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  • 1.
    Andresen, Edith
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lidén, GustavMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.Nyhlén, SaraMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hållbarhetens många ansikten - samtal, forskning och fantasier2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna publikation Hållbarhetens många ansiktenär en del av de resultat som kommer frånprojektet Hållbart Samhällsbyggande (HåSa):Från mellersta Norrland till Europas glesabygder. HåSa-projektet har via Tillväxtverketbeviljats stöd ur den Europeiska regionalautvecklingsfonden och i denna antologi harmånga aktörer som ingår i projektet medverkat.Arbetet med publikationen inleddes vid enworkshop i Sollefteå i slutet av september 2016.Vi drevs då av en strävan efter att hållbarhetsarbetetpå flera sätt behöver gå snabbare och blimer omfattande och att vi behöver samarbetaöver ämnesgränser inom akademin, men äventillsammans med aktörer utanför akademin.Ett drygt år senare finns nu denna antologi,efter både kreativt och intensivt samarbete, ochden utgör ett konkret resultat av de tankar somföddes i Sollefteå.

  • 2.
    Andresen, Edith
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Skärningspunkter som grund2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikter: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén och Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 12-17Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bellman, Lina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Gebert-Persson, Sabine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kvarnlöf, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Att vända det onda till gott: möjligheter till nytänkande i mellersta Norrland till följd av den demografiska förändringen2015Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bolin, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Disagreeing with the nation state: Why some Swedish municipalities refuse refugee reception2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often characterized as being a generous country when it comes to allowing immigrants entrance. However, since the national government is dependent on the local level for acceptance of refugees, there is a potential risk that a discrepancy emerges between the number of immigrants accepted at the national level and the number accepted at the local level. In fact, today, a significant number of municipalities hesitates to accept agreements with the government. These municipalities disregard the large flows of refugees that reach Sweden daily and oppose the pressure from Swedish authorities to contribute to the upholding of a continued generous migration policy. To be able to understand the motives of these reluctant municipalities we need to know more about what characterizes them. In this paper, we investigate both the structural and the political patterns of these municipalities and explain how they differ from those that do receive refugees. Drawing from the concepts of immigration control and multilevel governance, we deduce a number of hypotheses about how structural predictors will have an impact on the formation of local policy. Deriving from an extensive new data set of all Swedish municipalities for a handful of years, we outline the characteristics of these cases. Our findings suggest that complete immigration control is not only quantitatively different from a low level of reception, but also qualitatively different. That is, it seems as if some of the mechanisms at work when a municipality refrains from refugee reception altogether are not the same as those resulting in agreements at low levels. Instead, local opinion, expressed as the view towards refugee reception among the established parties, appears to be the factor most consistently showing importance throughout our analyses. One possible interpretation of this might be that while levels of reception, to some extent, are guided by structural prerequisites, such as the economy, the situation in the labour market and the capacity to accommodate refugees, etc., the decision to completely refrain from reception is primarily guided by ideological motives.

  • 5.
    Bolin, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Obstructing national policy. The case of Swedish municipalities and refugee reception2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often characterized as being a generous country when it comes to allowing immigrants entrance. However, since the national government is dependent on the local level for acceptance of refugees, there is a potential risk that a discrepancy emerges between the number of immigrants accepted at the national level and the number accepted at the local level. In fact, today, a significant number of municipalities hesitates to accept agreements with the government. These municipalities disregard the large flows of refugees that reach Sweden daily and oppose the pressure from Swedish authorities to contribute to the upholding of a continued generous migration policy. To be able to understand the motives of these reluctant municipalities we need to know more about what characterizes them. In this paper, we investigate both the structural and the political patterns of these municipalities and explain how they differ from those that do receive refugees. Drawing from the concepts of immigration control and multilevel governance, we deduce a number of hypotheses about how structural predictors will have an impact on the formation of local policy. Deriving from an extensive new data set of all Swedish municipalities for a handful of years, we outline the characteristics of these cases. Our findings suggest that complete immigration control is not only quantitatively different from a low level of reception, but also qualitatively different. That is, it seems as if some of the mechanisms at work when a municipality refrains from refugee reception altogether are not the same as those resulting in agreements at low levels. Instead, local opinion, expressed as the view towards refugee reception among the established parties, appears to be the factor most consistently showing importance throughout our analyses. One possible interpretation of this might be that while levels of reception, to some extent, are guided by structural prerequisites, such as the economy, the situation in the labour market and the capacity to accommodate refugees, etc., the decision to completely refrain from reception is primarily guided by ideological motives.

  • 6.
    Bolin, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The non-receivers: Explanations as to why some Swedish municipalities resist refugee reception2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bolin, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Anti-immigration party impact on local migration policy in Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bolin, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Do Anti-immigration Parties Matter? The Case of the Sweden Democrats and Local Refugee Policy2014In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 323-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased electoral success of anti-immigration parties, questions regarding whatimpact the parties actually have naturally follow. Previous research has rarely explored thisquestion. Furthermore, within this body of research, one is given different answers. While someargue that anti-immigration parties have made an impact on public policy, others find no suchevidence. This article shows that some of this inconsistency is a consequence of the method-ological strategies that have been employed. Previous studies are either single case studies orcomparisons of a small number of countries. Consequently, different parties in different insti-tutional settings are compared, making it difficult to estimate the actual impact of the party ofinterest. In order to circumvent such methodological problems, this article explores the ques-tion of anti-immigration party impact on a local level and asks if the Sweden Democrats (SD)have managed to influence decisions on refugee reception in Swedish municipalities. Theanalysis shows mixed results. First, while unable to find an independent effect of the size ofthe representation of the SD, it appears that the party’s impact is conditioned by them holdingthe balance of power. Second, the SD’s impact is not dependent upon whether there isright-wing or left-wing rule, although local migration policy is stricter when the main right-wingparty has strong support.

  • 9.
    Bolin, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Local refugee reception and the impact of the Sweden Democrats2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bolin, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Political Parties and Local Refugee Reception in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased electoral success of anti-immigration parties, questions on what actual impact the parties obtain naturally follow.Previous research only sparsely has explored this question. Furthermore, within this body of research we are given different answers. While some arguethatanti-immigration parties have made an impact on public policy others find no such evidence. We argue that some of this inconsistency is a consequence of the methodological strategies that have been employed. Previous studies are single case studies or comparisons of a smaller number of countries. Consequently different parties in different institutional settings are compared making it hard to estimate the actual impact of the party of interest. In order to circumvent such methodological problems this studyexplore the question of anti-immigration party impact from a local level and asks if the Sweden Democrats (SD) has managed to influence decisions on refugee receptions in Swedish municipalities.Our analysis show mixed results. Firstly, while we are unable to find an independent effect of the size of the representation of SD we show that the party's impact is conditioned by them holding the balance of power. Secondly, SD impact is not dependent on whether there is a right-wing or left-wing rule although wecan show that local migration policy is stricter when the main right-wing party has a strong support

  • 11.
    Bolin, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    SD har makt över lokal flyktingpolitik2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Brännström, Lotta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Invandring till jobb: Mottagande och etablering bland utrikes födda i Västernorrlands län2016Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Brännström, Lotta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lived biographies of changing integration regimes: Migrant narratives ofinstitutional support and labor market in/exclusion in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the interconnection between lived biographies and changing integration policies through migrant narratives on institutional support and labor market experiences. The approach applied in this study allows us to pay particular attention to the dynamic character of integration and to make links between personal, organizational and policy domains, analyzing the shifted integration regimes from the standpoint of migrants. The Swedish politics of integration has during the last year’s undergone vast changes and in 2010, the largest change in the Swedish history of integration policies was performed (etableringsreformen) which meant an increasingly emphasized focus on employment and workfare before welfare and the responsibility for new migrants was transferred from the municipalities to the employment service. As a consequence the rhetoric of integration in Sweden also changed, from what was in municipalities talked about as introduction, to what is now talked about as reception and establishment. By combining immigrants’ subjective views and evaluations with the trajectories of their work biographies, we will discuss changing integration regimes as ‘lived experiences’ of individuals who are subjected to and employed in different occupations that the different integration regimes produces.

  • 14.
    Brännström, Lotta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Lived Experiences of Changing Integration Policies:: Immigrant Narratives of Institutional Support and Labour Market Inclusion/Exclusion in Sweden2018In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to map, locate and make visible the everyday experiences of newly arrived immigrants in government-sponsored integration activities and to trace how these experiences are linked to changes in policy. The study pays particular attention to the dynamic nature of integration and draws links between personal, organisational and policy domains while analysing shifting integration policies from the standpoint of immigrants. Swedish integration policy has undergone vast changes during recent years as the government implements one of the largest changes in Swedish history, beginning in 2010. With this came an emphasis on employment and workfare over welfare. Consequently, the rhetoric of integration in Sweden also changed from what in municipalities was called an introduction to a sense of establishment. By examining the subjective views of immigrants, we discuss the lived experiences of individuals who are subjected to and employed in different occupations due to various integration regimes.

  • 15.
    Brännström, Lotta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Röster som borde höras : migranters syn på integrationspolitik2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Mechanistic Turn: Recent Trends in the Methodological Literature2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Eikelboom Sällström, Anette
    et al.
    Örnsköldsviks kommun.
    Haj Mohammed, Abdullatif
    Sundsvalls stadsbibliotek.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tre tankar om integration2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikten: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén och Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 96-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Är en region alltid regional?2013In: Regioner, regionalism och entreprenörskap: Festskrift till Marie-Louise von Bergmann-Winberg / [ed] Olausson, Pär och Nyhlén, jon, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2013, p. 29-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Liden, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Inequality in local digital politics: How different preconditions for citizen engagement can be explained2016In: Policy & Internet, ISSN 1944-2866, E-ISSN 1944-2866, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 270-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies have struggled to achieve more equal participation in politics, the so-called “unresolved dilemma of democracy.” Previous research has emphasized the drivers of involvement in digital politics from an individual perspective, but studies looking at the general prerequisites of online engagement in politics are lacking. Not much attention has been directed toward the supply side, namely the online presence of political actors and the structures created by them. Applying a mixed-method design, this article examines the supply of channels for digital politics distributed by Swedish municipalities. Quantitative data collected from municipality websites are used for both a description and explanation of the varying opportunities for involvement encountered by Swedish citizens as a result of where they live. Two extreme cases are then examined in depth in which preconditions for involvement are particularly weak. We find that significant variation exists between municipalities and that these patterns are explained primarily by population size, but also by economic conditions and education levels. The cases show how a lack of policies and unenthusiastic politicians creates poor possibilities for development. The findings also verify previous notions that without demand from citizens, in combination with internal ambition from politicians, successful provision of services for digital politics will be hard to achieve.

  • 20.
    Liden, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders Olof
    Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology.
    From 1.0 to 2.0: Swedish municipalities online2016In: Journal of Information Technology & Politics, ISSN 1933-1681, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 339-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examines the social media use of Swedish municipalities, detailing the potential relationship between traditional forms of e-government initiatives and social media engagement of municipal bodies. By bringing these two forms of digital politics together, a more valid measurement of the supply of online democratic tools for citizen engagement is suggested. Moreover, the potential variation in determinants influencing these two concepts is examined as well. The main results indicate that municipalities’ adoption of social media is related to the procuration of more traditional services through their Web sites. Hence, a tendency of a “rich-get-richer” effect is indicated. In this respect, drivers of the different types of government use of digital services are to some extent similar. According to previous research, population size has a positive effect on the studied phenomena. Somewhat surprisingly, however, other explanatory factors differ. For example, although socioeconomic factors appear to have a positive influence on more traditional forms of online services, previous ambitions of e-government development appear as important for social media adoption by municipalities.

  • 21.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Adding Validity and New Results to the Global Explanations of e-democracy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in democratic processes, often summarized by the term e-democracy, has seldom been analysed from a global perspective. Although the UN eParticipation index provides one of the few examples of an international measurement of e-democracy, it has been thoroughly criticized. At the same time, however, a number of studies have added knowledge in the field of global determinants of e-democracy by using this very index. In this study I resolve this by: (1) examining whether the UN index is a valid measurement of e-democracy; (2) inquiring whether there are alternative measurements of e-democracy and finally (3) retesting the determinants of e-democracy using the UN index and alternatives together with a larger data set and more suitable estimations than have previously been used in this field.  The paper gives answer to these questions. First, even if the index has flaws it is not necessarily as problematic as assumed. Second, combining this index with measurements of democracy corresponds with the emphasis in the literature on e-democracy being embedded in democracy. Third, the determinants of e-democracy on a global scale show the positive importance of technology but also of socio-economic variables and population size.

  • 22.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Assessing countries' success in digital politics – still a lot more to be explained2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Challenges of Digital Politics at the Subnational Level in Sweden: Descriptions and Explanations of Social Media Usage2018In: Sub-National Democracy and Politics Through Social Media / [ed] Soabachi, Mehmet Zahid och Hatipoğlu, İbrahim, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 47-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since a number of years the use of social media in political processes appears to have had a significant effect on the political landscape. Irrespective of advantages or disadvantages of such technologies scholars have revealed great differences in how digital technologies have been adopted among subnational entities. Citizens risk facing substantial varieties in preconditions for the utilization of digitally based tools based on their residency. In this book chapter on Swedish municipalities adoption of social media both descriptions and patterns explaining variation in such adoption are studied. Findings indicate that an overwhelming majority of Swedish municipalities use social media. Based on the time period applied it can also be noticed that this proportion has increased annually. The explanatory models reveal particularly two noteworthy findings. First, larger municipalities with an already well-developed website are more inclined to adopt social media. As an additional predictor, municipalities with certain funding for democratic development shows a similar pattern. Second, when assessing municipalities versatility in social media usage two of the these predictors show relevance. Lager municipalities with an advanced website are more inclined to utilize social media for different reasons. Since this book chapter shows that certain resources, such as an already developed website and a larger population, will pose influence on social media usage the distribution of this form of digital technology can be distributed unequal over societies.

  • 24.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Democracy and Diffusion: Creating a Comprehensive Model for Explaining Democracy2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-national research aiming to explain democracy normally focuses either on internal or external factors as relevant for a country’s level of democracy. However, several scholars argue that democratization is not a completely domestic process. This study, with diffusion theory as a point of departure, shows how the two perspectives can be simultaneously examined. With the help of a theoretical framework that separates factors into different analytical levels, quantitative analyses make it possible to reach empirical results that examine the relevance of diffusion when it comes to countries’ levels of democracy, while controlling for internal variables. The results show that the effects of diffusion disappear when controlling for internal characteristics. In some cases, though, deviations to domestic explanations can be handled by addressing international influence instead. In general, it is reasonable to argue that the most powerful explanations for democracy are the traditional internal circumstances such as wealth and education.

  • 25.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Digitala former för politik i lokalsamhället2016In: Thule: Kung. Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok 2016 / [ed] Jacobsson, Roger, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Från demokrati till e-demokrati: En jämförande studie av demokratiutveckling i det moderna samhället2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This mainly deductive study examines what factors explain the variation of e-democracy and if, why a causal pathway exists. The deductive feature is carried out through examining the predictions of the modernization theory, testing hypotheses concerning the link between economic development and wealth in relation to e-democracy. Deriving from a theoretical point of departure where e-democracy is conceptualized with the help of democratic theory, this phenomenon is studied in three different but linked empirical parts. A cross-sectional global study did establish a relationship between some of the indicators derived from the theory; however, the magnitude of the explanatory power was lower at the level of e-democracy than at the level of democracy. A cross-sectional national study of all Sweden’s municipalities did show that especially high levels of education were clearly related to high levels of e-democracy. Approaching the questions of causal mechanisms and deviations from the found pattern, case studies did emphasize that the linkage between the structural conditions and actor’s-orientated explanations largely could verify what is deducted from theory. However, the importance of economic possibilities and internal prioritizations inside the political organization was essential for the development of e-democracy and was found through more inductive approaches.

    The main contribution of this thesis is the results that, both on an aggregated and a micro level, verify the theory but also add other important explanations. Another important conclusion is the creation of a model for e-democracy where a complete e-democracy is linked to democratic theory and not only maintains information, discussion, and decision-making processes through information and communication technology but also does this while strengthening political participation and political equality.

  • 27.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Integrationspolitik i lokala valkampanjer2018In: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Nord, Lars, Grusell, Marie, Bolin, Niklas & Falasca, Kajsa, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, DEMICOM , 2018, p. 77-78Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Is e-democracy more than democratic?: An examination of the implementation of socially sustainable values in an e-Democratic processes2016In: Leading Issues in e-Government Research: Volume 2: for Researchers, Teachers and Students / [ed] Singh, S & Castelnovo, W, Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2016, p. 171-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Is e-democracy more than democratic?: An examination of the implementation of socially sustainable values in e-democratic processes2012In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing literature tries to contribute to a more balanced view of the concept of e-democracy. However, one seldom discussed aspect is the concept’s inadequate dimension on what a desirable development of society consists of. By adding certain values, today most pronounced in the theory of social sustainability, this article examines the awareness of such in three e-democratic projects in Swedish municipalities. This is carried out through a qualitative inquiry that uses different types of data and that regards social sustainability as an ongoing process that is suitable to be analysed in relation to other structures in society. The empirical part reveals different important topics. First it shows that the consciousness of socially sustainable values varies between the examined cases. Second, this variation can be due to both the varying success of e-democracy and to conditions inside the political organizations. In conclusion, this paper reveals that the consequence of adding a socially sustainable perspective to e-democracy is that it provides adequate opportunities for analysing social development without missing out qualities that are desired in a democratic society.

  • 30.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Progress in Global Assessments of E-Democracy: Refined Measurements and New Findings2018In: International E-Government Development: Policy, Implementation and Best Practice / [ed] Laura Alcaide Muñoz och Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 215-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Qualities of e-democracy: Examples from Sweden2013In: Participatory Democratic Innovations in Europe: Improving the Quality of Democracy? / [ed] Geissel, Brigitte & Joas, Marko, Opladen: Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2013, p. 225-248Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Supply of and demand for e-democracy: A study of the Swedish case2013In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 217-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field that tries to answer, through comparative research, the question of what factors explain the existence of e-democracy is, despite several recent contributions, quite undeveloped. Due to strong theoretical foundations and extensive quantitative data, this article adds to this field with an overall ambition of not only explaining variation in supply of and demand for e-democracy but also examining how these two dimensions are related. The case in this article is Sweden and the analyses report several unexpected findings. E-democracy provided by Swedish municipalities is positively related to citizens’ level of education and population figures but not to the level of technological development. With an analogous logic, citizens in Sweden are more inclined to use e-democratic functions if they have high levels of income and education and, also have experiences of using computers. However, no significant variation exists among different genders or age groups. When these two perspectives are combined no significant relationship emerges, indicating a discrepancy between supply of and demand for e-democracy. Finally, the fact that this inclination for citizens’ involvement in e-democracy is solely determined by micro characteristics points to the importance of theoretical development.

  • 33.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Technology and democracy: Validity in measurements of e-democracy2015In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 698-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technologies in democratic processes, often summarized by the term e-democracy, has seldom been analysed from a global perspective. Although the United Nations E-Participation Index provides one of the few examples of an international measurement of e-democracy, it has been thoroughly criticized; at the same time, however, a number of studies have broadened our understanding of the global determinants of e-democracy by using this very index. In this study, I approach this problem by considering (i) whether the UN E-Participation Index is a valid measurement of e-democracy and (ii) whether any alternative measurements of e-democracy present themselves. In answer to these questions, it would seem that the index, despite its flaws, is not necessarily as problematic as is assumed, although there are observations that violate essential theoretical assumptions and so reduce its validity. Furthermore, its use in combination with measurements of democracy agrees with the emphasis in the literature on e-democracy being embedded in democracy, and results in a measurement that better corresponds with theoretical ideas of e-democracy.

  • 34.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The policy making of digital politics: Examining the local level in Sweden2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Theoretical foundations for analyzing dictatorships2011In: Annual meeting of the Swedish Political Science Association, Umeå University 27-28 October 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the third wave of democratization, dictatorships are still widespread global phenomena. However, in comparative research they are often treated merely as theoretical anomalies and empirical residual categories. By addressing this shortcoming, this research has three overall ambitions which are reached by reviewing, compiling and analyzing earlier research. First, different perspectives on how to define dictatorships are discussed. This makes it possible to approach the regimes in a more nuanced way compared with only classifying them as non-democratic. It is no understatement to claim that dictatorships are heterogeneous. Therefore, the second ambition of this research is to discuss different approaches to how to categorize these regimes more precisely. Theoretically valid categories are necessary when carrying out empirical inquiries. Third, and most absent in contemporary research, the ambition is to elaborate upon the factors that can explain dictatorships. In other words, what constitutes the explanans in an explanatory model of dictatorships and types of them? This includes both the existence of and transitions to dictatorship. To answer this question and to reach a theoretical framework for an explanation of dictatorship, contributions from a variety of research need to be put together. All in all, this paper will add greater theoretical understanding that is necessary for empirical examinations of dictatorships. Increased validity and increased confidence in explanations of dictatorships could be the result if the conclusions of this research are implemented in empirical studies.

  • 36.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Theories of Dictatorships: Sub-Types and Explanations2014In: Studies of Transition States and Societies, ISSN 1736-874X, E-ISSN 1736-8758, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 50-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the third wave of democratisation, dictatorships are still a widespread global phenomenon. In recent years, comparative scholars have shown a renewed interest in such regimes, which has resulted in a significant increase in the volume of research that has been produced. However, such research is not always carried out in a cumulative fashion and, therefore, lacks the traits of a more holistic perspective. Hence, it is appropriate to review this research to try to create opportunities for more systematisation in future studies. This study does this by focusing on two approaches: that is providing definitions of non-democracies, but also developing a framework for empirical explanations of these regimes. Addressing the first approach reveals gaps in previous definitions of dictatorships, which is something that is managed by stating a theoretically founded conceptualisation. Moreover, scrutinising the typologies of dictatorships and their variants provided by previous research reveals some loosely connected or almost arbitrary alternatives. Such flaws are discussed and solutions are given. Regarding the second approach, this article discusses findings on how both the existence of and the transition to dictatorships and their variants can be systematised. The outcome is a framework that can be applied in future research. To conclude, there is still much that is unknown about both the description and the explanation of dictatorships, but by systematising recent research this article sets out a more unified strategy.

  • 37.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Åbo Akademi.
    Variationer i demokrati: En kvantitativ studie som utvärderar tänkbara förklaringar2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    What about theory?: The consequences on a widened perspective of social theory2013In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the leading debates in social sciences concerns research design. However, in comparative politics, the predominant way conducting research misses out crucial aspects that are central to social theory. This article shows how method and empirical research are highly dependent on the definition of theory. Arguing that theory should not only give an explanation of the social phenomena in question but should also show how this relationship is constructed, this article outlines the consequence of such a perspective, namely that the collection of data should reflect both macro and micro perspectives and the analyses of data should be carried out using mixed methods. In conclusion, such an integrated framework is the most appropriate way to give valuable theoretical feedback, either by examination and revision of already established theories or by a contribution to the construction of new theory in the social sciences. It is important, though, that such a framework is applied in a systematized way.

  • 39.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Why do some local authorities have such poor websites?: Insights from Sweden2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Analysing the intersections between technology, performativities and politics: The case of local citizen dialogue2013In: Transformations, ISSN 1444-3775, E-ISSN 1444-3775, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenges to the theories of the political sphere posed by a digital society. It is suggested that this most evident at the intersection between understandings of technology, performativities, and politics that combines empirical closeness with abstract understandings of socio-political and cultural contexts. The paper exemplifies this by reporting on a study of online citizen dialogue in the making, in this case concerning school planning in a Swedish municipality. Applying these theoretical perspectives to this case provides some key findings. The technological design is regarded as restricting the potential dialogue, as is outlined in different themes where the participants enact varying positions—taxpayers, citizen consumers, or local residents. The political analysis stresses a dialogue that lacks both polemic and public perspectives, and rather is characterized by the expression of different special interests. Together, these perspectives can provide the foundation for the development of applying theories in a digital society.

  • 41.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms universitet.
    A framework for governance of local migration policy: Assumptions and theoretical consequences2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Evidence of Swedish municipalities' reception of unaccompanied minors: A multi-method approach2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden annually receives several thousands of unaccompanied minors who have left their home countries due to poverty or abuse or because they have become trapped in warzones. These children can either receive a residence permit that grants them the status of quota refugees or go through the process of applying for asylum. Swedish municipalities are responsible for the housing of and care of these children. Two empirical phenomena are associated with this reception. First, a variation exists between those who have a reception and those who do not. Second, in recent years a tremendous change has occurred in that the number of more positively inclined municipalities has grown. To examine these aspects, we derive from structural conditions and form a set of hypotheses that is based on assumptions about municipalities’ rational acting and then continue with a statistical examination of all the municipalities for a number of years. We complement these findings with intensive inquiries into two municipalities that have both established a reception during the examined time period, and we evaluate the structurally founded causal effects from a micro perspective. Our findings show that municipalities with a challenging demographical situation are more inclined to maintain or to start to offer reception of minors. Additional effects such as economic and political consequences could also influence decision-makers. However, this article also provides data that reveal the actual effect of leading politicians’ own desires and beliefs in shaping such local migration policy.

  • 43.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Explaining Local Swedish Refugee Policy2014In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 547-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish migration system, the local level plays a crucial role since the municipalities have full autonomy to accept or decline refugees. This has created a considerable variation in numbers of immigrants among municipalities, and there is a large variation in local societies' willingness to receive refugees. In this study, we focus on all the Swedish municipalities for a time span of several years and derive from economic, demographic, socio-cultural, and explanatory factors that have been put forward in earlier research. Through quantitative analysis, we can show how income, the unemployment rate, population, and support for the right-wing party negatively vary with the willingness to receive refugees. Moreover, the distribution of income results in the opposite significant direction. These results, partly contradicting theory, show the importance of a nuanced and holistic theoretical base in further research.

  • 44.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholm University.
    How to understand governance of local migration policy: The creation of a theoretical framework2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Local varieties in integration policies: Experiences from the perspective of immigrants in Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lokal migrationspolitik: Om flyktingmottagande och integration i svenska kommuner. 2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lokalt flyktingmottagande: strukturer, aktörer och processer2015In: Lokalt beslutsfattande / [ed] Niklas Bolin, Sara Nyhlén och Pär M. Olausson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Reception of refugees in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish migration system the municipalities play a crucial role since they have full autonomy to accept or decline refugees. This has created a considerable variation in numbers of immigrants among municipalities’ and there is a large variation in local societies’ willingness to receive refugees. In this study we focus on all the Swedish municipalities for a time span of several years and derive from economic, demographic, socio-cultural and explanatory factors that have been put forward in earlier research. Through quantitative analysis we can show how income, the unemployment rate, population and support for the right-wing party negatively vary with the willingness to receive refugees. Moreover, the distribution of income results in the opposite significant direction. These results, partly contradicting theory, show the importance of a nuanced and holistic theoretical base in further research.

  • 49.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Reception of refugees in Swedish municipalities: evidences from comparative case studies2015In: Migration and Development, ISSN 2163-2332, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 55-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By focusing on the Swedish municipality level, we provide an intensive examination of how several Swedish municipalities design their local refugee policy, according to which they either accept or do not accept refugees. This can vary because of either instrumental or symbolic reasons. Combining this local perspective with actor-oriented theory, we derive from rationalistic premises concerning how political leaders and bureaucrats act to maximize their interests. By selecting municipalities that share important characteristics except their attitude towards the reception of refugees, we can, through analysing interviews and documents, show how a pragmatic view and internal constraints often shape local decision-making in terms of shaping refugee policy. Rationalistic perspectives do not prevail completely, though implying that other factors influence decision-making in this area.

  • 50.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Refugee Policy and Local Decision-Making: Comparative Case studies from Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration flows are frequent topics of research in different disciplines. Focusing on the Swedish municipality level, we complement such earlier studies’ macro perspective with an intensive examination of how a few Swedish municipalities design their local refugee policy and thereby either accept or do not accept refugees. Combining this local perspective with micro theory, we derive from rationalistic premises of how political leaders and bureaucrats act to maximize their interests. By selecting municipalities that share several important characteristics except their attitude towards the reception of refugees, we can, through analyzing interviews and documents, show how a pragmatic view and internal constraints often shape local decision making in terms of outlining refugee policy.Doing this makes it possible to connect the actors’ behavior with structures forming the society and the municipality’s organization in which they are embedded.

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