferencing systems supporting true binocular depth perception. In this paper, we present a subjective evaluation of a prototype multiview autostereoscopic video conferencing system and suggest a number of possible improvements based on the results. Whereas methods for subjective evaluation of traditional 2D videoconferencing systems are well established, the introduction of 3D requires an extension of the test procedures to assess the quality of depth perception. For this purpose, two depth-based test tasks have been designed and experiments have been conducted with test subjects comparing the 3D system to a conventional 2D video conferencing system. The outcome of the experiments show that the perception of depth is significantly improved in the 3D system, but the overall quality of experience is higher in the 2D system. © 2014 SPIE-IS & T.

  • 47.
    Schenkman, B.N
    et al.
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Brunnström, K
    Acreo AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Camera position and presentation scale for infrared night vision systems in cars.2007In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 457-473Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Sedano, Inigo
    et al.
    TECNALIA, ICT - European Software Institute, Parque Tecnológico de Bizkaia, Zamudio E-48170, Spain.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, NETLAB: Visual Media Quality, Box 1070, Kista SE-164 25, Sweden .
    Kihl, Maria
    Aurelius, Andreas
    Full-reference video quality metric assisted the development of no-reference bitstream video quality metrics for real-time network monitoring2014In: EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing, ISSN 1687-5176, E-ISSN 1687-5281, p. Art. no. 4-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-quality video is being increasingly delivered over Internet Protocol networks, which means that network operators and service providers need methods to measure the quality of experience (QoE) of the video services. In this paper, we propose a method to speed up the development of no-reference bitstream objective metrics for estimating QoE. This method uses full-reference objective metrics, which makes the process significantly faster and more convenient than using subjective tests. In this process, we have evaluated six publicly available full-reference objective metrics in three different databases, the EPFL-PoliMI database, the HDTV database, and the Live Video Wireless database, all containing transmission distortions in H.264 coded video. The objective metrics could be used to speed up the development process of no-reference real-time video QoE monitoring methods that are receiving great interest from the research community. We show statistically that the full-reference metric Video Quality Metric (VQM) performs best considering all the databases. In the EPFL-PoliMI database, SPATIAL MOVIE performed best and TEMPORAL MOVIE performed worst. When transmission distortions are evaluated, using the compressed video as the reference provides greater accuracy than using the uncompressed original video as the reference, at least for the studied metrics. Further, we use VQM to train a lightweight no-reference bitstream model, which uses the packet loss rate and the interval between instantaneous decoder refresh frames, both easily accessible in a video quality monitoring system.

  • 49.
    Sedano, Iñigo
    et al.
    Instrumentation and Smart Systems, Tecnalia Research and Innovation, Derio, Spain.
    Prieto, Gorka
    Department of Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Bilbao, Spain.
    Brunnström, K
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Visual Media Quality, RISE Acreo AB.
    Kihl, Maria
    Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Lund University, Lund.
    Montalban, Jon
    Department of Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Bilbao, Spain.
    Application of full-reference video quality metrics in IPTV2017In: 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting (BMSB), IEEE Computer Society, 2017, p. 464-467Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executing an accurate full-reference metric such as VQM can take minutes in an average computer for just one user. Therefore, it can be unfeasible to analyze all the videos received by users in an IPTV network for example consisting of 10.000 users using a single computer running the VQM metric. One solution can be to use a lightweight no-reference metrics in addition to the full-reference metric mentioned. Lightweight no-reference metrics can be used for discarding potential situations to evaluate because they are accurate enough for that task, and then the full-reference metric VQM can be used when more accuracy is needed. The work in this paper is focused on determining the maximum number of situations/users that can be analyzed simultaneously using the VQM metric in a computer with good performance. The full-reference metric is applied on the transmitter using a method specified in the recommendation ITU BT.1789. The best performance achieved was 112.8 seconds per process. 

  • 50.
    Shahid, M
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Søgaard, J
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Pokhrel, J
    Telecom SudParis.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT.
    Wang, Kun
    Acreo Swedish ICT.
    Tavakoli, S
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.
    Garcia, N
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.
    Crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming2014In: Vol: Proc. 6th International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX 2014), Singapore: IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 53-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to cater for user’s quality of experience (QoE) requirements, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) based solutions of video services have become popular recently. User QoE feedback can be instrumental in improving the capabilities of such services. Perceptual quality experiments that involve humans are considered to be the most valid method of the assessment of QoE. Besides lab-based subjective experiments, crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This paper presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual preferences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment.

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